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Creativity and design 2016 day 03


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Third day of the Design & Creativity module at Nanyang Technological University. Institute on Asian Consumer Insights. This is the "How?" day, includes the sketching activity and the challenge to do something new. Cultivate ambiguity, rethink the role of failure, and think about "innovative diversity" in your organisation.

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Creativity and design 2016 day 03

  1. 1. Creativity and Design Day 3: How?
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  3. 3. Innovation champion What is the country that you consider to be the leading innovation champion? Q1. What is THE country that you consider to be the leading innovation champion? Base business executives: 2,748 +5 -1 - 1 +2 = + 1-3 = = NEW ENTRANTS-6 +1 + 1 +1 NEW ENTRANTS Points difference with 2014 ranking 33% 17% 10% 9% 3% 3% 3% 3% 2% 2% 2% 2% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% USA Japan Germany China South Korea Israel UAE UK India Sweden France Singapore Australia KSA Canada Russia Switzerland Malaysia Turkey Mexico South Africa Finland 3
  4. 4. 1: “Other countries are innovative” 2: “Other countries are not innovative” A: “My country is innovative” Emancipated view Oppressive view B: “My country is not innovative” Oppressed view Sceptic view Table 1. Four general types of views of creativity based on Freire (2000).
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  9. 9. Innovative diversity
  10. 10. • Power Distance: the degree of equality/inequality between people in a particular society • Individualism: the degree to which a society reinforces individual or collective achievement and interpersonal relationships • Masculinity: the degree societies reinforce the traditional masculine work role model of achievement, control, and power • Uncertainty Avoidance: the level of acceptance for uncertainty and ambiguity within a society • Long-Term Orientation: how every society has to maintain some links with its own past while dealing with the challenges of the present and future • Indulgence: the extent to which people try to control their desires and impulses, based on the way they were raised
  11. 11. Seven (7) countries in the Geert Hofstede research have Individualism (IDV) as their highest Dimension: USA (91), Australia (90), United Kingdom (89), Netherlands and Canada (80), and Italy (76). High IDV ranking indicates a society with a more individualistic attitude and relatively loose bonds with others. The populace is more self-reliant and looks out for themselves and their close family members.
  12. 12. “The low Individualism (IDV) ranking is manifest in a close and committed member 'group', be that a family, extended family, or extended relationships. Loyalty in a collectivist culture is paramount. The society fosters strong relationships where everyone takes responsibility for fellow members of their group.”
  13. 13. Asia and Latin America: Collectivism
  14. 14. (with some exceptions)
  15. 15. Scandinavian countries: “A low Masculinity (MAS) may be indicative of a low level of differentiation and discrimination between genders. In this culture, females are treated more equally to males in all aspects of society. This low Masculinity ranking may also be displayed as a more openly nurturing society.”
  16. 16. “Masculine society: Performance is highly valued and early required as the school system separates children into different types of schools at the age of ten. People rather “live in order to work” and draw a lot of self-esteem from their tasks. Managers are expected to be decisive and assertive. Status is often shown, especially by cars, watches and technical devices.”
  17. 17. Uncertainty avoidance (UAI) •High UAI when people feel threatened by uncertain or unknown situations; •Low UAI when “risks are accepted, such as changing jobs and starting activities for which there are no rules” Hofstede, G. (2001), Culture's Consequences; Comparing Values, Behaviors, Institutions and Organizations across Nations, Thousand Oaks: Sage
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  20. 20. “… this rate of change will need to be matched with mindset and paradigm changes in order for us to maintain our ability to innovate, and to create new value. Design must become the critical strategic tool for futureproofing Singapore from the uncertainties of the future.”
  21. 21. Reflect How can you embrace ambiguity? Does your team/organisation avoid uncertainty? Remember recent responses to uncertainty
  22. 22. Challenge Look for stable certainties, then prioritise them Select one certainty near the top of your list Question it, imagine alternate scenarios and their consequences
  23. 23. Discussion When may ambiguity be desirable/valuable? How may we work with ambiguity? Develop ways for you and your team to welcome ambiguity
  24. 24. Every organisation requires a unique approach to nurture a creative atmosphere 17
  25. 25. What type of creativity may fit your organisation?
  26. 26. Creative leadership
  27. 27. Creativity, Design, & Innovation thrive in the right conditions, and ‘timing’ is crucial 21
  28. 28. -Break-
  29. 29. Design and Creativity (D&C) why? who? how? what if? so what? how?
