3.007 Design EthicsPrepared by: Katja Holtta-Otto, Erik Wilhelm, Ricardo Sosa November 2012
“ D ESIGN IS fundamentally a human endeavor. It involves the interactionsamong members of a design team, the relationships between designers, clients,and manufacturers, and the ways that purchasers of designed devices use themin their lives. […] Since design touches so many facets of people’s daily lives,we must consider how people interact with each other and how they are actedupon by the designs we create. To design means to accept responsibility forcreating designs for people. That is, design is not done in a vacuum; design is asocial activity. Designers are influenced by the social milieu in which theywork, and society is influenced by the products of design. Therefore, ethics andethical behavior must be considered in our examination of how designs arecreated and used.” From: Clive Dym & Patric Little, Engineering Design, Chapter 12
3.007 Design EthicsAims - To raise awareness of ethical issues - To identify ethical dilemmas and risks - To share strategies for decision making
Definitionēthos, - A set of principles of right conductcharacter - The moral quality of a course of action
Two boats are filled with explosives: one a prisoner vessel, the othertransporting wealthy citizens, they had each other’s detonators. If they don’t push the button before midnight, the Joker will detonate both boats. What is the right decision?
Would You Kill One Person to Save Five?~10%~90% If Flanders were Bart, he would save Homer ~66% of the time.http://healthland.time.com/2011/12/05/would-you-kill-one-person-to-save-five-new-research-on-a-classic-debate/#ixzz2CS35zgRyhttp://gameofroles.files.wordpress.com/2011/12/1.png
“Two and a half years after the massive gulfoil spill, BP has agreed to plead guilty to 14criminal charges and cough up $4.5 billion infines and other payments” http://www.nytimes.com/2012/11/16/opinion/criminality-in-the-gulf-spill.html
"Several years ago there was a design miss," Patrick Foye, executive director of thePort Authority… the cost of One World Trade Center has soared to $3.8 billion, $700 million more than the last publicly released estimate in 2008. http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/feedarticle/10070023 http://m.upall.co/g/1/new-world-trade-center-construction-progress-1.jpg
“With an initial cost estimate of around $2.6 billion, the Boston Globe estimates the final cost of the Big Dig at $22 billion” http://listosaur.com/science-a-technology/5-structures-famous-for-their-engineering-flaws.html http://www.massdot.state.ma.us/highway/TheBigDig.aspx
“The LTAs Design team “did not view the critical task ofrecommending the suspension or stoppage of work as a matter within their purview”. They had deemed it the responsibility of the LTAs Construction Team. Theprocrastination and lack of decisive action proved to be catastrophic” http://www.mindef.gov.sg/content/dam/imindef_media_library/pdf/air_force/Focus66.pdf http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Nicoll_Highway_MRT_Station,_Construction_site,_Aug_07.jpg
NTUC fired an assistant director who posted a racist comment on Facebook http://www.asiaone.com/News/Latest%2BNews/Singapore/Story/A1Story20121008-376209.html
Professional Standards, codes of conduct Plagiarism, patent infringement Confidentiality Lifecycle, sustainability Fair trade Product liability Engineering disasters depts.washington.edu/englib/eld/conf/04/richards_ethics.ppt
CODE OF PROFESSIONAL CONDUCT AND ETHICSPart of the PROFESSIONAL ENGINEERS ACT (http://app.peb.gov.sg/actrules.aspx#)I.2.1: A professional engineer shall uphold the dignity, standing and reputation of theprofession.I.3.4: A professional engineer shall not accept any trade commission, discount, allowance orindirect payment or other consideration in connection with any professional engineering workin which he is engaged.I.3.7: A professional engineer shall not disclose confidential information concerning thebusiness affairs or technical processes of his client or employer without the consent of the clientor employer.I.3.10: A professional engineer shall not give professional advice which does not fully reflect hisbest professional judgment.I.7.2: The professional engineer previously employed may report the matter to the Board if hehas reasonable grounds for not being satisfied with the security, and the Board may forbid thefirst-mentioned professional engineer in sub-paragraph (1) from proceeding with the work.II.2. A professional engineer shall not, for the purpose of obtaining any permit, license orapproval of any public authority, sign any plans or calculations which neither he nor anymember of his staff under his supervision verified, checked or prepared.
SAMPLE PROFESSIONAL CODES IN DESIGN• “A designer shall not allow his/her name to be associated with the realisation of a design which has been so changed by the client as no longer to be substantially the original work of the designer” Design Institute of Australia: www.dia.org.au• “A designer shall not work simultaneously on assignments which are in direct competition without informing the clients or employers concerned” ICOGRADA: www.icograda.org• “We ask all adopters to engage in conversation about social and environmental impact with every client and customer, and integrate sustainable alternatives in their work” Designers Accord: www.designersaccord.org
Case #1You are part of a team designing a new mall inSingapore. You received information from thestructural engineer that certain aspect of the mainlobby needs to be redesigned. Your boss brings over adocument for you to sign. It is about certifying that thearchitectural design is complete. The document isneeded before moving on to the next phase.The entire project will fall behind if you delay passingon that document but you believe you have time to fixthe design problem before construction begins.
