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4. report writing & presentatioins


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4. report writing & presentatioins

  1. 1. Research Report & Presentation 1 Dr. RS Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS
  2. 2. Guidelines of Writing the Research Report 2 Dr. RS Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS
  3. 3. Types of Research • Primary research involves gathering new ideas and information on your own. • Secondary research involves gathering and analyzing the results of other people‟s primary research.
  4. 4. Ways to Relate Ideas • Chronological order: from first event to last event or from last event to first event. • Spatial order: by arrangement in space. • Classification: in groups sharing similar properties or characteristics. • Order of degree: according to importance, value, interest, obviousness, certain ty, or similar quality. • Cause-and-effect order: from cause to effect or from effect to cause.
  5. 5. • Comparison-and-contrast order: from similarities to differences or from differences to similarities. • Analytical order: according to parts and relationships among the parts. • Inductive order, or synthesis: from specific examples to generalizations based on those examples. • Deductive order: from general to specific conclusions. • Order of impression, or association: according to the sequence in which things strike one‟s attention. • Hierarchical order: from class to subclass (group within a class) or from subclass to class.
  6. 6. 6 The Research Report – Title page – Table of contents – Summary – Introduction – Results – Conclusion – Recommendations – Introduction – Body – Methodology – Results – Discussion – Conclusions, Limitation and recommendations – Appendix – Questionnaire – Sampling methodology and definition – Other tables not in the report – Bibliography • Completeness • Accuracy • Clarity
  7. 7. • Organization of the report: – Preliminary pages: title page, page with signature of guide & Head of Institution, acknowledgement, table of content, list of tables, list of figures. 7Dr. R S Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS
  8. 8. Main body: •Chapter I: Introduction: Background, need or justification, problem statement, objectives, definition terms/operational definitions, conceptual framework, variables, hypotheses, assu mptions, delimitations, organization of 8Dr. R S Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS
  9. 9. •Chapter II:Review of research literature in relevant sections related to the problem; at the end give a summary. 9Dr. R S Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS
  10. 10. • Chapter III: Methodology: Research approach, setting, population sample size and technique, development of tools – reliability, validity, objectivity, pretest ing, pilot study, procedure for data collection and plan of analysis. 10Dr. R S Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS
  11. 11. • Chapter IV: Data analysis & interpretation: Organization of analyses according to the objectives and hypotheses; use tables and graphs. 11Dr. R S Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS
  12. 12. • Chapter V: Summary, discussion, conclusio n, implication and recommendation • References, Bibliography: Use approved reference style • Appendices 12Dr. R S Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS
  13. 13. Writing Style • Use past tense for chapter I to III. For chapter IV use past or present tense appropriately e.g. "data were analyzed", "data are presented in table 1" • Write in third person • Use approved abbreviations only, "e.g., i.e.” 13Dr. R S Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS
  14. 14. • Do not begin a sentence with a number e.g. "40% of mothers were anemic" instead write "Forty percent of mothers were anemic". • Any number that is less than ten is written in words, e.g. "One out of six patients …….. " • Write short sentences, Avoid compound sentences. • Avoid long paragraphs. 14Dr. R S Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS
  15. 15. Guidelines: • Double space • Page Number: - Preliminary Pages: roman small- I, ii, iii etc - Text: from CH- I, - Arabic- 1, 2, 3 etc till last • Table No-1, 2, ( Table 1) with title just below and centre, above table. • Appendix before references • References at last 15Dr. R S Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS
  16. 16. Guidelines: • Font size: TNR - title: 16 - Other title and main heading: 14 - Body of text: 12 - Read APA Guidelines for writing • References: only relevant and cited sources • Bibliography: Consulted Materials • Follow: APA guidelines 16Dr. R S Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS
  17. 17. Guidelines: • Final Copy: - Type in one side - 16-20 bond quality paper, size A-4 - Use black ink only, use, Times New Roman Font only - Free of Mistakes and Correct Spelling and Punctuation - Number of copies: 7 = original copy photocopied. - Final binding after approval from guide - Uniformity: Color of binding, formats, writing, references of All students (VVI) 17Dr. R S Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS
  18. 18. Research Presentation Dr. R S Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS 18
  19. 19. Oral Presentations • Art of communicating effectively • Individual difference/uniqueness • Last is first: the summary or conclusion slide, no more than five key slides • All preparations should be before 15 minutes • Keep focus on message • Do not memorize your presentations • Explain using points • Wear appropriate dress: avoid over/under
  20. 20. Oral Presentations… • Pace your self: avoid too slow or too fast, give at least 10 seconds per slide • Necked audience: fear in presenting large group is more than death, concentrate and relax • Control your audience not computer/A-V aids • Deferring questions: you are the best judge to decide how to handle • Measuring your audience: eye contact
  21. 21. Oral Presentations… • The power of language: to express ideas • Humor: use judiciously • Quotations: only appropriates • The audience is sacred : respect them • Finish: early/on time • Practice: makes men perfect
  22. 22. Five things to do: Rehearse 1. Find out: interesting, memorable & confusing 2. Test all your equipment in advance 3. Include necessary contents only 4. Have a backup plan: alternatives 5. Introduction, objectives, results & conclusion
  23. 23. Five things your audience to do 1. Stay awake 2. Receive the information they seek 3. Get your message 4. Use supporting materials for clarity 5. Act on your information
  24. 24. Five things to do when you finish: 1. Thank them 2. Make materials available 3. Make your self available 4. Provide them with a method of reaching you 5. Get feedback: for improvement Review your last presentation and correct it.
