Priya early childhood immunization programs

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Priya early childhood immunization programs

  1. 1. EARLY CHILDHOOD IMMUNIZATION PROGRAMS By Priya Patel
  2. 2. Early Childhood Immunization Background
  3. 3. WHAT IS EARLY CHILDHOOD IMMUNIZATION?  Early childhood immunization consists of series of vaccinations (shots) given to small children Strengthens immune system Helps body to ward off diseases and infections  Recognized as one of most effective medical interventions in today ’s time  Implemented in almost every country Fig 1. Fig 2.
  4. 4. HISTORY OF VACCINES  1000 C.E: Evidence shows that Chinese used unidentified forms of inoculation (intentionally exposing body to certain bacteria to boost immunity to that disease)  1721: Lady Mary Wortley brought inoculation idea to west and presented it to king ’s physician, Hans Sloane  1796: Edward Jenner inoculated 8 year old boy with pus from milkmaid with smallpox and observed how boy did not get infected Fig 3. A portrait of Lady Mary Wortley Fig 4. Further experiments with smallpox infected pus were conducted on an infant by Jenner.
  5. 5. HISTORY OF VACCINES CTND…  1885: Louis Pasteur created first Rabies vaccination using similar ideology to that of Jenner  1930’s: More vaccines were being developed to combat Diphtheria, Tetanus, Anthrax, Plague, Cholera  1950: First polio vaccine was developed by Jonas Salk  1960-1970: Eradication of Smallpox  2000+: Newer technology has allowed development of more vaccines to combat disease such as Measles and Mumps and has since reduced cases of various diseases Fig 5. Louis Pasteur also created the cholera vaccine.
  6. 6. Benefits of Early Childhood Immunization
  7. 7. LIFE SAVER  Increases life expectancy of children  Many diseases that once killed thousands of kids have been completely eradicated  Protects future generations E.g. vaccine is responsible for elimination of polio in USA which was once country’s most notorious disease Saved lives of many children and prevented many cases of paralysis Fig 6. Polio is now a rare disease worldwide thanks to the usage of vaccines.
  8. 8. SAFE AND EFFECTIVE METHOD  Minor vaccine side effects = nothing compared to trauma and pain of diseases vaccine prevent  Vaccine only introduced post thorough examination Tests conducted by numerous doctors/scientists  Severe allergic reactions are rare Fig 7. Most children face a cold at most, post having a vaccine. Fig 8.
  9. 9. COMMUNIT Y PROTECTION  Immunization prevents both child and community from being infected via herd immunity Immune system of vaccinated child prevents them from becoming contagious when infected Everyone is less likely to fall sick if majority of community vaccinated Builds sustainable & healthy community Fig 9.
  10. 10. TIME AND MONEY SAVER  Child immunization is free healthcare service in Canada  Prevents long term disabilities that take huge financial toll: Generate huge medical bills Require time off from work/school Fig 10. Many unvaccinated kids are denied access to childcare facilities. Fig 11.
  11. 11. Drawbacks of Vaccinating Children
  12. 12. REVERSE HERD IMMUNIT Y  Huge threat to society if majority of community is unvaccinated  Both unvaccinated and vaccinated individuals are at risk E.g. 1. low vaccination usage in USA during 1987 Measles outbreak occurred year later Caused 136 deaths E.g. 2. Japanese government eradicated pertussis vaccination program in 1947 due to public pressure Pertussis epidemic returned 5 years later Resulted in 41 casualties and 13000 cases of illness Fig 12.
  13. 13. SIDE EFFECTS  Some kids suffer from various vaccine side effects  Side effects of common child vaccinations: MMR Vaccine: Mild: fever, small rash, gland swelling in cheeks/ neck Moderate: temporary seizure and low platelet count Severe: long term brain damage/coma/seizures, permanent deafness, lowered consciousness Meningococcal vaccine: Mild: soreness at shot site, fainting Severe: seizures Fig 13. Rashes are a common side effect of many vaccines.
  14. 14. SIDE EFFECTS CTND… Hepatitis A: Mild: soreness at shot site, headache, loss of appetite, tiredness Severe: seizure Typhoid vaccine: Mild: fever, headache, welling/soreness at shot site Varicella vaccine: Mild: soreness at shot site, fever, mild rash Moderate: seizure as result of fever Severe: pneumonia Fig 14. Pneumonia is a rare but possible symptom of the Varicella vaccine.