Case #2You are a professional designer working for a design firm.Your boss comes asks you to prepare a presentation onsustainable design for the company meeting on futuredirections. You are in the middle of an important projectthat is due in 2 days.Luckily you remember seeing a presentation on similar topicin a workshop last month. You email the workshoporganizers to ask for the slides from that event. You say it isfor your personal use only. You change the background ofthe slides to the company template but do not otherchanges to the slides. You present those at the meeting.
Case #3You are an engineer designing a bridge to a newman-made island that will open for the holidayseason in December. You’ve been working on it, butyour do not finish by the deadline.You come to the meeting where the final plans areto be discussed and approved so that constructioncan begin. You present what you have.
Social Human Rights Responsible consumers Citizenship: Corruption www.cpib.gov.sg Kindness www.kindness.sg
Case #4As an architectural firm, your income is entirelydependent on securing projects to work on. You arecompeting for a very large architectural project. Ifyou win it your firm will get a lot of positive mediaattention, which in turn will lead to more and moreprojects for several years. To improve your odds,you invite several key members of the decidingpanel to a very exclusive country club and treatthem for a luxurious day. You end up winninggetting the commission.
Case #5As an engineer testing designs for electroniccomponents, you discover they fail in a particularlocation. Subsequent investigation shows that thefailures are due to a nearby high-powered radarfacility. While you can shield your own designs sothat they can work in this environment, you alsonotice that there is an adjacent nursery school.What actions, if any, should you take?
Case #6“There have long been calls from various segments ofsociety for Foreign Domestic Workers to enjoy a regular dayoff. More than physical rest, it is an important mental andemotional break from work. Also, a weekly rest day isregarded internationally as a basic labour right.It is time to take a step forward by amending our legislationto improve the employment conditions of FDWs. Whilesome employers may respond to this decision withapprehension, employers also stand to benefit from aweekly rest day…” MOM: FAQs ON WEEKLY REST DAYS FORFOREIGN DOMESTIC WORKERShttp://www.mom.gov.sg/Documents/foreign-manpower/FAQs%20on%20weekly%20rest%20days%20for%20FDWs.pdfhttp://twc2.org.sg/2011/06/27/attitudes-towards-granting-regular-days-off-to-migrant-domestic-workers-in-singapore/
Academic Plagiarism False statements False data & evidence Team and cohort dynamics
Case #7You forgot that you had to hand in a Solid Worksmodel file in class.You quick ask your friend to send their file to you.You open it on your computer and present it asyours.You pass the assignment.
Case #8You are used to getting good grades in school. Nowin a university, you realize you have to work muchharder to get a decent grade. You work hard andget barely any sleep from all the homework andstudying.You find that the best way for you to get goodgrades is to work very little on team projects. Youknow the rest of the team will pull it off and youwill get their grade too. That way you can use thattime toward your individual work.
Case #9You have worked really hard on your project andneed some sleep. You wake up and realize you arelate for class. You run in without eating breakfast.You make it in for the last 15 minutes of the lecture.At the end of the lecture you go and sign theattendance sheet. You also noticed you have anabsence form two weeks ago, you sign that one too.
Lots of Research! Stanford Prison Experiment Milgram Experiment ‘Heat of the Moment’ – Ariely & Loewenstein ‘Dishonesty in Everyday Life’ – Mazar & Ariely depts.washington.edu/englib/eld/conf/04/richards_ethics.ppt
Obedience to Authority http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BcvSNg0HZwk
Milgram Experiment http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Milgram_experimentWe tend to obey authority, even when we know our ordersare ‘wrong’.Bonus: think about the ethics of experimentation – was thisexperiment ethical?
Stanford Prison ExperimentCognitive dissonance: two states ofreason/ethics/morality existing simultaneously
Key issues Sometimes the culture of an organisation allows (even incentivises) poor choices Seemingly unimportant early choices may escalate into later large-scale decisions Relying on memory, assumptions or incomplete information can lead to disaster Explore creative ways of re-framing the conundrum; point out extenuating circumstances
Strategies (1) Avoid temptation Prepare and anticipate decisions Develop habits, build a reputation Speak up: avoid conformism
Strategies (1) Avoid temptation Prepare and anticipate decisions Develop habits, build a reputation Speak up: avoid conformism Case #4: Treating decision Case #6: Signing makers at an exclusive attendance sheets country club to win a without being present project
Heat of the moment http://cdn.worldcupblog.org/www.worldcupb http://images4.mtv.com/uri/mgid:uma:content: log.org/files/2009/12/Zidane_headbutt.jpg mtv.com:1621389?width=281&height=211You don’t have the capacity to fully understand theconsequences of your actions in the moment.Prepare for this moment! http://people.duke.edu/~dandan/Papers/PI/Heat_of_Moment.pdf
Strategies (2) Learn how to cite and acknowledge Understand the consequences of your decisions Make your values explicit
Strategies (2) Learn how to cite and acknowledge Understand the consequences of your decisions Make your values explicit Case #2: Presenting Case #7: Presenting some workshop slides as your one else’s Solid Works own drawing as own
Case #1: Singing off onStrategies (3) final drawings knowing there is a structural problem (that you think you have time to fix) Reveal hidden costs Case #3: Coming to a meeting about approving Identify trade-offs final plans without having finalized own work Think long-term Case #9: Letting others do Consider entire life the work for you in team cycle projects.
