olitical developments 1- P 1815-1870- Decisive events in Europe: .Defeat of Napoleon. .Restoration of absolutism. .Revolts and revolutions against absolutism. .Art: Romanticism.- America: .North: expansion .South: independence
Restoration in Europe 2- The 1815-1820-Return to Absolutism.-The Congress of Vienna (1814-15): .Objective: to settle the many issues arising from the French Revolutionary wars, the Napoleonic wars and the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire. .That resulted in the redrawing of the Europes political map. .Spheres of influence were established between states (Alliances).
The Holy Alliance-It was signed in Paris in September 1815 by Russia, Prussia and Austria.-It was to instill the divine right of kings in European political life.-They used it in order to prevent revolutionary influence to their nations.
The Q uadruple Alliance-It was a Treaty signed by UK, Russia, Prussia and Austria in Paris on November 1815.-It renewed the previous holy alliance.-With Frances admission in 1818 it became the Quintuple Alliance.
reign of Fe rnando VII The (1813-1833)- After Napoleons defeat in the Spanish War of Independence (December 1813), Joseph I left Spain, and Fernando VII returned as king of Spain.- Napoleon had agreed it in the treaty of Valençay (December 1813, 11th), and he left Fernando VII return to Spain (he was imprisoned in Valençay from 1808).
Fer na ndo V I I- We can divide his reign into 3 periods: .The Restoration: 1813-1820. He imposed absolutism again. He abolished the Constitution. .The liberal period: 1820-1823. A successful military revolt achieved the political change into the so-called "Trienio Liberal", the Constitution was restored. .Absolutism: 1823-1833. Period known as the "Ominous Decade", with the restoration of absolutism helped by the Holy Alliance.
Pragmatic Sanction 1830- As Fernando VII had fathered only two daughters, he ratified a Decree of 1789 by Carlos IV, which had replaced the semi-Salic system, with the mixed succession system.- His oldest daughter, Isabella, would inherit the throne and be declared queen upon his death.- This removed his brother, Carlos, as the next in the line of succession under Salic Law.
iberalism, nationalism 3- L a nd democracy.Definitions:LIBERALISM: Political or social philosophy advocating the freedom of the individual, parliamentary systems of government and government guarantees of individual rights and civil liberties.NATIONALISM: the policy or doctrine of asserting the interests of ones own nation, view as separate from the interests of other nations or the common interests of all nations.DEMOCRACY: a form of government in which the supreme power is vested in the people, and exercised directly by them or by their elected agents under a free electoral system.
D EMOCRACY-National sovereignty (republic).-Opposed to monarchy.-Universal manhood suffrage.-Defense of the middle and working classes.-Opposed to industrial capitalism.
LI B ER A L I S M-National sovereignty.-Constitutional monarchy.-Separation of powers.-Limited male suffrage.-Some freedoms (press, association, expression, religion).-Opposed to absolutism. Try to recover rights and freedoms gained during the French Revolution.
NATIONALIS M-Origins in the Napoleonic Empire invasions and the new political map agreed in the Congress of Vienna.-National sovereignty.-Independent nation-states.-Defined borders.-People with common identity (history, language, culture...).-Well-integrated society.
The age of Revolution-The Restoration order was short.-Liberalism had established itself as the ideology of the bourgeoisie.-The bourgeoisie had economic power so eventually seized political power through the revolutions of 1820, 1830 and 1848.
1820s RevolutionsSPAIN: In 1820 a military revolt against Fernando VII led to the Trienio Liberal period. In 1823 the Holy Alliance invaded Spain and ended with liberalism.PORTUGAL: Political revolution began in 1820 with a military insurrection in Porto, and established a constitutional period which lasted until 1826.GREECE: In 1821 greek people reacted against the Ottoman occupation with their war of independence that they eventually won in 1832.
1830s RevolutionsFRANCE: King Charles X was forced to abdicate due to a liberal revolution in july 1830. Louis Philippe dOrleans was named king that month, and he reigned as Louis Philippe I until 1848.BELGIUM: a nationalist revolution against the king gained Belgian independence in 1831 from the Netherlands.-Other revolutions failed (Italy, Germany and Poland).
Revolutions of 1848-Also known as the Year of Revolutions,the Spring of Nations, or Springtime ofthe Peoples.-There were a series of political upheavals throughout Europe in 1848, but within a year, reactionary forces had won out, and the revolutions collapsed.-This revolutionary wave began in France in February and immediately spread to most of Europe.
France, 1848-Louis Philippe I was expelled in February.-Second Republic was established and the Constitution of 1848 was created.-Elections gave the power to Louis Napoleon Bonaparte, who eventually became authoritarian and imposed the Second Empire in 1852. Louis Philippe I
Italian Unification-Cavour got the independencefor Piemont in 1859.-From that moment, the unification process was military and received help from France.-They gradually conquered and annexed the rest of the Italian Peninsula.-The main figures were Garibaldi, Mazzini, Cavour and Vittorio Emmanuele II, considered as Italys fathers of the fatherland.