  15. 15. Science behind Vaccinations
  16. 16. VACCINATION PROCESS  Mockery of what happens during contact between potentially harmful bacterium and human body  Vaccine contains weakened pathogen (bacterium)  Body reacts as it would with regular pathogen 1) Macrophages: Type of white blood cell Destroy as many microbes on pathogen as it could 2) Lymphocytes-T cells: Cells of adaptive immune system Eliminate body cells already infected by pathogen Fig 15. Macrophages transfer the remaining microbes to the lymph node to be dealt with by the T and b cells.
  17. 17. VACCINATION PROCESS CTND… 3) Lymphocytes-B cells: Cells of adaptive immune system Plasma B cells generate antibodies Prevent pathogens from attacking healthy cells Carried by blood for easy access to pathogens Connects to antigens (surface molecules of Fig 16. Antibodies attack the pathogen pathogen that identify it as harmful) Each antibody usually fits with 1 antigen since shapes must match Intercepts connection between pathogen and cell Chemically paint pathogens to be easily spotted and destroyed phagocytes (innate immune system) Work with proteins in blood to puncture pathogens
  18. 18. VACCINATION PROCESS CTND… 4) Memory:  Immune system memorizes response  Body prepared to attack same pathogen in future Fig 17. The majority of vaccines don’t prevent pathogens from entering the body but ensure that the immune system is capable of attacking them efficiently.
  19. 19. T YPES OF VACCINES  Attenuated (live) vaccines: Contain weakened live pathogen Pros: Generate strong immune response post 1-2 doses Cons: Live pathogen presents risk of mutation of healthy body cells Risk stronger in individuals with weak immune systems Requires high maintenance (e.g. refrigerator) Impractical to implement in developing countries Fig 18. A diagram of an attenuated vaccine
  20. 20. T YPES OF VACCINES CTND…  Inactivated Vaccines: Most common vaccine Composed of chemically killed virus Work by instructing B cells to produce antibodies Cons: Not as effective as attenuated vaccines (do not engage other parts of adaptive immune system such as T cells) Pros: Don’t pose risk of causing cell mutation Don’t require high maintenance Fig 19. Individual must take several shots of inactivated vaccines to be immunized.
  21. 21. T YPES OF VACCINES CTND…  Toxoid vaccines: Contain inactivated toxins (toxoids)  Subunit vaccines: Contain only what is necessary to initiate immune response Cause minimal side effects Fig 20. Toxoid vaccines generate the production of antibodies.
  22. 22. Social and Ethical Issues Brought upon by Vaccinations
  23. 23. ANIMAL TESTING VACCINES  Most vaccine development involves animal testing to test impacts of vaccination on humans  Animals are subjected to harsh conditions and inhumane practices During pre-clinical stage of vaccine development, pathogens injected into animals (e.g. mice, rats) Animals could be starved, burned, poisoned, shocked 3.38 million animals used in lab research annually in Canada Fig 21. Many animals pass away in the process of laboratory research.
  24. 24. ANIMAL TESTING VACCINES CTND  Tests unreliable since humans have different DNA and body than animals 92% of drugs effective in animal tests are ineffective for humans according to study conducted by Food and Drug Administration Side effects of vaccinations for humans are rarely identified in animals E.g. Morphine is stimulant for goats, horses but depressant for humans Media, medical research companies exaggerate legitimacy of animal testing Cause vaccinations to be more risky for humans Fig 22.
  25. 25. ANIMAL TESTING VACCINES CTND  Alternatives: Human clinical studies (testing on human volunteers with their consent) Human tissue, cell based research Computational models (testing vaccines via computer stimulation) Cadavers (dissecting and testing on human corpses) Fig 23. Computational models are one of the greatest innovations in vaccine research of today’s time.
