1- The economic and social transformation of Europe- The Industrial Revolution began before than the French Revolution, but it lasted more time.- The Industrial Revolution involved economic and technological changes.- Great Britain was the origin.- It was a combination of big changesthat transformed the economy froman agriculture and trade basedeconomy to a industrialised economy.
There were 2 phases:1- Great Britain: changes in production process. The proletariat appeared.2- Industrial Revolution spread to Europe. The proletariat began to organise themselves.
2- The causes of the IndustrialRevolution1- Population growth: Living conditions improved in Europe. The demand of different products increased. That provided a larger workforce.
2- Agricultural improvements: It was also an Agricultural Revolution. Agricultural Production increased. New machinery. New techniques and products (fertilisers) Enclosure system.
3- Increased Trade and Communications: Great Britain dominance.Increased on international and domestic trade.Improvement of transport systems.Absence of internal duties.Profits invested on industrial development.
4- Technological progress: Invention of new machines. Prices decreased. Invention of the steam engine by Watt.
James Watt steam engineOffering a dramatic increase in fuel efficiency, the new design replaced Newcomen engines in areas where coal was expensive, and then went on to be used in the place of most natural power sources such
5- Financial support from agriculture and trade: In Great Britain that capital was invested on industrial activities. That investment was essential.
6- Favourable political and social structure: Parliamentary monarchy. The Bourgeoisie could participate in politics.
Activities time:Make all the activities on page 99 on your notebooks.
3- Key elements of industrialisation- The textile industry- Iron and steel production- Transport
The Textile industry- Technological innovations, such as: . The flying shuttle (lanzadera volante), by John Kay in 1734, which made the loom, twice as productive. It increased the width of cotton cloth and speed of production of a single weaver at a loom. . The spinning Jenny (hiladora Jenny), by James Hargreaves in 1764. It reduced the amount of work needed to produce yarn, with a worker able to work 8 or more spools at once.
. The Water frame, byRichard Arkwright in1768. It used waterwheelsto power textilemachinery (to drive anumber of spinningframes). . The power loom, byEdmund Cartwright in1784. He addressed theproblem of mechanicalweaving.
The Textile industry- Technological innovations.- New machines were located in factories.- The division of labour was established.- The textile industry was more efficient after these changes and innovations were applied.
Iron and steel production- The factories are called foundries.- New machines and innovations, such as the Bessemer converter.- Blast furnaces heatedby fuel (coke).
Bessemer processIt was the first inexpensive industrial process for the mass-production of steel from molten pig iron (crudely processed iron). The process is named after its inventor, Henry Bessemer.
Transport- Improvements to road and water transport made possible to transport large quantities of goods more quickly and more easily.- Use of steam engine in ships and trains.-Invention of the steam locomotive.- Development of the first commercial steamship.
Main causes of the industrialisation delay in Spain- 70% working population were agricultural workers with a low standard of living -> no domestic trade.- No national technological innovations.- No national investment (foreigners).- Limited coal production.- Poor communication and transport systems (due to Spains orography).
Main industries in Spain- The textile industry in Cataluña.
5 - Economic liberalism andindustrial capitalism- ECONOMIC LIBERALISM: . Free trade . Freedom of production . State should not interfere . Market economy and private property . Open competition . Ideas from Enlightenment . "Laissez faire" (let do, dejad hacer)
Adam Smith (1723-1790)- Scottish philosopher and a pioneer of political economy.- One of the key figures of Scottish Enlightenment.- Best known work: The Wealth of Nations (1776), he developed his main economic ideas in this work.- He is considered as the father of modern economics.
Adam Smith Economic Theory- Labour is the only source of wealth.- Personal/individual interest favours the interests of the community -> A businessman enriched will contribute to the wealth of the nation.- Supply and demand law rules the economic activity (Ley de la oferta y la demanda).- Governments should not intervene.- There should be free trade (librecambismo).
5 - Economic liberalism andindustrial capitalism- INDUSTRIAL CAPITALISM: . Economic liberalism ideas applied to Industry.. Industrial production was the countrys most profitable economic activity.
6 - A class-based society-Origins in the French revolution.-Peoples social status depended on their work and their personal wealth.-During the Industrial revolution the importance of the bourgeoisie changed and the proletariat or working-class appeared.
Characteristics of the class-based society- Three groups: upper class, middle class and working class.-Social classes depended on money or jobs, not family.- Society was open, they could change social class.- Citizens were equal under the law (no privileges).
