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  1. 1. Unit 5 - World landscapes
  2. 2. 1- What types of climate are there? WORLD CLIMATES
  3. 3. Hot climates - It is the area between the Tropics. - Temperatures are generally high and there is little difference in temperatures in different seasons. - Sunlight reaches the Earth at a perpendicular angle all year round. -MAIN CLIMATES: .Equatorial .Tropical .Desert
  4. 4. Temperate climates - It is the area between the Tropics and the polar circles. - Temperatures change because sunlight reaches the Earth at different angles throughout the year. - MAIN CLIMATES: .Oceanic .Mediterranean .Continental .Chinese
  5. 5. Cold Climates - It is the area between the polar circles and the poles. -Sunlight strikes the Earth at an oblique angle. - Temperatures are always very cold. - CLIMATE: .Polar Climate (also in mountains)
  6. 6. Climate graphs Climate graphs are a combination of a bar graph and a line graph. Temperature is shown on a line graph, with the figures being shown on the right side of the graph. Rainfall is shown by a bar graph, with the figures being shown down the left side of the graph.
  7. 7. Interpreting climate graphs In the exam you may be asked to look at the information in a graph and describe the area's climate. 1.Look for patterns in the temperature data: o Is the temperature the same all year round? If it is different, how many seasons does the location experience? o Which season is the warmest? Is it warm (10 - 20°C), hot (20 - 30°C) or very hot (above 30°C)? o Which season is the coolest? Is it mild (0 -10°C), cold (-10 - 0°C) or very cold (below -10°C)? o What is the range of temperature? (Subtract the minimum temperature from the maximum temperature). 1.Look for patterns in the rainfall data o Does the rainfall occur all year round? o What is the pattern of the rainfall? Check which season(s) is/are drier or wetter than others. o What is the total annual rainfall? Add each month's total together to get the annual total.
  8. 8. 3. Describe the patterns in temperature and rainfall, including how they relate to each other. You now have a description of the climate. • Now look at the climate graph below. What can you deduce about the climate?
  9. 9. Activity Exercise 1 on pages 48-49.
  10. 10. 2- What are rainforests like? Equatorial climate - As its name said, it is found near the equator. - Temperatures are always hot, the average is around 27ºC. - There is very little variation in temperatures. - Precipitation is abundant and regular, more than 2000 mm a year.
  11. 11. Rainforests A rainforest is a dense forest found in tropical or equatorial areas of heavy rainfall. The trees are broad-leaved and evergreen, and the vegetation tends to grow in three layers (undergrowth, intermediate trees and shrubs, and very tall trees, which form a canopy). They have a lot of species of animals and plants. These landscapes are almost uninhabited because of the heat and humidity. However some native peoples live by hunting or gathering plants.
  12. 12. Parts of the rainforest ->
  13. 13. 3- What is the savannah like? TROPICAL CLIMATES They are Tropics. found both Temperatures are always high. Rainfall is abundant (5002000 mm) but not regular. There are two seasons: the rainy season and the dry season. Rivers have a smaller, more irregular flow than
  14. 14. Savannah Tropical savannahs are open grasslands, usually with scattered bushes or trees, characteristic of much of tropical Africa. They are home to many herbivores as well as carnivores. Most people live on the coast or near the rivers. There are small towns.
  15. 15. Activities Exercise 1 on page 50. Exercise 1 on page 51.
  16. 16. 4- What are desert landscapes like? DESERT CLIMATES DESERT LANDSCAPES There is very little precipitation. Vegetations and animal life are scarce because of the lack of water. There are two types: .Hot deserts are near the tropics and temperatures varies a lot from day to night. .Cold deserts are in temperate zones, and they have two seasons. However there are species that have adapted to dry conditions. They are almost uninhabited, but some nomads live in deserts. Some towns have developed in deserts around the oil and natural gas industries.
  17. 17. Activities Exercises 1, 2 and 3 on page 52.
  18. 18. 5- What are Mediterranean landscapes like? MEDITERRANEAN CLIMATES It is found around the Mediterranean sea. However it exists in other parts of the world. Temperatures are very high in summer and mild in winter. Precipitation is not abundant and mainly in autumn and spring, summers are dry. Droughts are a big problem. MEDITERRANEAN LANDSCAPES Rivers have an irregular flow. It depends on the season. Floods are a danger. In mediterranean forests there are different trees, shrubs and plants. However this landscape has changed a lot because of human action both inland and on the coast.
  19. 19. Activities Exercise 1 on page 53.
  20. 20. 6- What are continental landscapes like? CONTINENTAL CLIMATES CONTINENTAL LANDSCAPES These are located in the temperate zones in the Northern hemisphere. 1- Coniferous forests or taigas: long winters. Coniferous trees. Very small population. Temperatures have a great range, they are extreme. 2- Prairies: inland plains, in wetter and warmer areas. Tall grass. Most people live there. Precipitation generally occurs in summer. Rivers could be frozen during winter. 3- Steppes: dry areas, low grass.
  21. 21. Coniferous forest or taiga
  22. 22. Prairies
  23. 23. Steppes
  24. 24. Homework Exercises 1 and 2 on page 58. Pay attention, number 1 is just to help you doing number 2...
  25. 25. 7- What are oceanic landscapes like? OCEANIC CLIMATES They are located in the west coasts of temperate zones. Temperatures are mild. Precipitation is abundant and regular. Rivers have a regular flow. OCEANIC LANDSCAPES Vegetation is abundant and green. Types: -Meadows. -Deciduous forests. -Moors Theses areas are densely populated.
  26. 26. Meadows
  27. 27. Deciduous forest
  28. 28. Moors
  29. 29. 8- What are polar landscapes like? POLAR CLIMATES They are found in both poles. They are the coldest on Earth. It is always cold. It is night for six months. There is little precipitation and it is in the form of snow. POLAR LANDSCAPES Their main characteristic is ice and snow. Vegetation can’t grow, and only a few animals live there. Near the polar circles where it is hotter there is the tundra landscape, with some vegetations and more animals. Human life is very difficult.
  30. 30. Arctic landscape
  31. 31. Antarctic landscape
  32. 32. Tundra
  33. 33. Homework Exercise 1 b on page 56.
  34. 34. 9- What are alpine landscapes like? ALPINE CLIMATES Located in the highest mountain ranges. Temperatures are very low in winter and cool in summer. There is abundant precipitation. Temperatures and precipitation change with altitude. ALPINE LANDSCAPES Vegetation changes from one part of the mountain to another, it changes with: -altitude -sunny or shady slope -windy areas Population depend on climate.
  35. 35. Homework Exercise 2 on page 57.