  30. 30. Abductive logic ‘Inference to the best explanation’ Premises that lead to “what if?” statements Deductive: “All men are mortal, therefore…” Inductive: “All swans are white…” Abductive: “Our new idea will be a success…”
  31. 31. Think abductively
  32. 32. Apple G4 Cube Rotman Design Challenge 2013
  33. 33. Most people… •Believe that failure is wrong •Assume that success is failure-free •Associate failure with embarrassment •Fail twice: don’t learn once they fail •Fear failure (kiasu, ‘scared to lose’) •Dismiss, forget or hide their failures
  34. 34. “Babe” Ruth hit 714 home runs in his career (1914-1935) He also struck out 1,330 times in his career
  35. 35. “Alfred Nobel was full of ideas; he said ‘If I have a thousand ideas a year, and only one turns out to be good, I am satisfied’. I, too, am full of ideas, and I would be satisfied with one good idea per year” Dr. Linus Pauling ates/1962/pauling-acceptance_en.html
  36. 36. Make failure desirable, as evidence of learning and trying new ideas 22
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  38. 38. Reflect What is your attitude towards failure? How does your organisation respond to failure? What could be positive about failing?
  39. 39. “Fail Early, Fail Fast and Fail Often”
  40. 40. Learn from others’ mistakes Identify the numerous failures behind successful people / businesses Look for ‘trial and error’ processes (in nature, science, society, etc)
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  42. 42. Dr. Ricardo Sosa: Fail gracefully
  43. 43. Challenge Try doing something new, anything you haven’t tried so far Focus on your emotions toward error Overcome, learn, persist and improve
  44. 44. Discussion When and how is failure possible and important? What alternatives to failure can you envision? What changes are necessary to enable failure as a valid and useful way of doing things?
  45. 45. Not all failure is obvious. Some successes are failures23
  46. 46. Dr. Ricardo Sosa:
  47. 47. - Lunch -
  48. 48. 3 Lenses
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  50. 50. von Hippel 1993/ modified by:
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  53. 53. H Plattner, C Meinel & LJ Leifer (Eds.), Design Thinking: Understand–Improve–Apply. Heidelberg, Germany: Springer.
  54. 54. Design is more a journey than a “process” (there are clear heuristics, though) 24
  55. 55.
  56. 56. /Main/Lect12-ConceptSelection.pdf
  57. 57. The div/conv linear model
  58. 58. Funnel 1. Temporary choices: converge by iterating divergence 2. Successive approximations: Problem-solution coevolve together 3. Ideas are not light bulbs: Eureka! is less having the idea, and more understanding it 4. Clear vision: but remain flexible (pivoting) 5. No right/wrong responses, but more/less appropriate 6. Abductive reasoning: ban the phrase “prove it!” 7. F4: Fail early, fail cheap, fail often, fail different
  59. 59.
  60. 60. Co-Design Liz Sanders and her team use this map to present participatory approaches in design:
  61. 61. Form Why do products look that way?
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  72. 72. Dr. Ricardo Sosa:
  73. 73. Dr. Ricardo Sosa: sosa.ricardo@gmail.com
  74. 74.
  75. 75.