  26. 26. HPV VACCINE ISSUE  Many people fear that if girls receive HPV shot as child, they will be inclined to engage in sexual activity from early age  Fig 24. This misconduct could result in Solution: increased teen pregnancy rates No scientific link between receiving HPV shot and being drawn to have sex Kaiser Permanente Center of Atlanta conducted study with 1400 girls and found no evidence suggesting girls who were vaccinated at younger age engaged in more sex than girls who were not This idea is mere misconception Immunization providers should assure parents that HPV shot is not responsible in driving children to have premature sex
  27. 27. AUTISM CONTROVERSY  Many people speculate link between early childhood immunization and autism in children 15 month old toddler, Eric Gallup was diagnosed with autism in 1989 shortly after receiving first MMR shot in 1986 He was developing normally prior to receiving shot Parents believe he had severe reaction to shot  Various scientists (e. g. Paul Shattock, biochemist pharmacist, founder of Autism Research unit at University of Sunderland, parent of autistic child) agrees with correlation between autism and MMR vaccine Fig 25. Celebs Jenny Mccarthy and Jim Carrey took a stand against vaccines due to its autism link.
  28. 28. AUTISM CONTROVERSY CTND…  Solutions: No scientific evidence concludes direct link between autism and vaccines Immunization providers should provide parents with full scope on vaccination risks but mention how severe reactions to shots are rare Parents will be more conscious about their child’s immunization in order to make proper decisions for their child’s health
  29. 29. Early Childhood Immunization in Canada
  30. 30. VACCINE PREVENTABLE DISEASES  Canadian healthcare system provides immunization for children against 13 serious diseases  All diseases are easily contagious (e.g. via coughing , direct contact)  Different Vaccine Preventable Diseases: Pertussis Causes extremely violent coughing, choking, vomiting May result in death Tetanus May result in muscle spasms, convulsions or death Diphtheria Causes severe breathing problems, paralysis May damage heart, nervous system Fig 26. Pertussis, or more commonly known as “whooping cough” is a life threatening disease that can last for weeks.
  31. 31. VACCINE PREVENTABLE DISEASES CTND… Haemophilus Influenzae Type B May cause meningitis, pneumonia, deafness, swelling or death Varicella Causes rash, fever, blisters, skin infections Influenza Triggers fever, coughing, sneezing Meningococcal disease Cause meningitis, blood infection Fig 27. Chicken Pox is one of the most May result in death contagious vaccine preventable diseases. Rubella If unprotected pregnant women is infected, baby may be born deaf, blind or have damaged heart
  32. 32. VACCINE PREVENTABLE DISEASES CTND… Mumps Triggers swelling, headache, fever, deafness May jeopardize future ability to have children Measles Results in rash, convulsions, deafness, pneumonia, watery eyes Fig 28. Deafness is a common result of Hepatitis B many vaccine preventable diseases like Mumps. Causes liver damage or cancer Pneumococcal Disease Causes pneumococcal meningitis, ear/blood infections Polio May paralyze muscles and permanently damage nervous system
  33. 33. CHILD IMMUNIZATION SCHEDULE  Parents should follow schedule to keep child’s immunization up to date  Doctors will inform parents when child needs next vaccination Table 1 Canadian Child Immunization Schedule Age Vaccine Diseases Protection 2 months DTaP-IPV-Hib Pneu-C-13 Rot Diphtheria, Tetanus, Pertussis, Polio, HIB Pneumococcal disease Rotavirus 4 months DTaP-IPV-Hib Pneu-C-13 Rot Diphtheria, Tetanus, Pertussis, Polio, Hib Pneumococcal Disease Rotavirus 6 months DTaP-IPV-Hib Influeunza Diphtheria, Tetanus, Pertussis, Polio, Hib Flu
  34. 34. CHILD IMMUNIZATION SCHEDULE CNTD… Age Vaccine Disease 12 months Men-C MMR Pneu-C-13 Meningococcal Disease Measles, Mumps, Rubella Pneumococcal Disease 15 months Varicella Chicken Pox 18 months DTaP-IPV-Hib Diphtheria, Tetanus, Pertussis, Polio, Hib 4-6 years MMR-Var DTaP-IPV Measles, Mumps, Rubella, Varicella Diphtheria, Tetanus, Pertussis, Polio, Hib
  35. 35. GUIDELINES FOR EARLY CHILDHOOD IMMUNIZATION  Public Health Agency of Canada developed series of guidelines for national immunization practices: Immunization services should be available to everyone Immunization providers should educate parents on importance of immunizing child Providers should inform parents of all risks/benefits of vaccine Fig 29. Providers should keep all Vaccines must be stored and handled adhering immunization records organized and retrievable. to manufacturer’s recommendations Tracking system should be operated to inform parents of upcoming vaccinations Audits should be conducted to evaluate immunization practices at all immunization clinics
  36. 36. OVERALL IMMUNIZATION IMPACTS ON CANADA  Immunization has protected more babies than any other medical tool in past 50 years  More and more people are getting their children vaccinated  Vaccines have become safer, more efficient than ever before Odds of child having severe reaction to Hep B or MMR vaccine is 1/million Fig 30. Pertussis cases have dropped significantly since the Pertussis vaccination became approved in 1943. Fig 31. Ontario introduced free flu shots in 2000 and provincial vaccination rates rose from 18% in 1996 to 34% in 2005.