  25. 25. VIVA VOICE • Viva voce is an oral examination conducted by word of mouth. • Examines the competencies of researcher. • The examiner can see: - whether it‟s your own work? - whether you understand what you did? - whether it‟s worth: contribution to knowledge
  26. 26. VIVA VOICE… • Preparing for viva: before you submit • Preparing for viva: after you submit • Personal preparation • Possible viva questions: make ready to answer
  27. 27. Research Presentation Evaluation Criteria SN Criteria 1 Tile of the study 2 Significance or need of the study 3 Objective of the study /Hypothesis & literature review 4 Methodology (brief): Design Settings/place Population Sample and sample size Sampling methods Research tool (validity reliability): 5 Findings/Results – (only related major findings) 6 Recommendations 7 Presentation Dr. R S Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS 27 Time: 20 Minutes presentation 5 minutes discussion Comment:
  28. 28. Report Writing: Review • One idea per sentences only • Not more than 20 words per sentences • Not more than 5 sentences per paragraph • Not more than 3 paragraph per heading • Do not use that or which more than one per sentences • Check spelling and grammar • Acknowledge: original source
  29. 29. RULES FOR MAKING A TABLE 1. Should be self explanatory 2. Should always have table number & title 3. Names of the variables (units) must be mentioned 4. Choice of row and column 5. Number should always add to the group total
  30. 30. • Percentages should be rounded to make total 100.0 • Number of digits after the decimal place(output) • Table and text could co-exist on the same page • For binary variable, one category and the total can be given • For quantitative variable, specify (mean, SD, median, range, etc.) RULES FOR MAKING A TABLE (contd.)
  31. 31. RULES FOR MAKING A DIAGRAM 1. As simple as possible and self-explanatory 2. Mostly to show important points 3. Table followed by a diagram, not advisable 4. Must specify: names of variables, units, legends 5. Like tables, graph and text can be on the same page 6. Golden rule is that it should speak by itself
  32. 32. Thank You 32Dr. R S Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS
  33. 33. Dr. R S Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS 33 Plagiarism: Catching the Cheats
  34. 34. Dr. R S Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS 34 •Deliberate plagiarism is cheating. •Deliberate plagiarism is copying the work of others and turning it as your own. •Whether you copy from a published essay, an encyclopedia article, or a paper from a fraternity's files, you are plagiarizing. •If you do so, you run a terrible risk. You could be punished, suspended, or even expelled.
  35. 35. Dr. R S Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS 35 •The verbatim copying of others work without acknowledgement. • The close paraphrasing of others work by simply changing a few words of altering the order of presentation. • The unacknowledged quotation of phrases.
