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Research critique example rmt 2


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Research critique example rmt 2

  1. 1. Journal Club Prepared By: Erina Shrestha Pushpa Koirala
  2. 2. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE, LEADERSHIP BEHAVIOR AND JOB SATISFACTION Yafang Tsai1,2 1Department of Health Policy and Management, Chung Shan Medical University; Taiwan 2Department of Medical Management, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital; Taiwan.
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION  Organizational culture refers to  the beliefs and values that have existed in an organization for a long time.  and the beliefs of the staff and the foreseen value of their work that will influence their attitudes and behavior.
  4. 4. Cont…  Administrators usually adjust their leadership behavior to accomplish the mission of the organization, and this could influence the employees’ job satisfaction.  It is therefore essential to understand the relationship between organizational culture, leadership behavior and job satisfaction of employees.
  5. 5. Objectives of the Study To assess the relationship between organizational culture and leadership behaviour. 
  6. 6. HYPOTHESIS  Hypothesis1: Organizational culture is positively correlated with leadership behavior.  Hypothesis 2 : Leadership behavior is positively correlated with job satisfaction.  Hypothesis 3 : Organizational culture is positively correlated with job satisfaction.
  7. 7. Methodology  Research Design: Cross-sectional study design Study Area Two hospitals in Central Taiwan.  Study Population Nurses employed in the hospitals 
  8. 8. Cont…  Sampling technique Not given Sample size: 300 out of which only questionnaire were returned. 200 valid
  9. 9. Data Collection  Tool Self developed structured questionnaire containing questions regarding  Organizational culture with 22 items divided into 4 dimensions named as  ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ employee orientation, customer focus emphasizing responsibility emphasizing cooperation
  10. 10. Cont…  Leadership behaviour with 26 items divided into 4 dimensions named as ◦ leader’s encouragement and supportiveness to subordinates, ◦ leader giving subordinates a clear vision and trust, ◦ leader’s behavior is consistent with organization’s vision, and ◦ leader is persuasive in convincing subordinates to acknowledge the vision.
  11. 11. Cont…  Job satisfaction with 12 items divided into 4 dimensions named as ◦ working partners ◦ rewards and welfare ◦ superior ◦ job recognition.
  12. 12. Cont…  5 point Likert-type scales was used for measurement (1 = strongly disagree and 5 = strongly agree
  13. 13. Validity and Reliability ◦ 3 directors/ supervisors from the medical centre reviewed the questionnaire for the validity. ◦ The reliability analysis of the questionnaire was done. ◦ The value of Cronbach’s œ for organisational culture was 0.958 (22 items), for leadership behaviour scale was 0.966 (26 items) and for job satisfaction was 0.855(12 items).
  14. 14. Statistical Analysis  SPSS 17 version used  Descriptive statistics  Bivariate analysis ◦ Corelation analysis was used to test for the relationships among subscales of variables.  Multivariate analysis ◦ Series of regression analysis were used to identify the proposed hypotheses.
  15. 15. RESULT
  16. 16. Cont…  The average score for organizational culture was between 3.73 and 3.19.  The highest score was 3.73: “satisfying the need of customers at the largest scale.”  The lowest score was 3.19: “concern for the individual development of employees”
  17. 17. Cont…  The average score for leadership behavior was between 3.77 and 3.42, where 2 items scored the highest score at 3.77: “the leader will act accordingly with a certain vision that specifies a better future state”, and “the leader will behaviorally role model the values implied by the vision by personal example.”  The lowest score was 3.42: “the leader will try to persuade those who disagree with his vision to agree with it.”
  18. 18. Cont…  The average score for job satisfaction was between 3.84 and 2.56, ◦ The highest score was 3.84: “to certain people my work is extremely important.” ◦ The lowest score was 2.56: “I am satisfied with my salary as I have less workload compared to other employees in other divisions”.
  19. 19. Discussion  A study conducted by Casida & Pinto-Zipp showed correlation between leadership and organizational culture, consistent with the findings of the research.  The study showed that factors of the organisational culture have an effect on job satisfaction which is consistent with the findings of Giffard et al.
  20. 20. Cont…  Jacobs and Roodt showed a positive correlation between organisational culture and employee job satisfaction that is consistent with the findings of the research.
  21. 21. Limitations  Due to wide range of variables only a limited number of clinical nurses were interested in participating.  Furthermore, only 2 hospitals were involved in this research.
  22. 22. Further research  The longitudinal research methods can be adopted in future investigations into how changes in organizational context impact on leadership behavior.  It is proposed that future research can explore the type of leadership behavior that will shape a particular culture within an organization.
  23. 23. Conclusion  Culture within an organization is very important, playing a large role in whether or not the organization is a happy and healthy place to work.  Good interaction between the leader and subordinates contribute to team communication and collaboration.  Encouragement of subordinates to accomplish the mission and objectives assigned by the organization, which in turn enhances job satisfaction.
  24. 24. Research Critique
  25. 25. Title  Title: Brief but not in title case.  Population: Not well defined  Outcome variable: Not Clear  Setting: Not defined  Total words : 9 words
  26. 26. Abstract       Structured Beginning of the article Components included are: ◦ Background ◦ Method ◦ Results ◦ Conclusions Purpose not included Key words not included Words: 247
  27. 27. Cont…  Introduction: ◦ According to the title of the study ◦ Related relevant literature included  Purpose of the study: Not clearly stated  Hypothesis: Clearly mentioned  Variables: Dependent and independent variables not clearly stated.  Conceptual framework : Not given
  28. 28. Methodology  Research Design: Cross-sectional study design  Population ◦ Clearly defined  Sampling technique ◦ Not clearly defined  Sample Size determination: ◦ Technique of calculation not mentioned
  29. 29. Cont…   Sample ◦ Inclusion from only two hospitals of Taiwan Central Data collection tool : ◦ self developed structured questionnaire ◦ Validity and reliability of the tool done  Data processing and analysis ◦ Clearly mentioned and appropriate computer software used  Pilot study : done but population not mentioned percentage of
  30. 30. Ethical consideration  Voluntary participation  Informed consent respondents  No explanation regarding the approval from the Ethical Review Board  No explanation regarding permission from hospital authority  Confidentiality not clearly mentioned was obtained from
  31. 31. Cont..  Statistical Analysis ◦ Relevant statistical tests are used for analysis ◦ Level of significance : p value < 0.05 and <0.01
  32. 32. Cont..  All the important results are discussed.  Result findings discussed according to the objectives.  Tables are explanatory understandable and self
  33. 33. Cont…  Discussions ◦ Research findings compared with other related studies. ◦ Possible explanations for most of the findings stated.  Limitations: Mentioned  Recommendation : Not mentioned  Further research: Mentioned
  34. 34. Cont…  Conclusion: Stated  Reference: ◦ According to criteria set by BMC Health Services Research . ◦ Adequate references (37) ◦ Reference from studies conducted in 1962 to 2009 are used
  35. 35. Presentation of Research Report  Report is well written and documented  Abstract adequately summarized  Well organized, no use of jargons  Objectives not clearly stated  No irrelevant details
  36. 36. Recommendations Study would have been better if it would have :  Stated the purpose of the study  Clearly stated the independent variable dependent and the  Description regarding the sampling technique calculation of sample size  Randomization of subjects  Capitalization of each word in the table heading.