The characteristics of the social classes- THE UPPER CLASS:.The nobility. Bourgeois capitalists- THE MIDDLE CLASS: . Civil servants . Small merchants and artisans . Small farmers (who own land)- THE WORKING CLASS: . The proletariat . Poor tenant farmers and agricultural labourers.
Life in the industrial city- Cities population increased during the 19th century.- New cities were developed.- Various factors to explain this growth: . Urban development: modernised urban infrastructures. . Urban expansion: cities grew in size. . New residential areas (for both, middle class, and working class).
ActivitiesExercises 15-16-17-18 on page 107 and exercises 20-21-22 on page 107.
7 - Working-class politicalmovements -These movements emerged during the 19th century in response to the terrible conditions in which the proletariat worked in factories.- In contrast, the bourgeoisie increased their wealth and improved their standard of living.
Industrial working conditions- Generally dangerous and unhealthy.- Machinery was unprotected.- Exhausting workdays with low wages.- Dismissals or fines were usual with no reasons.- There were no rights for workers.- There was no social insurance or benefits.- Children usually had to work.
The Factory Acts, 1833- They were a series of Acts passed by the Parliament of the U.K.to limit the number of hours worked by women and children first in the textile industry, then later in all industries.- The factory reform movement encouraged the passage of laws to limit the hours that could be worked in factories and mills.- The first aim was for a "ten hours bill" to limit to ten hours the working day of children.
The origins of working-class politics- Factory owners and governments did not support or listen to the working-class protests.- Despite the opposition, the working-class began to organise themselves.- Some of their developments were: . The Luddites, 1811. . Trade Unions, from the 1830s. . The Chartist movement, 1838.
The Luddites- They were hostile to new technology because they thought that machines took jobs from workers.- Their main action was to destroy machines.
Trade Unions- In the 1830s the first trade unions were founded in Great Britain.- They fought for improving working conditions and wages and also they supported their members in case of necessity.
Chartism- The Peoples Charter called for six basicreforms to make the political system moredemocratic:1. A vote for every man over the age of 21;2. A secret ballot (system of voting);3. No property qualification for members of Parliament;4. Payment for MPs (so poor men could serve);5. Constituencies of equal size;
Left-wing ideologies- In the mid-19th century two new left-wing ideologies appeared: Marxism and Anarchism.- They were the real first movements for the working class.
Marxism- It was an economic and political theory based on Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels thinking.- That ideology was developed in Marxs work: Capital.
Main Marxism ideas:- Class struggle: They neither accept class-based society nor industrial capitalism because it oppressed the working-class.- The dictatorship of the proletariat: They should finish with the bourgeoisie and seize political power, then everybody should be equal in wealth, class and power. The means of production are collective.- Communism: all the members of the society are equal in a Communist society.
Anarchism- Political theory based on Proudhon thinking, although Bakunin was the main figure.- Bakunin rejected Marxism and proposed an ideal society based on
Anarchism main ideas:- Individual freedom: no authorities or institutions, and collective means of production.- Communes: they proposed the communes like the new society organisation.- Direct action: people had to defend themselves through their own actions.
The First International (1864-1876)-It was an international organization which aimed at uniting a variety of different left- wing socialist, communist and anarchist political groups and trade unions that were based on the working class and class struggle.- It was founded in 1864 in London, and its first congress took place in 1866 in Geneva.- It lasted just until 1876 because States persecuted them.
- The objective of the IWA was to promote collective action because the problems were the same for all workers.- There was a Second International, it was founded in Paris in 1889, and their main demand was to establish the working-day in 8 hours, to do that they set the First of May as International Day of Protest.- It disappeared soon because of the disagreements between marxists and anarchists (1916).
Activities- Make the activities from 26 to 29 on page 111, and 4 and 5 on page 114.
8 - Cast-iron architecture and Realism- 19th century.- Art reflected the changes from the Industrial Revolution in society and in economy mainly.- It shows the new class-based society.
Cast iron architecture-Cast-iron plays a central role in buildings -> technological advances.- This style coincided with the Industrial Revolution era. Cast-iron was relatively cheap and modern steel had not yet been developed.- Its strength allowed architects to designed buildings with fewer supports.
The Reading Room of the National Library inParis, by Labrouste.1842-50.
The Crystal Palace in Madrid,by Velázquez Bosco. 1887.
Realism- Artistic movement in the 19th century.- They tried to reflect the working class life.- It began in France in the 1850s.- Realism believe in the ideology of objective reality.- Truth and accuracy became their goals.- It could be a reaction to Romanticism, a previous art style that exaggerated emotionalism.
Examples of Realism:Meunier, The Angelus,the Blacksmith by Millet