  36. 36. Dr. R S Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS 36 Catching the Cheats
  37. 37. Dr. R S Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS 37 Turnitin Programme: The turnitin software programme is widely available for originality checking and submitting the online assignments of the student to their concerned teachers. This programme has the facilities of assignment submission on online, originality checking, peer marking, grading the assignments, marking the assignment and feedback the students. This programme requires individual user account and passwords. Now a day in western universities it is commonly used and in India it‟s use is rapidly increasing. The detail of the programme and online audiovisual demonstration is available at
  38. 38. Dr. R S Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS 38 iThenticate Programme: This programme iThenticate has the facilities of Plagiarism or Duplication prevention, IP Protection, and Doc-to-Doc Comparison. iThenticate offers the ultimate in context verification technology, whether ensuring contents integrity, discouraging, misappropriation of property content or performing textual comparison between documents
  39. 39. Dr. R S Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS 39 Cross-Check received the Association for Learned and Professional Society Publishers Award for Publishing Innovation in 2008. The details of the programme iThenticate along with audiovisual demonstration is available at
  40. 40. Dr. R S Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS 40 Thank you
  41. 41. Top-10 tips for writing a paper 41Dr. R S Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS
  42. 42. • what is the “elevator pitch” of your story? 1: Every paper tells a story • the story is not what you did, but rather – what you show, new ideas, new insights – why interesting, important? • why is the story of interest to others? – universal truths, hot topic, surprises or unexpected results? • know your story! elevator pitch = summary that is short enough to give during an elevator ride 42Dr. R S Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS
  43. 43. 2. Write top down • computer scientists (and most human beings) think this way! • state broad themes/ideas first, then go into detail – context, context, context • even when going into detail … write top down! 43Dr. R S Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS
  44. 44. 3 Introduction: crucial, formulaic • if reader not excited by intro, paper is lost • recipe: – para. 1: motivation: broadly, what is problem area, why important? – para. 2: narrow down: what is problem you specifically consider – para. 3: “In the paper, we ….”: most crucial paragraph, tell your elevator pitch – para. 4: how different/better/relates to other work – para. 5: “The remainder of this paper is structured as follows” 44Dr. R S Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS
  45. 45. 4. Master the basics of organized writing • paragraph = ordered set of topically-related sentences • lead sentence – sets context for paragraph – might tie to previous paragraph • sentences in paragraph should have logical narrative flow, relating to theme/topic • don‟t mix tenses in descriptive text • one sentence paragraph: warning! 45Dr. R S Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS
  46. 46. 5. Put yourself in place of the reader • less is more: – “I would have sent you less if I had had time” – take the time to write less • readers shouldn‟t have to work – won‟t “dig” to get story, understand context, results – need textual signposts to know where „story” is going, context to know where they are • good: “e.g., Having seen that … let us next develop a model for …. Let Z be ….” • bad: “Let Z be” • what does reader know/not know, want/not want? – write for reader, not for yourself 46Dr. R S Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS
  47. 47. 6. Put yourself in place of the reader • page upon page of dense text is no fun to read – avoid cramped feeling of tiny fonts, small margins – create openess with white space: figures, lists • enough context/information for reader to understand what you write? – no one has as much background/content as you – no one can read your mind – all terms/notation defined? 47Dr. R S Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS
  48. 48. 7. No one (not even your mother) is as interested in this topic as you • so you had better be (or appear) interested • tell readers why they should be interested in your “story” • don‟t overload reader with 40 graphs: – think about main points you want to convey with graphs – can‟t explore entire parameter space • don‟t overload reader with pages of equations – put long derivations/proofs in appendix, provide sketch in body of paper 48Dr. R S Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS
  49. 49. 8. State the results carefully • clearly state assumptions (see overstate/understate your results) • experiment/simulation description: enough info to nearly recreate experiment/description • simulation/measurements: – statistical properties of your results (e.g., confidence intervals) • are results presented representative? – or just a corner case that makes the point you want to make 49Dr. R S Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS
  50. 50. 9. Don’t overstate/understate your results • overstatement mistake: – “We show that X is prevalent in the Internet” – “We show that X is better than Y” when only actually shown for one/small/limited cases • understatement mistake: fail to consider broader implications of your work – if your result is small, interest will be small – “rock the world” 50Dr. R S Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS
  51. 51. 10. Study the art of writing • writing well gives you an “unfair advantage” • writing well matters in getting your work published in top venues • highly recommended: – The Elements of Style, W. Strunk, E.B. White, Macmillan Publishing, 1979 – Writing for Computer Science: The Art of Effective Communication, Justin Sobel, Springer 1997. • who do you think are the best writers in your area: study their style 51Dr. R S Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS
  52. 52. 11. Good writing takes times • give yourself time to reflect, write, review, refine • give others a chance to read/review and provide feedback – get a reader‟s point of view – find a good writer/editor to critique your writing • starting a paper three days before the deadline, while results are still being generated, is a non-starter 52Dr. R S Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS
  53. 53. Thank You 53Dr. R S Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS