Llb Referencing


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  • Welcome, fpr those of you who missed your library induction in fresher’s week my name is Rachel Scott Halls, and I am the senior Information Advisor for Law, i.e. the Law Librarian. Over the course of the first semester I will be coming into to a lecture in each module to talk about research skills for law. This may sound dull, but the biggest complaint I hear from my colleagues in law firms is that the new intake of trainees have NO research skills whatsoever. Today, in preparation for your nex assignment we are going to look at the exciting topic of referencing...so,
  • Llb Referencing

    1. 1. REFERENCING FOR LAW <ul><li>Everything you ever wanted to know abut referencing - AND MORE - in 1 easy lecture… </li></ul>
    2. 2. The lecture... <ul><li>Plagiarism </li></ul><ul><li>Referencing the key sources </li></ul><ul><li>Questions </li></ul>
    3. 3. PLAGIARISM <ul><li>BAD </li></ul><ul><li>Academic misconduct </li></ul><ul><li>Strict liability offence </li></ul><ul><li>Strong penalties </li></ul><ul><li>Intellectual theft </li></ul><ul><li>Easy to avoid </li></ul><ul><li>Referencing ALL your sources... </li></ul><ul><li>...correctly </li></ul>
    4. 4. WHERE DOES KINGSTON UNIVERSITY DRAW THE PLAGIARISM LINE? <ul><li>1 . a </li></ul><ul><li>2 . b </li></ul><ul><li>3 . c </li></ul><ul><li>4 . d </li></ul><ul><li>5 . e </li></ul><ul><li>6 . f </li></ul>Copying a paragraph from a book. No acknowledgement that these words have come from the book. Copying a paragraph from a book, making small changes. No acknowledgement. Cutting and pasting a paragraph from a website. Deleting one or two sentences and changing their order. No acknowledgement. Building a paragraph by copying short phrases from a number of sources and linking them together using words of your own. A full reference for each of the books is in the bibliography. Rewrite a paragraph from a book in your own words. Make the rewritten version shorter and change the language used as well as the order of the sentences. A reference and in-text acknowledgement are included. Quoting a paragraph from a web site by indenting the text and adding speech marks, an in-text citation and reference in the bibliography.
    5. 5. Referencing <ul><li>THE way to avoid plagiarism </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstrates that you have read around the subject - this is a GOOD thing </li></ul><ul><li>Easy </li></ul><ul><li>You can reference everything, even... </li></ul>
    6. 6. You can even reference a tombstone!
    7. 7. WHAT SOURCES WOULD YOU USE IN AN ASSIGNMENT? <ul><li>Books </li></ul><ul><li>Cases </li></ul><ul><li>Legislation </li></ul><ul><li>Government publications </li></ul><ul><li>Websites </li></ul><ul><li>Magazines </li></ul><ul><li>Newspapers </li></ul><ul><li>Journals </li></ul><ul><li>TV Documentaries </li></ul>
    8. 8. MOST COMMONLY USED IN LAW… <ul><li>Textbooks </li></ul><ul><li>Legislation </li></ul><ul><li>Cases </li></ul><ul><li>Journal articles </li></ul><ul><li>Websites </li></ul>
    9. 9. REFERENCING, SOME FACTS <ul><li>There are many different referencing styles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Harvard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MLA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MHRA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>APA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OSCOLA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>… </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Help the reader trace what you have read in your research </li></ul><ul><li>Law school uses… </li></ul>
    10. 10. xford tandard for the itation f egal uthorities
    11. 11. BOOKS <ul><li>Author </li></ul><ul><li>Title – in italics </li></ul><ul><li>Edition </li></ul><ul><li>Publisher </li></ul><ul><li>Place of Publication </li></ul><ul><li>Year of publication </li></ul><ul><li>Page number if quoting or giving info from specific page(s) </li></ul>
