1- What types of climate are there?
- It is the area between the Tropics.
- Temperatures are generally high and there is little difference in
temperatures in different seasons.
- Sunlight reaches the Earth at a perpendicular angle all year
- It is the area between the Tropics and the polar circles.
- Temperatures change because sunlight reaches the Earth at
different angles throughout the year.
- MAIN CLIMATES:
- It is the area between the polar circles and the poles.
-Sunlight strikes the Earth at an oblique angle.
- Temperatures are always very cold.
.Polar Climate (also in mountains)
Climate graphs are a combination of a bar graph and a line graph.
Temperature is shown on a line graph, with the figures being shown on the right side of the
Rainfall is shown by a bar graph, with the figures being shown down the left side of the graph.
Interpreting climate graphs
In the exam you may be asked to look at the information in a graph and describe the area's
1.Look for patterns in the temperature data:
o Is the temperature the same all year round? If it is different, how many seasons does the
o Which season is the warmest? Is it warm (10 - 20°C), hot (20 - 30°C) or very hot (above
o Which season is the coolest? Is it mild (0 -10°C), cold (-10 - 0°C) or very cold (below
o What is the range of temperature? (Subtract the minimum temperature from the
1.Look for patterns in the rainfall data
o Does the rainfall occur all year round?
o What is the pattern of the rainfall? Check which season(s) is/are drier or wetter than
o What is the total annual rainfall? Add each month's total together to get the annual total.
3. Describe the patterns in temperature and rainfall, including how they relate to each other.
You now have a description of the climate.
• Now look at the climate graph below. What can you deduce about the climate?
2- What are rainforests like?
- As its name said, it is found
near the equator.
- Temperatures are always
hot, the average is around
- There is very little variation in
- Precipitation is abundant and
regular, more than 2000 mm
A rainforest is a dense forest found in
tropical or equatorial areas of heavy
rainfall. The trees are broad-leaved and
evergreen, and the vegetation tends to
grow in three layers (undergrowth,
intermediate trees and shrubs, and very
tall trees, which form a canopy).
They have a lot of species of animals and
uninhabited because of the heat and
humidity. However some native peoples
live by hunting or gathering plants.
3- What is the savannah like?
Temperatures are always
Rainfall is abundant (5002000 mm) but not regular.
There are two seasons:
the rainy season and the
Rivers have a smaller, more
irregular flow than
Tropical savannahs are
open grasslands, usually
with scattered bushes or
trees, characteristic of
much of tropical Africa.
They are home to many
herbivores as well as
Most people live on the
coast or near the rivers.
There are small towns.
Exercise 1 on page 50.
Exercise 1 on page 51.
4- What are desert landscapes like?
There is very little precipitation.
Vegetations and animal life are
scarce because of the lack of
There are two types:
.Hot deserts are near the tropics
and temperatures varies a lot
from day to night.
.Cold deserts are in temperate
zones, and they have two
However there are species that
have adapted to dry conditions.
They are almost uninhabited, but
some nomads live in deserts.
Some towns have developed in
deserts around the oil and natural
5- What are Mediterranean landscapes like?
Mediterranean sea. However it
exists in other parts of the world.
Temperatures are very high in
summer and mild in winter.
Precipitation is not abundant and
mainly in autumn and spring,
summers are dry.
Droughts are a big problem.
Rivers have an irregular flow. It
depends on the season. Floods
are a danger.
In mediterranean forests there
are different trees, shrubs and
plants. However this landscape
has changed a lot because of
human action both inland and
on the coast.
6- What are continental landscapes like?
These are located in the temperate
zones in the Northern
1- Coniferous forests or taigas: long
winters. Coniferous trees. Very
Temperatures have a great range,
they are extreme.
2- Prairies: inland plains, in wetter
and warmer areas. Tall grass.
Most people live there.
Precipitation generally occurs in
Rivers could be frozen during
3- Steppes: dry areas, low grass.
Exercises 1 and 2 on page 58. Pay attention, number 1 is just to
help you doing number 2...
7- What are oceanic landscapes like?
They are located in the west
coasts of temperate zones.
Temperatures are mild.
Precipitation is abundant and
Rivers have a regular flow.
Vegetation is abundant and
Theses areas are densely
8- What are polar landscapes like?
They are found in both poles.
They are the coldest on Earth.
It is always cold.
It is night for six months.
There is little precipitation and
it is in the form of snow.
Their main characteristic is ice
Vegetation can’t grow, and
only a few animals live there.
Near the polar circles where it
is hotter there is the tundra
landscape, with some
vegetations and more
Human life is very difficult.
9- What are alpine landscapes like?
Located in the highest
Temperatures are very low in
winter and cool in summer.
There is abundant
precipitation change with
Vegetation changes from one
part of the mountain to
another, it changes with:
-sunny or shady slope
Population depend on climate.