Reproductive Health Status Of Women Living With
HIV/AIDs In Eastern Region Of Nepal
Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey
(EDHS 2005) have found that half of the world’s
2.6 billion women are now 15 – 49 years of age.
Without proper health care services, this group is
highly vulnerable to problems related to sexual
intercourse, pregnancy, contraceptive side
Death and illnesses from reproductive causes
are the highest among poor women
disproportionately poor, illiterate, and politically
powerless, high rates of reproductive illnesses
and deaths are the norm.
There is a substantial increase in the number of
HIV/AIDs in Nepal.
Women of the reproductive age are at risk of
contracting the disease and is a crucial issue
appropriate policies to address the health status
of the patient living with HIV/AIDs.
To identify reproductive health status of
women living with HIV/AIDS.
To determine association between
reproductive health status and sociodemograghic profile.
There is no any relationship between
reproductive health status of women with
HIV/AIDs and socio-demographic profile.
Reproductive health status (family planning
services, safe motherhood, subfertility, safe
abortion care, prevention from HIV/AIDs, child
health, adolescents, gender based violence, health
of elderley women).
Age (with completed years)
Social support system
According to WHO, reproductive health addresses
the human sexuality and reproductive processes,
functions and system at all stages of life and implies
that people are able to have “a responsible,
satisfying and safe sex life and that they have the
capability to reproduce and the freedom to decide
if, when and how often to do so.”
Women: refers to reproductive age group women of
15-49years of age.
Age will be categorised in terms of 5 years of
Social support system
Lack of job
Lack of social
Improves quality of
A descriptive cross-sectional study will be employed
for the study.
Women with HIV/AIDs visiting to ART/VCT centers of
Eastern region of Nepal
Purposive sampling will be followed for the study.
20 percent of the total population will be used for
the calculation of sample size.
Total women living with HIV/AIDs in eastern region
of Nepal: 3200
Sample size = 20/100 * 3200
Women of reproductive age group suffering from
Women visiting ART/VCT centers of Dharan,
Biratnagar, Bhadrapur and Rajbiraj.
Women with HIV/AIDs who are not visiting ART/VCT
services of listed centers.
A semi-structured questionnaire will be developed as
per the objectives of the study based on the
investigators experience, knowledge and
observation, review of literature and experts opinion.
After obtaining permission from concerned authority,
written informed consent will be taken from the
respondents and they will be explained about the
purpose of the study.
Confidentiality will be maintained throughout the
The collected data will be checked thoroughly for
completeness and then edited and coded first.
Then the data will be entered into the master chart
prepared in the Microsoft Excel.
Entered data will be checked, verified and then
transferred into SPSS 16.0 version for further analysis.
Descriptive statistics like mean, percentage,
standard deviation etc will be used to describe
the characteristics of collected data.
Bivariate analysis (chi-square) will be used to
assess the association between outcome
variable with various independent variables.
The association will be checked at 95%
confidence interval i.e p value 0.05.
Pretest will be done in 10% of total sample size.
Opinions and views will be taken from experts.
Logical sequence of questionnaire will be
maintained and checked for content validity.
Corhnbach alpha test will be applied in 150
Written permission will be obtained from the
Anonymity of the subjects will be maintained.
The written permission will be obtained from the
The subjects will be assured of the confidentiality
of the information.
The area will be limited only to the four centers
of the eastern region of Nepal.
Only 640 women living with HIV/AIDs will be
taken for the study.
Stationary : 50,000
Printing cost : 20,000
Rajbiraj to Dharan-8000
Dharan to Biratnagar-3000
Biratnagar to Bhadrapur-6000
Other transportation cost-5000
Allowances for data collectors:100,000
Refreshment including fooding:50,000
Total: 3 lakhs
The researcher has been told in detail that the
information given to the researcher is purely for the
study purposes only. The anonymity and
confidentiality will be strictly maintained. My
participation in this research is purely voluntary. I
have also been told that at any time of the study I
can withdraw and no penalty will be charged.
DEMOGRAPHIC INFORMATION (PART I)
Place of residence
Type of family
Do you know about reproductive health?
If yes, Specify
What is Adolescence Health?
5. What are the components of Reproductive Health?
Gender Based Voilence
Health of Elderly Women
Treatment of Subfertility
Prevention of HIV/AIDs
6. How HIV/AIDs is transferred?
Mother to Baby transmission
Sharing of syringe of needles
Anna Glasier, A Metin Gülmezoglu, George P
Schmid, Claudia Garcia Moreno, Paul FA Van
Look(2006).Sexual and reproductive health: a
matter of life anddeath. The Lancet;368: 15951607