  37. 37. OVERALL IMMUNIZATION IMPACTS ON CANADA CNTD…  Diseases like Polio, Diphtheria and Measles are more rare in Canada thanks to immunization Fig 32.  Essential to well being of Canada in both present day and future
  38. 38. IMMUNIZE YOUR CHILD PSA  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=q3HzbK4IzWE The End
  39. 39. WORK CITED O r ga n i zat i o n , Ed u c a t i o n , o t h e r We b s i te C i t a t i o n s : T h e C o l l e g e o f P h y s i c i a n s o f P h i l a d e l p h i a . ( n . d . ) . A l l T i m e l i n e s O v e r v i e w. R e t r i e v e d O c t o b e r 1 3 , 2 0 1 3 , f r o m h t t p : / / w w w. h i s t o r y o f v a c c i n e s . o r g / c o n t e n t / t i m e l i n e s / a l l Wo r l d H e a l t h O r g a n i z a t i o n . ( 2 0 0 8 , F e b r u a r y ) . Va c c i n a t i o n G r e a t l y R e d u c e s D i s e a s e , D i s a b i l i t y, D e a t h a n d I n e q u i t y Wo r l d w i d e . R e t r i e v e d O c t o b e r 1 3 , 2 0 1 3 , f r o m h t t p : / / w w w.w h o . i n t / b u l l e t i n / volumes/86/2/07 -040089/en / H a r v a r d M e d i c a l S c h o o l . ( n . d . ) . Va c c i n e s a n d Yo u r H e a l t h . R e t r i e v e d O c t o b e r 1 3 , 2 0 1 3 , f r o m h t t p : / / w w w. h e a l t h . h a r va r d . e d u / f l u - re s o u rc e - c e n t e r / v a c c i n e s - a n d - y o u r - h e a l t h . h t m O ’C o n n o r, A n a h a d . T h e N e w Yo r k T i m e s . ( 2 0 1 2 , O c t o b e r 1 5 ) . H P V Va c c i n e D o e s n ’ t A l t e r S e x u a l B e h a v i o u r, S t u d y F i n d s . R e t r i e v e d O c t o b e r 1 3 , 2 0 1 3 , f r o m h t t p : / / w e l l . b l o g s . n y t i m e s . c o m / 2 0 1 2 / 1 0 / 1 5 / h p v - va c c i n a t i o n - d o e s - n o t - c h a n g e - s e x u a l - b e h a v i o r / ? _ r = 1 P e o p l e F o r t h e E t h i c a l Tr e a t m e n t o f A n i m a l s . ( n . d . ) . A n i m a l Te s t i n g i s B a d S c i e n c e : P o i n t / C o u n t e r p o i n t . R e t r i e v e d O c t o b e r 1 3 , 2 0 1 3 , f r o m h t t p : / / w w w. p e t a . o r g / i s s u e s / a n i m als- used-for-experimentation/animal -testing-bad-science.aspx G o ve r n m e nt We b s i t e C i t a t i o n s : United States of America. Department of Health and Human Ser vices. ( n.d.). Five Important Reasons t o Va c c i n a t e Yo u r C h i l d . R e t r i e v e d O c t o b e r 1 3 , 2 0 1 3 , f r o m h t t p : / / w w w.v a c c i n e s . g o v / m o r e _ i n f o / fe a t u r e s / f i v e - i m p o r t a n t - re a s o n s - t o - v a c c i n a t e - y o u r - c h i l d . h t m l
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