1.1.4. common paracite infections [compatibility mode]

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1.1.4. common paracite infections [compatibility mode]

  1. 1. Common Parasitic Infections DR. Ram Sharan Mehta, MSND, CON, BPKIHS
  2. 2. Parasites Pin worms Amoeba FlukesFish Tape worms Wipe worms Dwarf Tape worms Hook worms DR. Ram Sharan Mehta, MSND, Tape worm Mouth CON, BPKIHS
  3. 3. Cutaneous leishmaniasis DR. Ram Sharan Mehta, MSND, CON, BPKIHS
  4. 4. leishmaniasis DR. Ram Sharan Mehta, MSND, CON, BPKIHS
  5. 5. ScabiesDR. Ram Sharan Mehta, MSND, CON, BPKIHS
  6. 6. ScabiesDR. Ram Sharan Mehta, MSND, CON, BPKIHS
  7. 7. This skin disorder is due to infestation of the skinby fly larvae . The most common fly causing dermal myiasis is the screw worm fly. DR. Ram Sharan Mehta, MSND, CON, BPKIHS
  8. 8. Babesia: Babesiosis is a vector-borne illness usually transmitted deer tick or black legged tick DR. Ram Sharan .Mehta, MSND, CON, BPKIHS
  9. 9. Parasite infection in lung DR. Ram Sharan Mehta, MSND, CON, BPKIHS
  10. 10. Lyme disease by Tick bite DR. Ram Sharan Mehta, MSND, CON, BPKIHS
  11. 11. Loa eye parasite in Eye DR. Ram Sharan Mehta, MSND, CON, BPKIHS
  12. 12. Eye WormDR. Ram Sharan Mehta, MSND, CON, BPKIHS
  13. 13. Round wormDR. Ram Sharan Mehta, MSND, CON, BPKIHS
  14. 14. Ascaris In Mouth and Nose DR. Ram Sharan Mehta, MSND, CON, BPKIHS
  15. 15. Worm in Head DR. Ram Sharan Mehta, MSND, CON, BPKIHS
  16. 16. Parasites In HumansSome facts:• Humans may be a host to over 100 different types of parasites.• In recent medical studies it has been estimated that 85% of the North American adult population has at least one form of parasites living in their bodies. DR. Ram Sharan Mehta, MSND, CON, BPKIHS
  17. 17. DR. Ram Sharan Mehta, MSND, CON, BPKIHS
  18. 18. 1. Types of parasitesa. Protozoa – Single celled, Organized cellular structure – May ingest solid particles – Require aquatic (watery) environment – Reproduce by binary fission at some point in life cycleb. Helminths (worms) – Multicellular, Organized internal structure; includes • Platyhelminths (flatworms) • Nematoda (roundworms)c. Ectoparasites – Insects and arachnida (spider, scorpions) found on the skin. DR. Ram Sharan Mehta, MSND, CON, BPKIHS
  19. 19. Classification, diseaseand detection of parasites DR. Ram Sharan Mehta, MSND, CON, BPKIHS
  20. 20. DR. Ram Sharan Mehta, MSND, CON, BPKIHS
  21. 21. Protozoa– Amoebae • Form cytoplasmic protrusions (pseudopodia). • Occur as trophozoites (active, growing) and cyst (environmentally protected) forms. DR. Ram Sharan Mehta, MSND, CON, BPKIHS
  22. 22. • Pathogens –Entamoeba histolytica• Disease - Ranges from: asymptomatic, diarrhoea to dysentery and liver disease.• Transmission - Fecal-oral - contaminated water/food, (especially in the tropics). – Poor living conditions. DR. Ram Sharan Mehta, MSND, CON, BPKIHS
  23. 23. Flagellates – Propelled by flagella. – May occur in trophozoites and cyst forms. – Have shape because of rigid outer wall.• Pathogens - Giardia lamblia• Disease - Ranges from asymptomatic to acute or chronic diarrhoea• Transmission - Fecal-oral, waterborne,World wide. DR. Ram Sharan Mehta, MSND, CON, BPKIHS
  24. 24. • Trichomonas vaginalis – Disease - Vaginitis. – Transmission - Sexual. – Detection - Microscopy of discharge, culture. DR. Ram Sharan Mehta, MSND, CON, BPKIHS
  25. 25. • Trypanosoma spp – Cause: Trypanosomiasis (Sleeping sickness) – Disease - Fever, encephalitis; cardiac complications. – Transmission - Fly, Bug – Detection - Parasites stained on blood smears, serology. DR. Ram Sharan Mehta, MSND, CON, BPKIHS
  26. 26. • Sporozoa – Mature forms are non-motile. – Complex life cycles. – Pathogens - Plasmodium spp. Cause malaria. – Disease - Episodic fevers, anaemia - life threatening! – Transmission - Mosquito bites. – Detection: Parasites stained on blood film. DR. Ram Sharan Mehta, MSND, CON, BPKIHS
