The Cold War -"the Cold War is in fact a real war in which the survival of the free world is at stake" -National Security Memorandum 68 - An arms race became necessary to avoid wars with the East. The US and USSR each needed to accumulate the weaponry needed to retaliate if forcefully attacked a war of ideological differences between communism and capitalism
Containment “ I believe that it must be the policy of the United States to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures. I believe that we must assist free peoples to work out their own destinies in their own way. I believe that our help should be primarily through economic and financial aid which is essential to economic stability and orderly political processes.” -Harry S. Truman (Truman Doctrine) Truman’s Doctrine set forth the precedent of American foreign policy over the next couple decades. Indirectly, Truman accused the Soviets of being the oppressors and vowed to protect the freedom of minority (third world) countries.
John F. Kennedy Kennedy maintained the reputation as a “Cold Warrior” with objectives presented to maintain global advantages to the United States He ordered the naval and aerial quarantine on the Soviet shipment of offensive missiles being shipped to Cuba (as part of the Cuban Missile Crisis). Kennedy’s direct challenge to Soviet policy strengthened his image as the “Cold Warrior.” The Soviet retreat was a prelude to their innate fear of American technology and power (similar to the United States’ fear of the Soviets).
Within INCHES of nuclear holocaust OPERATION: MONGOOSE BAY OF PIGS ANADYR The Soviets placed missiles on the island of their newly acquired communist Cuban ally as a “strategic defense move.” The United States became uncomfortable with the proximity of these missiles to US cities and demanded they be dismissed sent back to the Soviet Union.
CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS “ This urgent transformation of Cuba into an important strategic base--by the presence of these large, long range, and clearly offensive weapons of sudden mass destruction--constitutes an explicit threat to the peace and security of all the Americas,” –JFK October 22, 1962 John F. Kennedy ordered a naval interception on Soviet ships transporting these Missiles to Cuba resulting in a Soviet retreat and careful efforts on both sides to avoid nuclear war. It was agreed that nuclear testing should be banned by both The United States and the Soviet Union.
Capitalism vs. Communism The creation of communist countries represents a devastating blow to capitalist economy (such as the United States’). Communist countries are anti-capitalist, free-market doesn’t exist, and political and physical oppression are abundant in communist countries. The spread of communism threatened Harry S. Truman’s idea of self- determination. Russian control of Eastern Europe takes away the people’s rights to decide their own form of government. Communist Soviet Union was in a political race with the United States in the political persuasion of third world countries. Economic aid was provided to these countries, post World War II, in an attempt to gain trust and potential economic futures (as well as the topic of regaining basic human rights).
Red Scare The fear of the Soviet Union spreading communism throughout central Asia and western Europe brought with it the fear of American economic suffering. The loss of capitalist nations meant the loss of economic prosper for the United States, and a lost sense of security for Americans.
Reality “ ‘ the Soviet Union has so powerful rockets to carry these nuclear warheads that there is no need to search for sites for them beyond the boundaries of the Soviet Union.’ [quoted by the Soviet government] That statement was false.” –JFK October 22, 1962 The technology and raw power of the Soviet Union was far less superior to that of the United States. In reality, the economy and central government of the Soviet Union had depleted after World War II and it was only a matter of time before the Soviet Empire broke apart.