Observe and think - Page 72
- Where is this volcano?
Mount Etna is an
active volcano on the
east coast of Sicily,
Italy. It lies above the
margin between the
African Plate and the
Eurasian Plate. It is
the tallest active
currently 3,329 m
-Do you know the names of any other volcanoes in Europe?
Example: Yes, I know that there are many volcanoes on the island of Lanzarote
in the Canary Islands, or in Tenerife, the Teide.
• Beerenberg - Norway (2,277 m)
• Öræfajökull - Iceland (2,110 m)
• Cumbre Vieja - La Palma, Canary Islands (1,949 m)
• Eyjafjallajökull - Iceland (1,666 m)
• Katla - Iceland (1,512 m)
• Hekla - Iceland (1,491 m)
• Snæfellsjökull - Iceland (1,448 m)
• Mount Vesuvius - Italy (1,270 m)
• Stromboli - Italy (926 m)
move and magma
is pushed up to the
-Can you think of any other physical features in Europe?
Europe has many other physical features, for example, mountains, lakes,
rivers and plains.
1- What is Europe’s relief like?
-Area: 105 km2.
-Limits with Asia: the Urals
and the Caucasus, river
Ural and the Caspian Sea.
-Low relief with a large
fertile central plain.
-Older mountain ranges are
in the North and East of
-Younger mountains are
along the mediterranean
2- What are Europe’s rivers like?
-Importance: for water supply, transport, and the production of electricity.
.Volga: longest river in Europe.
.Rhine: one important trade route.
.Danube: runs through several European capitals.
Exercise 1 on page 74, and 2 on page 80 in your notebooks.
Climate and landscape in Europe
.Oceanic: Atlantic side of the continent. Moors and deciduous forests.
.Mediterranean: Along the Mediterranean coast. Shrubs and evergreen forests.
.Continental: centre and east of Europe. Prairies and steppes.
.Polar: north of the Scandinavian peninsula and Russia. Tundra and taiga.
.Alpine: highest mountains. Forests, pastures and prairies.
4- What is Spain’s relief like?
-Spain occupies most of the
Iberian peninsula, the Balearic
and Canary archipelagos and
Ceuta and Melilla.
-Its area is 505.000 km2.
-Its average altitude is high:
-The Iberian peninsula is
dominated by a central
plateau and several mountain
ranges around it.
5- What are Spain’s rivers like?
-They are generally short and
irregular. Their flows depend
on rainfall, and they increase
in spring when the snow melts.
-We can divide them into 4
1.Cantabrian rivers: short and
steep. Large flow.
2.Atlantic rivers: large flows.
3.Mediterranean rivers: short
and small flows due to little
4.Archipelagos rivers: few rivers.
Exercises 1 on page 76, and 1-2 on page 77.
6- What is Spain’s climate like?
-Temperate climate with variations among regions:
.Mediterranean climate: located in the south and east of the peninsula and the
Balearic islands. Little rainfall and irregular. Temperatures are mild in the coast and
very cold or hot in the plateau.
.Atlantic climate: north and north-west of the peninsula. Temperatures are mild and
rainfall is abundant and regular.
.Subtropical climate: Canary islands. Stable climate around the year.
-No matter what area we are, climate changes in the mountains when altitude
Exercises 1 and 2 on page 79 in your notebook.
Exercise 6 on page 81 (read the instructions carefully!)