  27. 27. • Cryptosporidium parvum – Disease: watery diarrhea (chronic in immunosuppressed) – Transmission: fecal-oral, water borne, animals (zoonosis), world wide distribution – Detection: microscopy of stool using special stains DR. Ram Sharan Mehta, MSND, CON, BPKIHS
  28. 28. • Cyclospora cayetanensis –Disease - Watery diarrhea, similar to above. –Transmission - Fecal - oral, especially in tropics. –Detection - As for Cryptosporidium. DR. Ram Sharan Mehta, MSND, CON, BPKIHS
  29. 29. • Toxoplasma gondii – Disease - Mostly asymptomatic infection, but new infection in pregnancy causes fetal malformations; also infection in immuno-suppressed. – Transmission - By poorly cooked meat, from cat stool, rarely water. – Detection - By serology. DR. Ram Sharan Mehta, MSND, CON, BPKIHS
  30. 30. DR. Ram Sharan Mehta, MSND, CON, BPKIHS
  31. 31. DR. Ram Sharan Mehta, MSND, CON, BPKIHS
  32. 32. • Helminths – Platyheminths (flatworms) • Cestodes – “tapeworms” • Ribbon like, segmented. No digestive system, adult attached to gut wall by scolex, larval forms in tissues. • Life cycle Definitive Host (gut contains adult worms ) • Environment ( Ova ) • Intermediate Host ( tissues contain larval stage) • When the intermediate host is eaten by the definitive host, the adult worm develops in the gut from the larval form, and later produces ova. DR. Ram Sharan Mehta, MSND, CON, BPKIHS
  33. 33. DR. Ram Sharan Mehta, MSND, CON, BPKIHS
  34. 34. • Principle Pathogens – Taenia saginata,Taenia solium • Disease: - Abdominal discomfort (man is definitive host {i.e. has adult}). • Transmission: - Larval forms ingested in food. • Detection: - Identification of ova or adult segments in stool. – Some cestodes infect humans by the adult form in the gut, some infect by larval forms in tissues, and some infect in both forms. DR. Ram Sharan Mehta, MSND, CON, BPKIHS
  35. 35. –Cysticercosis (T. solium larvae) • Disease -Cysts throughout the body tissues. • Transmission - Ova are ingested; • Detection - Serology, also x-ray, ultrasound, and other methods to detect mass lesions. DR. Ram Sharan Mehta, MSND, CON, BPKIHS
  36. 36. • Pathogens - Schistosoma spp. (schistosomiasis).• Disease - Effects of inflammation, hematuria.• Transmission - Penetration of skin .• Detection - Ova in stool/urine depending on species of schistosome. DR. Ram Sharan Mehta, MSND, CON, BPKIHS
  37. 37. –Nematodes (roundworms) • Disease - Abdominal pain/discomfort (most found in the gut). • Transmission - Fecal-oral via ova in stool. • Detection –Recognition of ova using stool microscopy. –Identification of adult worms. DR. Ram Sharan Mehta, MSND, CON, BPKIHS
  38. 38. –Hookworms • Disease - Chronic blood loss. • Transmission - Larvae penetrate skin. • Detection - Identification of ova or larvae in stool. DR. Ram Sharan Mehta, MSND, CON, BPKIHS
  39. 39. –Filaria - filariasis • Disease - Fevers, elephantiasis, swelling and deformity of limbs, genitalia. • Transmission - Mosquito borne/Sand fly. • Detection - Marasites (microfilaria) stained on blood film. DR. Ram Sharan Mehta, MSND, CON, BPKIHS
  40. 40. FilarisisDR. Ram Sharan Mehta, MSND, CON, BPKIHS
  41. 41. ElephantitisDR. Ram Sharan Mehta, MSND, CON, BPKIHS
  42. 42. Ectoparasites – Colonize the body vs. Micropredators that bite only. • Insects - ( 6 legs) - fleas, head-, body- and pubic lice (singular – Louse) • Arachnida - ( 8 legs, but can have 6 in immature form) - ticks, mites – Their importance is as vectors of disease and to a lesser extent cosmetic. DR. Ram Sharan Mehta, MSND, CON, BPKIHS
  43. 43. DR. Ram Sharan Mehta, MSND, CON, BPKIHS
  44. 44. DR. Ram Sharan Mehta, MSND, CON, BPKIHS
  45. 45. DR. Ram Sharan Mehta, MSND, CON, BPKIHS
  46. 46. Adaptations to a parasitic existence • Loss of structures or enzymes, e.g. GI tract. • Development of pathogenic adaptations, e.g. mechanisms of attachment (hookworms). • Defense mechanisms, e.g. resistance to digestion (nematodes). • Increased reproductive capacity, eg. Ascaris.Some parasites require infection of a host tocomplete their lifecycles.Other parasites may be free living in the environmentand do not need to cause infection to persist. DR. Ram Sharan Mehta, MSND, CON, BPKIHS