  76. 76. Appearance should have depth25
  77. 77. Thomas Edison J. Utzon Frank Gehry A. G. Bell Key idea is: speed sketching is NOT about aesthetic quality, but seeing/thinking/communicating in more and flexible ways to represent ideas
  78. 78. “Idea sketching” is NOT an artistic skill. It’s NOT about accuracy or beauty (at all), but fluency (speed) and to support your thinking 26
  79. 79. Lines
  80. 80. Basic 2D Shapes • To draw freehand sketches • Train you to use pencils, pens and markers to draw sketches
  81. 81. 3. Basic 3D shapes [15”]
  82. 82. Extrusion
  83. 83. Orthogonal
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  86. 86. Top and front views
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  88. 88. Draw
  89. 89. Draw top and front view of:
  90. 90. Draw 3 views of:
  91. 91. Draw 3 views of:
  92. 92. Build something with: url
  93. 93. Form Activity Draw a cube (10 sec)
  94. 94. Form Activity Draw a happy cube (10 sec)
  95. 95. Form Activity Draw a student cube (10 sec)
  96. 96. Form Activity Draw a story in 3 acts with two shapes (1 min)
  97. 97. “Idea sketching” augments perception, supports thinking, and enables communication 27
  98. 98. - Break -
  99. 99. Use 2 geometries of 3 sides as initial shapes to generate as many unique compositions resulting in more than 2 final geometries 1 2 sample composition resulting in more than 2 shapes 1 2 3
  100. 100. Use 2 geometries of 3 sides as initial shapes to generate as many unique compositions resulting in more than 2 final geometries this composition features: shape #1 = 6 sides shape #2 = 4 sides shape #3 = 3 sides how many unique compositions can you create combining 2 triangles? 3 2 1
  101. 101. Have a conversation with your drawings28
  102. 102. - Break -
  103. 103. Challenge Redefine the common security padlock
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  105. 105. Product Features: •Letter Lock™ - Popular combination lock with easy to dial and remember 3-letter combinations •Easy to remember phrase included with each padlock for additional convenience •Extra wheels on-pack allows for greater personalization
  106. 106. The Secret and Beauty of Ancient Chinese Padlocks Hong-Sen Yan, Hsing-Hui Huang
  107. 107. 1876 CLARKE
  108. 108. “Chindogu”
  109. 109. Function Why do products work that way?
  110. 110. Abstracting and decomposing a product into functions Function: “a statement of a clear, reproducible relationship between the available input and the desired output –independent of any specific form” Chapter 5 Otto and Wood “Product Design”, Pearson
  111. 111. Chapter 5 Otto and Wood “Product Design”, Pearson
  112. 112. Chapter 5 Otto and Wood “Product Design”, Pearson
  113. 113. Chapter 5 Otto and Wood “Product Design”, Pearson
  114. 114. Chapter 5 Otto and Wood “Product Design”, Pearson
  115. 115. DYI ice cream parlour (red block is child, pink is parent) Pretend food cooking lessons for children (red and pink are children) TV show, pink is camera crew Cooking competition, pink is judge
  116. 116. Turn function/activity analysis into a creative tool of synthesis 29
  117. 117. - Break -
  118. 118. Meaning Why do products feel that way?
  119. 119. • Accomplishment: achieving goals • Beauty: appreciation of qualities that give pleasure to the senses or spirit • Community: sense of unity with others around us and a general connection • Creation: sense of having produced something new and original • Duty: willing application of oneself to a responsibility • Enlightenment: clear understanding through logic or inspiration • Freedom: sense of living without unwanted constraints • Harmony: balanced and pleasing relationship of parts to a whole • Justice: assurance of equitable and unbiased treatment • Oneness: sense of unity with everything around us • Redemption: atonement or deliverance from past failure or decline • Security: freedom from worry about loss • Truth: commitment to honesty and integrity • Validation: recognition of oneself as a valued individual worthy of respect • Wonder: awe in the presence of a creation beyond one’s understanding
  120. 120. What is your most meaningful object? Why?
  121. 121. Rapid ethnography project • Religious items (faith, belonging, protection) • Vespa (achievement, independence) • House, flat, car (achievement, personality, security) • Soccer shoes (function), fountain pen from college (memories) • Glasses (function), hair gel (identity), oven (it’s complicated), Pokemon toy (hard to obtain) • Painting (confidence, self-esteem), ring last present given from his father (loneliness, reconciliation) • Portraits, rings, presents, blankets, suitcase, custom-made: book, pillows, journals, signed items (promises, attachment, relationships, memories from times, self and others) • Traditional musical instruments (authority, pride, belonging, giving) • Beyond objects: smells, ways of acquiring, spaces • Context, stories, past and memories, achievement, plans, items lost, from 8 to 90 years old (family members, colleagues, helpers), conscious effort of reflection, articulation and empathy, maker culture and ‘scars’, honest/accurate responses, future: investment or preparing something for children, giving and receiving, children more functional but even from young age (2): “mommy/daddy bought it”, things that lose vs. gain value over time.
  122. 122. Richard Seymour: How beauty feels
  123. 123. Semantic Differential 1. Create a scale using polar adjectives (opposite-meaning terms) 2. Use as a guide three dimensions: strength, value, and activity 3. Ask subjects to rate an object or concept, assigning a mark on one of the five (or seven) spaces along each dimension 4. Positive and negative attributes should be varied from left to right
  124. 124. Perceptual Maps
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  126. 126. Form and function create meaning30
  127. 127. - End of Day 3-