Lecture-1 : Introduction to Power Electronics

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This is the first lecture on power electronics. This lecture has been targeted to under-graduate students of electrical and electronics engineering.

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Lecture-1 : Introduction to Power Electronics

  1. 1. Introduction to Power Electronics (Lecture-1) R S Ananda Murthy Associate Professor and Head Dept. of Electrical & Electronics Engineering, Sri Jayachamarajendra College of Engineering, Mysore 570 006 R S Ananda Murthy Introduction to Power Electronics
  2. 2. Fuel Shares of Primary Energy Supply Oil 32.8 % Coal 27.2 % *Other 0.8 % 10.2 % Biofuels 2.3 % Hydro 5.8 % Nuclear Natural Gas 20.8 % Hydro 1.4 % Nuclear 0.7 % Natural Gas 7.2 % Oil 23.6 % Biofuels 24.5 % *Other 0.3 % Coal 42.3 % Source: International Energy Agency (IEA) R S Ananda Murthy Introduction to Power Electronics
  3. 3. Graph of Depletion Function of Fuels 1900 1950 2000 2050 2100 2150 2200 2250 2300 Coal Oil Natural Gas Uranium 0 EnergyProductioninJoules 1.2 1.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 x 10 18 Years Depletion Function: , , are constants for a particular type of fuel. R S Ananda Murthy Introduction to Power Electronics
  4. 4. Hazards Caused by Burning of Fossil Fuels Ozone layer depletion Global warming Combustion of fossil fuels Acid rain Photochemical oxidants (Visibility) Fine Inorganic Particles Health effects Volatile Organic Compounds We need to reduce consumption of fossil fuels because it causes environmental pollution and health hazards. Therefore we have to harness energy needed for development from other sustainable sources like solar and wind. R S Ananda Murthy Introduction to Power Electronics
  5. 5. Higher Energy Efficiency Saves Fuels G TurbineSteam Power Loss % Power Left % 65 35 100 % 2.5 34.1 1.2 33.7 Step-up Voltage to Transmission Level Step-down Voltage to Sub-transmission Level 1.6 33.2 2.5 32.4 Step-down Voltage to Distribution Level IM 2.0 31.7 Switchgear Induction Motor Pump 12.0 27.9 40.0 16.7 Generator Efficiency Overall efficiency: This shows that every kW of output power saved results in a saving of 6 kW of fuel power at the generating site. R S Ananda Murthy Introduction to Power Electronics
  6. 6. What is Power Electronics? Power electronics is the technology associated with efficient conversion and control of electric power by using power semiconductor devices. Power electronics encompasses the use of electronic components, the application of circuit theory and design techniques, and the development of analytical tools toward efficient electronic conversion, control, and conditioning of electric power. — Definition given by IEEE Power Electronics Society. R S Ananda Murthy Introduction to Power Electronics
  7. 7. Goal of Power Electronics Efficient conversion, conditioning, or processing and control of electric power using solid-state semiconductor devices in order to supply high quality power to the load causing minimum pollution of environment and the utility supply circuit. R S Ananda Murthy Introduction to Power Electronics
  8. 8. Block Diagram of a Power Processor Converter Control Circuit or Triggering Circuit Control Signals Reference Feedforward Feedback Raw Electrical Power Output Electrical Power in the Form Required by Load Converter has power switching semiconductor devices and energy storing elements like inductors and capacitors. Resistive elements are avoided in converters because they cause power loss and reduce efficiency. Controller switches on/off the switching devices present in the converter. R S Ananda Murthy Introduction to Power Electronics
  9. 9. Example of a Power Processor Converter 1 Controller Controller Converter 2 A.C. supply fixed voltage at 50 Hz or 60 Hz A.C. supply variable voltage and frequency A.C. motor − + Power processor CD.C. A.C. A.C. A power processor may have more than one stage of power conversion. R S Ananda Murthy Introduction to Power Electronics
  10. 10. Types of Converters Symbol Rectifier Input Output A.C. at constant voltage and frequency D.C. at variable voltage Inverter D.C. at constant voltage A.C. at desired voltage and frequency Chopper D.C. at constant voltage D.C. at desired voltage Cycloconverter A.C. at constant voltage and frequency A.C. at desired voltage and frequency A.C. Voltage Controller A.C. at constant voltage and frequency A.C. at desired voltage and input frequency Converter Type ACVC R S Ananda Murthy Introduction to Power Electronics
  11. 11. Power Electronics Vs Signal Processing In Power Electronics — The focus is on power conversion at the highest possible efficiency using very small control signals. Semiconductor devices work as switches. Power handled may range from a few watts to several mega-watts. In Signal Processing — Semiconductor devices generally work as controlled sources in the linear region of their characteristics. The focus is on information processing with minimum loss of information. Power handled will be of the order of few milli-watts or few watts. R S Ananda Murthy Introduction to Power Electronics
  12. 12. Multidisciplinary Nature of Power Electronics Power Electronics Electrical Machines Power Systems Circuit Theory Solid State Physics Signal Processing Systems and Control Theory Analog Electronics Digital Electronics Simulation and Computing Electromagnetics Microcontrollers R S Ananda Murthy Introduction to Power Electronics
  13. 13. Course Outline 1 Introduction to Power Electronics 2 Applications of Power Electronics 3 Power Semiconductor Devices 4 A.C. Voltage Controllers 5 Controlled Rectifiers 6 D.C.-to-D.C. Converters (Choppers) 7 Inverters R S Ananda Murthy Introduction to Power Electronics
  14. 14. Suggested Books M. H. Rashid, “Power Electronics: Circuits, Devices and Applications”, 3 Edition, Pearson, 2003. Ned Mohan, Tore M. Undeland, and Willium P. Robbins, “Power Electronics: Converters, Applications, and Design”, John Wiley, 3rd Edition. Cyril W. Lander,“Power Electronics : Principles and Applications”, Thomson Vikas Publications. B. K. Bose, “Modern Power Electronics and A.C. Drives”, Pearson Education, 2002. R S Ananda Murthy Introduction to Power Electronics
  15. 15. Next Lecture... In the next lecture we will describe some applications of power electronics. This will help in recognizing the importance of power electronics in real life and give motivation for studying power electronics. Thank You. R S Ananda Murthy Introduction to Power Electronics

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