    12. 12. A Mullis and K Oliphant, Torts (3rd edn Palgrave, Basingstoke 2003) 27 If there are MORE than three authors cite the first one, followed by ‘and others’… S Gardiner and others, Sports Law (3 rd edn Cavendish, London 2006)
    13. 13. SECONDARY REFERENCING <ul><li>Always try and read the original source </li></ul><ul><li>If you cannot, cite what you have read… </li></ul><ul><li>Deakin and Morris, textbook on land law () citing.... </li></ul>
    14. 14. WHICH IS THE CORRECT BOOK CITATION? <ul><li>1. Darbyshire, Penny (2008) Darbyshire on the English Legal System (London: Sweet and Maxwell) </li></ul><ul><li>2. Penny Darbyshire, Darbyshire on the English Legal System (2008) </li></ul><ul><li>3. Darbyshire </li></ul><ul><li>4. Penny Darbyshire, Darbyshire on the English Legal System (2nd edn. Sweet and Maxwell, London 2008) </li></ul>
    15. 15. LEGISLATION… <ul><li>Short title </li></ul><ul><li>Year </li></ul><ul><li>Part </li></ul><ul><li>Section </li></ul><ul><li>Sub-section </li></ul><ul><li>Paragraph </li></ul>Where necessary
    16. 16. Chapters <ul><li>NOT the same as chapters in a book </li></ul><ul><li>The number of the act passed in the session of parliament </li></ul>
    17. 17. <ul><li>Pre 1963 legislation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Short Title </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regnal year </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>chapter </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. Human Rights Act 1998 s19(1)(b)
    19. 19. Town Police Clauses Act 1847 (10 & 12 Vic., c. 89)
    20. 20. DELEGATED LEGISLATION (UK) <ul><li>title Year (SI year/number) </li></ul>
    21. 21. Tax Avoidance Schemes (Information) (Amendment)(No. 2) Regulations 2007 (2007/3103)
    22. 22.
    23. 23. CASES <ul><li>A case may be reported in the media but not in a law report </li></ul><ul><li>To be reported cases must be ‘legally significant’ </li></ul><ul><li>Every year around 200000 cases are heard, only 2000 get reported </li></ul>
    24. 24. CASES - AUTHORITY <ul><li>The Law Reports </li></ul><ul><ul><li>AC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>QB </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fam </li></ul></ul><ul><li>WLR </li></ul><ul><li>All ER </li></ul><ul><li>Specialist, e.g. Family Court Reports </li></ul><ul><li>Journals </li></ul><ul><li>News papers, e.g. the Times </li></ul>Most authoritative
    25. 25. CASES <ul><li>Part names </li></ul><ul><li>Year reported (NOT heard/decided) </li></ul><ul><li>Volume of law report series </li></ul><ul><li>Abbreviation of law report series </li></ul><ul><li>Page number that the report starts on </li></ul><ul><li>Court that the case was heard in </li></ul><ul><li>Pinpoint – if necessary </li></ul>
    26. 26. CASES - CITATIONS <ul><li>Giles v Thompson [1993] 2 WLR 908 </li></ul>parties year reported vol # abbreviation pg # <ul><li>Use [year] when the date is essential for finding the case </li></ul><ul><li>Use (year) when it is not e.g. vol #s of cases/journals are sequential </li></ul>
    27. 27. The rules about brackets 1999 2008 (year) [year]
    28. 28. NEUTRAL CITATION <ul><li>Cases assigned a neutral citation – c. 2001 onwards </li></ul><ul><li>Party names </li></ul><ul><li>Year </li></ul><ul><li>court </li></ul><ul><li>Judgement number </li></ul>
    29. 29. CASES – NEUTRAL CITATIONS <ul><li>R (Ebrahim) v Feltham Magistrates Court </li></ul><ul><li>[2001] EWHC Admin 130 </li></ul>parties year of judgement court judgement #
    30. 30. CASES – ABBREVIATIONS <ul><li>Abbreviation of Law Reports (and journals) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cardiff Index to Legal Abbreviations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.legalabbrevs.cardiff.ac.uk </li></ul></ul>