German u nification-Prussia was the leader State inthe German process of unification.-During the first half of the 19th century, cooperation mechanisms were established between the different German States.-From 1862, King Wilhelm I of Prussia and his Prime Minister Bismarck accelerated the unification by military means.-In 1871 German Empire was born, the II Reich became a high power.
4 - SPAIN: from liberal monarchy to republic-The reign of Isabella II (1833-1868) was a difficult period plenty of upheavals, which included: .Conflicting claims to the throne. .Military revolts. .Demands for greater democracy.
he reign of Isabella II T-When she was under age, two regents governed for her: .María Cristina (1833-1840), her mother. .General Espartero (1840-1844).-During the María Cristina regencythe first Carlist war took place(1833-1840).
Car lists wars-There were three carlists wars, twoof them during the reign of Isabella II.-These wars were civil wars between the supporters of Isabella and the supporters of the Infante Carlos who wanted the return to absolutism.-Carlos María Isidro did not achieve his goal and over the years he was losing supporters.
he reign of Isabella II T-Two political parties were supporting the Queen and alternating power: .The moderate Liberal Party. .The Progressive Party.-Various Constitutions were proposed, it depended on which political party was governing.
Mar ía Cristina-Regency 1833-1840.-Allied: Liberalist Parties (both).-First part: Liberal Party, the moremoderates.-Second part of her regency: Progressive Party, after a military revolt in 1836 (La Granja) and popular riots.-Ecclesiastical confiscations of Mendizábal (1835-37).There was a decree to expropiate and privatize monastic properties during a progressive period.-1840 She had to resign due to confrontations with the Progressives.
Gener al Espartero-Regency: 1840-1843.-Allied: Progressive Party. He was amilitary with progressive ideas.-He ruled in an authoritarian way, so he quickly lost supporters from both parties.-A rebellion forced the resignation of Espartero, and Isabella was named Queen with 13 years, establishing her coming of age.
The reign o f Isabella II Political problems-Isabella II was considered came of age att 13.-She found several political problems.-Two new political parties opposed to monarchy appeared in this moment: .Democratic Party .Republican Party-Electoral fraud was common and caused popular discontent.
Politic al periods-We can distinguish three periods during Isabellas reign as an adult (1843-1868): .Moderate decade (1844-1854). Dominated by General Narváez and the Moderate Party. Moderate Constitution of 1845, favouring monarchy. Re-establishment of relations with the Church. .Progressive biennium (1854-1856). Dominated by General Espartero and the Progressive Party. New Constitution of 1856, progressive, but never came
Political periods .Last years (1856-1868). Moderates, and the new party Unión Liberal led by ODonnell, were alternating in power. The opposition to the regime was increasing during this period.-Different political parties agreed to sign the Ostende Pact in 1866 to overthrow Isabella II. This agreement was the origin of the Glorious Revolution (1868).
ECONOMIC PROBLEMS-One of the systems used to get money to pay the States debt were the Confiscations of ecclesiastical and municipal properties. Two of them were well- known: .Mendizábal, 1835. .Madoz, 1855.-Negative consequences for farmers: .Expropiated lands were bought by the bourgeoisie. .Common lands were also sold. .Religious orders ceased to help poors.
The Glorious Revolution-In 1868 a military uprising took place and the Queen had to go into exile in France.-The Glorious Revolution was the first attempt to establish democracy in Spain.-The victorious coalition of liberals, moderates and republicans were now faced with the difficult task of finding a government.
Six Re volutionary Years-During this period of six years (1868-1874) we can distinguish three different democratic periods: .Provisional government (1868-70). Led by General Serrano. Constitution of 1869 (progressive) which established constitutional monarchy as the Spanish form of government. .Democratic monarchy (1871-73). Amadeo I was appointed king of Spain. .First Spanish Republic (1873-74). Pi y Margall was the first President.
5- A m erica during the 19t h century-Political and territorial changes.-North America: westward expansion -> conflicts with Native Americans.-The American Civil War (1861- 65): southern states against northern states. Their main disagreement was about slavery.Northern states won and slavery was abolished.
Latin American ind ependence-Revolutionary independence movementsemerged during the reign of Fernando VII.-Factors: .Examples around the world: USA independence, French Revolution and the Spanish War of Independence. .Great Britain support to the colonies. .The colonies Creole wanted more political and economic control.
erican inde pendence Latin Am-Early 19th century: .Two important leaders of the independence process: Simón Bolívar and José de San Martín. .Except Cuba and Puerto Rico, all the spanish colonies gained their independence between 1810 and 1825. .These new nations were soon under the political and economic influence or domination of Great Britain and the USA.
Activitie sActivities 18, 20, 21 and 23 on page 131.
6- Romanticism-Artistic and cultural movement.-Europe, first half 19th century.-Characteristics: .Freedom of the artist to create -> liberalism. .Respect for the individual. .Expression of feelings. .Glorification of national history -> nationalism.