Strategies (4)Don’t hide anything: Transparency means that actions andchoices are open for examinationDon’t make things up: Don’t falsify data and don’t inventfactsGive credit for the ideas and work of othersEmpathy: Identify the stakeholders and think about theeffect of your decisions on them Fernandez, John E., Edward M. Greitzer and Sang-Gook Kim. Course materials for TECH 201, Introduction to Design. MIT-SUTD Collaboration, 2012
Case #4: Treating decisionStrategies (4) makers at an exclusive country club to win a projectDon’t hide anything: Transparency means that actions andchoices are open for examinationDon’t make things up: Don’t falsify data and don’t inventfactsGive credit for the ideas and work of othersEmpathy: Identify the stakeholders and think about theeffect of your decisions on themCase #2: Presentingworkshop slides as your Fernandez, John E., Edward M. Greitzer and Sang-Gook Kim.own Course materials for TECH 201, Introduction to Design. MIT-SUTD Collaboration, 2012
Strategies (5) Question standard decisions Challenge accepted practices Avoid narrow and compartmentalized decisions Talk about ideals and culture depts.washington.edu/englib/eld/conf/04/richards_ethics.ppt
Case #1: Singing off on finalStrategies (5) drawings knowing there is a structural problem (that you think you have time to fix) Question standard decisions Challenge accepted practices Avoid narrow and compartmentalized decisions Talk about ideals and cultureCase #5: Telling about Case #6: Signinghigh-power radar facility attendance sheetsand its effect on a nearby without being presentnursery school depts.washington.edu/englib/eld/conf/04/richards_ethics.ppt
Everyday dishonestyhttp://4.bp.blogspot.com/- http://static.guim.co.uk/sys-JEdgRu0rZvY/T8DznFEW4OI/AAAAAAAAAOY/ images/Technology/Pix/pictures/2009/11/11/125796052245DM6j3ubYE_g/s1600/honest-cab-driver- 8/Pirate-DVDs-001.jpgreturn-wallet-to-OFW.jpgWe are good at fooling ourselves into thinking our actsare not dishonest. We return a wallet, but pirate media.Remove temptation, make causal links! http://people.duke.edu/~dandan/Papers/PI/dishonesty.pdf
Self-Defeating• What is the maxim?• Universalize the maxim• Is it self-defeating? Suppose you are tempted to copy the answers for your exam from your neighbors paper Think of the world in which copying is universalized. You copyfrom your neighbor, your neighbor from her neighbor, and so on Is it self-defeating? http://cnx.org/content/m17226/latest/?collection=col10552/latest
Whistleblowing“Employees and outside parties, such as suppliers, customers,contractors and other stakeholders, may use the procedures setout in the Policy to report any concern or complaint regardingquestionable accounting or auditing matters, internal controls,disclosure matters, conflict of interest, insider trading, collusionwith competitors, serious breaches of Group policy, unsafe workpractices or any other matters involving fraud, corruption andemployee misconduct….However, while the Policy is meant to protect genuinewhistleblowers from any unfair treatment as a result of theirreport, it strictly prohibits frivolous and bogus complaints…” http://www.sph.com.sg/whistleblowing_policy.shtml
Framing and functional failures • Function: what your designs does as a means of resolving a problem • Framing: how relevant your design is when addressing a problem“A failing of functionality indictsthe designer on charges of poor craftsmanship, while a failure of procedure points to general ineptitude” www.youtube.com/watch?v=4XiWuxYHivUhttp://socialinformaticsblog.com/2012/11/13/the-ethics-of-design-in-increasingly-complex-situations-the-case-of-a-broken-voting-machine/
3.007 Design EthicsAims - To raise awareness of ethical issues - To identify ethical dilemmas and risks - To share strategies for decision making
Quotes“A man without ethics is a wild beast loosed upon this world”Albert Camus“Ethics is knowing the difference between what you have a right to doand what is right to do” Potter Stewart“The first step in the evolution of ethics is a sense of solidarity withother human beings” Albert Schweitzer“Theres been a sea change in our focus on corporate ethics. Wevemade more progress in the last three years than the previous 30”Steve Odland
Case #Phua Poh Sim was a Captain with the Singapore ArmedForces (SAF) with an impressive track record. Yet, life is notalways a series of happy endings - this young man startedaccumulating debts because of a gambling addiction. Phuatook the easy way out, when his friend, determined to helphim with his debts, introduced him to a Defence Contractor(Richard Yow Wah) who was interested in procuring SAFcontracts. Between May 2008 to August 2008, Phua receivedS$53,100 of loans on 5 occasions from Richard and inexchange, shared information about SAF projects with him.http://app.cpib.gov.sg/cpib_new/user/default.aspx?pgID=1225
Engineering Ethics Modules for Ethics Across the Curriculum http://cnx.org/content/col10552/latest/