    31. 31. CITING LAW REPORTS <ul><li>BEWARE! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some series have >1 abbreviation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>AELR and All ER and All Eng all refer to the All England Law Reports </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some abbreviations refer to >1 series so context is important </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>WLR = Weekly Law Reports and Washington Law Review </li></ul></ul></ul>
    32. 32. WHICH IS THE CORRECT CITATION? <ul><li>1. Carlill v Carbolic Smokeball [1893] 1 QB 256 </li></ul><ul><li>2. Carlill v Carbolic Smokeball 1893, QB, vol. 1 page 256 </li></ul><ul><li>3. Carlill v Carbolic Smokeball (1893) Queens Bench Reports </li></ul><ul><li>4. Cl v Carb Smok [1893] LRQB 1, 256 </li></ul>
    33. 33. Quoting a Judge <ul><li>OSCOLA uses very little Latin, so... </li></ul>
    34. 34. JOURNAL ARTICLES <ul><li>Author </li></ul><ul><li>Article Title </li></ul><ul><li>Year of publication </li></ul><ul><li>Volume number </li></ul><ul><li>Publication abbreviation </li></ul><ul><li>Start page of article </li></ul><ul><li>Pinpoint – if necessary </li></ul>
    35. 35. JOURNAL ARTICLES <ul><li>Helen Xanthaki, Legal transplants in legislation: defusing the trap (2008) 57 ICLQ 659, 662 </li></ul><ul><li>The rules on brackets also apply </li></ul><ul><li>Cardiff Index will help you here too </li></ul>
    36. 36. WHICH IS THE CORRECT CITATION FOR A JOURNAL ARTICLE? <ul><li>1. Mattias Kumm, 'Why Europeans will not embrace constitutional patriotism', [2008] 6 IJCL 117. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Kumm, 6 ICJL 117 </li></ul><ul><li>3. Kumm, Mattias (2008) 'Why Europeans will not embrace constitutional patriotism', International Journal of Contitutional Law 6(1) pp. 117-136 </li></ul><ul><li>4. http://www.westlaw.co.uk </li></ul>
    37. 37. Items from online databases (Westlaw, LNB etc) <ul><li>Reference these as you would if you were reading them in print </li></ul><ul><li>A link to the item is NOT enough! </li></ul>
    38. 38. WEBSITES <ul><li>Use with care – more details coming soon! </li></ul><ul><li>Author, 'Title' (type of document if relevant) <URL> accessed Date </li></ul><ul><li>If no author is available then you can use the organisation name, and if this is absent use 2 em-dashes: (--) </li></ul>
    39. 39. <ul><li>Home Office, 'Anti-Social Behaviour Orders' <http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk/anti-social-behaviour/penalties/anti-social-behaviour-orders> accessed 2 June 2006 </li></ul><ul><li>Lord Bingham, 'The Judges: Active or Passive' (2005 British Maccabaean Lecture at Cardiff Law School) <http://www.law.cf.ac.uk/publiclecture/transcripts> accessed 2 June 2006 </li></ul>
    40. 40. WHERE CAN YOU FIND OUT THE CORRECT ABBREVIATION FOR A JOURNAL/LAW REPORT TITLE? <ul><li>1. Guess </li></ul><ul><li>2. Law database </li></ul><ul><li>3. The back of a book </li></ul><ul><li>4. Cardiff Index to Legal Abbreviations, online </li></ul><ul><li>5. Ask your friend </li></ul>
    41. 41. [1993] AC 593 - WHAT TYPE OF DOCUMENT IS THIS A REFERENCE TO? <ul><li>1. Journal Article </li></ul><ul><li>2. Website </li></ul><ul><li>3. Case </li></ul><ul><li>4. Book </li></ul>
    42. 42. WHERE COULD YOU FIND OUT WHAT THE ABBREVIATION FAM STOOD FOR? <ul><li>1. Cardiff Index to Legal Abbreviations, online </li></ul><ul><li>2. Ask </li></ul><ul><li>3. Guess </li></ul><ul><li>4. Books in the law section of the Nightingale Centre </li></ul>
    43. 43. Is ignorance of the rules of plagiarism an excuse to get you off? <ul><li>Yes </li></ul><ul><li>No </li></ul>
    44. 44. Why should you reference? <ul><li>To avoid plagiarism </li></ul><ul><li>To acknowledge the work of others </li></ul><ul><li>To demonstrate your wider reading </li></ul><ul><li>Because you feel like it </li></ul><ul><li>Because you have to </li></ul><ul><li>To be polite </li></ul>