Hypothesis for bn 1


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Hypothesis for bn 1

  1. 1. Research Hypothesis Dr. RS Mehta
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  6. 6. Other Types of Hypothesis 1. Associative hypothesis: Variables or concepts that occur or exit together. If one variable changes the other variable changes. 2. Causal hypothesis: Independent variable is thought to cause or determine the presence of a dependent variables. 3. Complex hypothesis: relationships (association or causal) among three or more variables. Dr. RS Mehta
  7. 7. Other Types of Hypothesis (continue) 4. Directional hypothesis: Hypothesis stating the specific nature of interaction or relationship between two or more variables. 5. Non-directional hypothesis: relationship exist but does not predict the exact nature of the relationship. 6. Null hypothesis: stating that no relationship exists between the variables being studied. Dr. RS Mehta
  8. 8. 7. Research Hypothesis: - alternatives to null hypothesis. - states a relationship exists between two or more variables. 8. Simple hypothesis: relationship (associative or causal) between two variables. Dr. RS Mehta
  10. 10. Generating Aims • The starting point for any research • The aims consist of the idea you wish to investigate. • The intended purpose of your investigation , what you are trying to discover. • In non experimental investigations the aims may be wide particularly in an investigation which qualitative data will be analysed. • In experimental investigations where quantitative data is analysed the aim is to test 1 or more specific hypothesis. Dr. RS Mehta
  11. 11. FORMULATING A HYPOTHESIS • A research hypothesis is a testable statement. It is a general prediction made at the beginning of a research investigation about what you expect to happen. • The hypothesis must be phrased so that it is clear and testable. Consider the research hypothesis “ NOISE AFFECTS STRESS” This is too vague if begs too many questions to be tested precisely Dr. RS Mehta
  12. 12. FORMULATING A HYPOTHESIS EG • • • • What kind of noise are we talking about? How will noise affect stress? How will we define and measure stress? Activity: Try to replace the above hypothesis with a precise and testable one. The new hypothesis should be based on operationalised independent and dependent variables and how these two relate. Dr. RS Mehta
  13. 13. THE NULL & ALTERNATIVE HYPOTHESIS • Researchers refer to 2 different hypothesis when analysing the data . • The null hypothesis - predicts the results obtained are due to chance If the likelihood of the results occurring are by chance is remote then the null hypothesis can be rejected and the alternative /experimental hypothesis can be accepted. Dr. RS Mehta
  14. 14. The alternative hypothesis • This predicts that something other than chance has played a part in producing the results obtained. • If the design of the investigation is highly controlled these should be only 1 explanation for the results THE INDEPENDENT VARIABLE Dr. RS Mehta
  15. 15. ALTERNATIVE HYPOTHESIS • This can be described as being DIRECTIONAL, this predicts the direction in which the results are expected to occur. E.g. “unpredictable noise will increase blood pressure”.. Dr. RS Mehta
  16. 16. ALTERNATIVE HYPOTHESIS CONT. • A NON DIRECTIONAL HYPOTHESIS. This does not predict a direction of outcome E.g. “There is a difference in the number of words recalled from word lists, with or without background music”. This does not predict a direction of how background music will effect recall. Dr. RS Mehta
  17. 17. Directional & Non directional hypothesis • One tailed – directional hypothesis. • Two tailed – non directional hypothesis. • The null hypothesis can also be directional and non directional. • The null hypothesis states that the alternative hypothesis is true. • The null is the most hypothesis of the hypotheses. As it is the null hypothesis that is actually tested. Dr. RS Mehta
  18. 18. Devising your own hypothesis • Select 4 areas of Psychological research which you have studied. 1. Devise a research hypothesis for each area, together with the null and alternative hypothesis, which would be appropriate in these areas. 2. Provide an example of a directional, non directional, alternative and null hypothesis in each area. Dr. RS Mehta
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