  47. 47. Detection of GI protozoa – amoebae / flagellates• Microscopic identification of organisms from a concentrated extract of stool.• Microscopic identification of organisms using a stained slide made from a filtered stool suspension.Note: Parasite preservative kills all organisms;therefore, a preserved specimen cannot be usedfor culture. DR. Ram Sharan Mehta, MSND, CON, BPKIHS
  48. 48. Thank You DR. Ram Sharan Mehta, MSND, CON, BPKIHS
  49. 49. ARTHROPOD INFECTIONS/INFESTATIONS OF THE SKIN:Insect infections/infestations1. Louse (Anoplura) infestations: Pediculus2. Blood-feeding bugs (Hemiptera)3. Fleas (Siphonaptera)4. Blood-feeding flies and myiasis (Diptera) • Cutaneous myiasis – calliphorid blowflies; putsi flies, human botflies • Gastrointestinal myiasis – calliphorid blowflies • Ophthalmomyiasis – sheep nasal bot fly, Oestrus ovis41; screw worms • Genitourinary myiasis – calliphorid blowflies. • Sanguinivorous myiasis – the Congo Floor Maggot DR. Ram Sharan Mehta, MSND, CON, BPKIHS
  50. 50. Arachnid infections/infestations1. Mites2. Ticks3. Argasid ticks4. Ixodid ticks DR. Ram Sharan Mehta, MSND, CON, BPKIHS
  51. 51. Common Symptoms of Parasites• Constipation: Some worms, because of their shape and large size. can physically obstruct certain organs. Heavy worm infections can block the common bile duct and the intestinal tract, making elimination infrequent and difficult. DR. Ram Sharan Mehta, MSND, CON, BPKIHS
  52. 52. Diarrhoea: Certain parasites, primarily protozoa, produce aprostaglandin (hormonelike substances found in varioushuman tissues) which creates a sodium and chloride lossthat leads to frequent watery stools. The diarrhoea processin parasite infection is, therefore, a function of the parasite,not the bodys attempt to rid itself of an infectious organism.Gas and Bloating: Some parasites live in the upper smallintestine where the inflammation they produce causes bothgas and bloating. The situation can be magnified whenhard-to-digest foods such as beans and raw fruits andvegetables are eaten. Persistent abdominal distention is afrequent sign of hidden invaders. These gastrointestinalsymptoms can persist intermittently for many months oryears if the parasites are not eliminated from the body. DR. Ram Sharan Mehta, MSND, CON, BPKIHS
  53. 53. Irritable bowel syndrome: Parasites can irritate inflame,coal, the intestinal cell wall, leading to a variety ofgastrointestinal symptoms and malabsorption of vitalnutriens, particularly fatty substances. This malabsorptionleads to bulky stools and steatorrhea (excess far infeces).Joint and muscle aches and pains: Parasites areknown to migrate to encyst (become enclosed in a sac) injoint fluids, and worms can encyst in muscles. Once Adshappens, pain becomes evident and is often assumed tobe caused by arthritis Joint and muscle pains andinflammation are also the result of tissue damage causedby some parasites of the bodys ongoing immuneresponse to then- presence. DR. Ram Sharan Mehta, MSND, CON, BPKIHS
  54. 54. Anaemia: Some varieties of intestinal worms attachthemselves to the mucosal lining of the intestines andthen leach nutrients from the human host. If they arepresent in large enough numbers, they can createenough blood loss to cause a type of iron deficiency orperniciousAllergy: Parasites can irritate and sometimes perforatethe intestinal lining, increasing bowel permeability tolarge undigested molecules. This can activate the bodysimmune response to produce increased levels ofeosinophils, one type of the bodys fighter cells. Theeosinophils can inflame body tissue, resulting in anallergic reaction. Like allergy, parasites also trigger anincrease in the production of immunoglobulin E (IgE). DR. Ram Sharan Mehta, MSND, CON, BPKIHS
