Behavior mod decreasing behavior


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Behavior mod decreasing behavior

  1. 1. Behavior Modification<br />Decreasing Behavior through Punishment– Ryan Sain<br />
  2. 2. Decreasing Behavior - punishment<br />Punishment – the decreasing of a behavior by contingent application of a stimulus<br />Often thought of as aversive stimuli<br />This is functionally a suppression of behavior while the punishment contingency is in place<br />It is sensitive to context – meaning that a behavior punished in one situation may still be present in another.<br />The focus is again on the immediate effect of behavior<br />
  3. 3. Types of punishment<br />Positive punishment<br />Pain inducing – unconditional punishers<br />Reprimands – conditioned punishers<br />Negative punishment<br />Response cost – a response leads to the loss of something<br />Time out (from reinforcement)<br />Exclusionary – remove the person for a short time to a bland environment<br />Nonexclusionary – using a stimulus to indicate that a certain reinforcement source is not available<br />
  4. 4. Factors<br />When you punish – reinforce appropriate behavior as well<br />Just like extinction – or the response will come back once the punisher is removed<br />Maximize the likelihood that this contingency will be implemented (develop strong Sd for appropriate responding)<br />Minimize the Sd for the unwanted behavior<br />Minimize the Sr for the unwanted behavior<br />
  5. 5. More factors<br />Intensity<br />Use of an intense punisher is generally more effective – especially in situations where the Sd and Sr for inappropriate responding are still present.<br />However – if you do the previous – then a very weak stimulus will likely be effective<br />Never pair the punisher with Sr. <br />Attention is an issue here (negative attention)<br />
  6. 6. Yet more<br />Add an SDp – make a rule and make it known.<br />Deliver the punishers immediately<br />Do not wait for hours and hours – you may be punishing desirable behavior!<br />For punishment – continuous schedules are best. This is because the converse is true for reinforcement.<br />
  7. 7. Ethics<br />Punishment is controversial<br />If a non pain inducing alternative is available, use it.<br />Response prevention also prevents appropriate responding – so this is problematic<br />Severe behavioral problems (self injury, health, etc.) are the only times when the use of punishment is acceptable.<br />Time out issues<br />
  8. 8. More ethics – really?<br />Punishment does produce negative effects<br />Aggressive behavior<br />Emotional behavior<br />Escape or avoidance – with the conditioned punishers now developed<br />Does not teach new responses<br />The punisher is modeled<br />Self perpetuating if not done properly (and reinforces the punisher).<br />
  9. 9. Escape and Avoidance<br />Negative reinforcement (escape)<br />Increasing a behavior (reinforcement) by the contingent removal of a stimulus<br />The loss of a stimulus following a behavior – increases the frequency or occurrence of that behavior<br />The stimulus MUST be present in order to escape it.<br />This is not the case in punishment<br />
  10. 10. Avoidance<br />This is a little trickier – logically<br />The stimulus is NOT PRESENT – yet the person learns to avoid it.<br />How?<br />Escape conditioning; rule governed behavior<br />You MUST have prior experience with the stimulus in order to know to avoid it<br />