Index➲ Introduction to construction materials
➲ Reinforced concrete
➲ Ceramic products
➲ What is clay?
➲ How do we manufacture ceramics?
➲ Phases of contructing buildings
➲ Machines for construction
Introducction to construction
➲ From ancient times to thye present
day, builders have used a wide
variety of materials for
constuction: mud, stone, wood,
➲ Wood and metal are good for
making beams because they are
resistant to tension and
compression and because they
are light weight
➲ Ceramics are good for making roof
tiles because clay is easily
moulded and ceramics are water
➲ Stone is a natural material that we stract from quarries.
There are different types: granite, slate and marble.
➲ It has uses as a construction material: foundatins, break-
➲ It can be shaped into blocks or into panels.
➲ We use stone broken into chip stone to make foundations
for roads and railways.
➲ Sometimes stone is part of other materials.
➲ It is a binder,like glu.
➲ It is a mixture of ground and
baked minerals, oxides
and other substances.
➲ We use cement to produce
mortar and concrete
➲ It is a mixture of cement, sand and water.
➲ First cement and sand are mix, then we add water and it
becomes a paste.
➲ Setting is the chemical reaction between the chemical
elements of the different minerals and also water. The
water does not evaporate, it is essential for the
➲ Before laying bricks with mortar, we dip bricks in water.
➲ Bricklayers lay a row of wet bricks and cover them with
the mortar paste.
➲ The result is like a sandwich.
➲ It is mortar with added
pebbles, so it is a mixture
of cement, water , sand &
➲ The pebbles make the
concrete stronger than
➲ We use it to make structural
➲ We make a mould with the
shape of the element we
are going to make. Then
we pour the concrete into
➲ To remove the air, it is
vibrated to help the
bubbles come out.
➲ It is concrete with steel bars
➲ Reinforcing is very important
if the elements will suffer
tension forces. Concrete
has good resistance to
corrosion but not to
tension. Steel has good
resistance to both.
➲ The reinforcing bars help to
➲ Concrete break without
However steel deform
➲It is a soft solid that we use for aesthetic purposes, to
cover brick walls which have a rough surface.
➲It is used as a fire-resistant material.
➲It comes from gypsum that is extract from quarries and
then grind it.
➲Advantages: it gives a smooth surface and has a nice
finish, it is easy to work with and it is a good thermal and
➲Disadvantages: it is weak & absorb water.
➲ It is the oldest artificial material.
➲ It was used for pottery and
ornaments,but no for
➲ We use ceramics for
ornamental purposes , but
the main use is the
manufacture of bricks.
➲ Bricks are cheap and durable,
they require very little
➲ The most common ceramic product is
➲ Other are tiles such as roofing tiles, wall
tiles and roof tiles.
➲ Wall and floor tiles are croated with
➲ Porcelain is much harder it gives a soft
surface and it is complety waterproof.
➲ The hard and soft surface makes tiles
easier to clean.
What is clay?
➲ Ceramic is made from clay.
➲ Clay is a mass of very small particles of rock,
which is formed by a long process of natural
erosion from the rock.
➲ Silicon is the most common mineral in clay, we
use clays with very different compositions to
➲ Clay is a natural material, but ceramic is an
How do we manufacture
➲ 1- Moulding:the first step in making ceramics is to give
the clay the required shape, ex: brick. We make a
mould with the negative shape o a brick, then we fill
it with clay.
➲ 2- Drying: There are two “kinds” of water in clay :The
absorb water and the chemically bound water. The
absorved water is what it makes the clay wet. When
it evaporates the caly becomes hard, but if water is
added it becomes soft again.
➲ 3- Firing: To remove the chemically bound water we
need high temperatures. This process is called
“bakin” or “firing” the clay.
➲ Use of bricks: bricks are used to make walls. They are
arranged in “patterns” so that the construction is
stronger. Bricks are stronger than mortar.
Phases of contructing buildings
1-FITNESS AREA: paving the way to demolition,
rubble removal and leveling. The machinery is the
excavator and bulldozer
2-FOUNDATION: placement of elements that form
the base, below ground and its shape and size
depends on the field:
Shoes: basic pillars for normal soil.
Piles, shotcrete, is subject to the ground to difficult
To make the foundation are used bulldozers and
Phases of constructions
3-STRUCTURE: a building structure with pillars, floors and beams.
It is made with reinforced concrete (concrete round) gives
greater strength. The machines used are the cranes and cement
4-COVERING OF WATER: they use different types of decks:
Before the cover of the roof with polyurethane coating is sound
and heat insulation. And get Roussillon and bards.
5-ENVELOPE: exterior is coated inside FOLLOW:
Thin Brick (interior)
Phases of construction
Salad: placement and preparation of the soil can be covered
with the following materials:
Gres (tiles and tiles)
Septate: interior wall cladding materials such as:
In covering our walls and floor will use the following
Shoulders and stirrers
MACHINES USED IN
Excavators and loaders, are used in the excavation
Bulldozer and motor graders, used in land leveling
And dump trucks, transporting materials
Cranes: raising materials, basic structure consists of
the tower, boom and counterweight
Concrete: preparation of mortars and concretes
MATERIALS USED IN
Materials used in construction of buildings:
Stone: compact rocks, disintegrated, clays and
Binder: lime, plaster and cement
Concrete, mass concrete, cyclopean and cellular
Ceramic materials: bricks, tiles, tiles, stoneware
Other materials include metals, wood, plastic and