  55. 55. • Skin conditions: Intestinal worms can cause hives, rashes, weeping eczema, and other allergic-type skin reactions. Cutaneous ulcers, swellings and sores, popular lesions, and itchy dermatitis can afl result from protozoan invasion. Granuiomas: Granulomas are tumour-like masses that encase destroyed large or parasitic eggs. They develop most often in the colon or rectal walls but can also be found in the lungs liver, peritoneum, and uterus. DR. Ram Sharan Mehta, MSND, CON, BPKIHS
  56. 56. Nervousness: Parasitic metabolic wastes and toxic substances canserve as irritants to the central nervous system. Restlessness andanxiety are often the result of the systemic parasite infestation. (Aftercompleting a herbal cleanse, many people swear that theirpersistently grouchy mates or relatives have become a lot morepleasant and patient. "The most famous tapeworm of recent yearsbelonged to the late opera singer Maria Callas. She had a seriousweight and skin problem. When the tapeworm was detected andremoved, ha" weight dropped, her skin improved and hertemperament mellowed," says Gittleman.)Sleep disturbances: Multiple awakening during the night particularlybetween 2 and 3 AM, are possibly caused by the bodys attempts toeliminate toxic wastes via the liver. According to Chinese medicine,these hours are governed by the liver. Sleep disturbances are alsocaused by nocturnal exits of certain parasites through the anus,creating the intense discomfort and itching. DR. Ram Sharan Mehta, MSND, CON, BPKIHS
  57. 57. Teeth grinding: Bruxism - abnormal grinding, clenching,and gnashing of the teeth - has been observed in casesof parasitic infection. These symptoms are mostnoticeable among sleeping for children. Bruxism may bea nervous response to the internal foreign irritant.Chronic fatigue: Chronic fatigue symptoms includetiredness, flu-like complaints, apathy, depression,impaired concentration, and faulty memory. Parasitescause these physical, mental, and emotional symptomsthrough malnutrition resulting from malabsorption ofproteins, carbohydrates, fats, and especially vitamins Aand B-12. DR. Ram Sharan Mehta, MSND, CON, BPKIHS
  58. 58. • Immunie Dysfunction: Parasites depress immune system functioning by decreasing the secretion of immunoglobulin A (I&A). Their presence continuously stimulates the system response and over time can exhaust this vital defense system, leaving the body open to bacterial and viral infections. The following conditions might also be tell-tale signs of a parasitic invasion: weight gain, excessive hunger, weight loss, bad taste in the mouth and bad breath, asthma, diabetes, epilepsy, acne, migraines, and even the biggest killers: heart disease and cancer. CON, BPKIHS MSND, DR. Ram Sharan Mehta,
  59. 59. Nematoda - Roundworms· Anisakis· Ascaris Lumbricoides - Giant Roundworm· Enterobius Vermicularis - Pinworm· Hookworms· Loa Loa - Eye Worm - Subcutaneous Filariasis· Strongyloides Stercoralis· Trichuris Trichiura - Whipworm· Wuchereria Bancrofti - Lymphatic Filariasis - Elephantiasis DR. Ram Sharan Mehta, MSND, CON, BPKIHS
  60. 60. Trematoda - Flukes· Fasciola Hepatica - Liver Fluke· Fasciolopsis Buski - Intestinal Fluke· Paragonimus Westermani - Lung Fluke· Schistosoma - Blood Flukes DR. Ram Sharan Mehta, MSND, CON, BPKIHS
  61. 61. Cestoda -Tapeworms· Diphyllobothrium Latum - Fish Tapeworm· Hymenolepis Nana - Dwarf Tapeworm· Taenia Saginata - Beef Tapeworm· Taenia Solium - Pork Tapeworm DR. Ram Sharan Mehta, MSND, CON, BPKIHS
  62. 62. Protozoa· Balantidium Coli· Entamoeba Histolytica - Amoebiasis· Giardia Intestinalis· Leishmania· Plasmodium Falciparum - Malaria· Toxoplasma Gondii· Trypanosoma Brucei - Sleeping Sickness DR. Ram Sharan Mehta, MSND, CON, BPKIHS
  63. 63. Skin Parasites· Cimex Lectularius - Bedbug· Dermatobia hominis - Human Botfly· Sarcoptes Scabiei - Scabies DR. Ram Sharan Mehta, MSND, CON, BPKIHS
  64. 64. Thank You DR. Ram Sharan Mehta, MSND, CON, BPKIHS

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