Unit 4 French Revolution and the Napoleonic Empire


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Unit 4 French Revolution and the Napoleonic Empire

  1. 1. UNIT 4The French Revolution and the Napoleonic Empire
  2. 2. 1- The beginning of the ModernAge-From the Ancien Régime to the new regime - > late 18th century -> beginning of the Modern Age.-Political revolution in France ->reforms -> new regime.-"Liberty, equality and fraternity"
  3. 3. 2- The causes of the FrenchRevolution-Intellectual causes -> Enlightenment-Political Causes -> Estates General crisis-Economic causes -> bankrupt-Social causes -> 3 estates were discontented for different reasons.
  4. 4. 3- Major events of the FrenchRevolution-The National Assembly. 1789-The Constituent Assembly. 1789-1791 -> Constitution -> constitutional monarchy, popular sovereignty, separation of powers and limited male suffrage.-The Legislative Assembly -> Girondins and Jacobins.
  5. 5. -The Convention -> 1793, Louis XVI was executed -> Roberspierre Republic (dictatorship, The Terror, 1793-1795)-The Directory -> 1795, five members govern-The Consulate -> 1799military coup, three consuls,Napoleon First Consul.
  6. 6. 4- From revolution to empire-1802 Napoleon First Consul for Life-December 1804 Emperor-Policy achievements: Civil Code, military victories to expand his territories.-The exception of Great Britain ->
  7. 7. - From 1812 decay of the Empire.-1813 Battle of Leipzig.- 1814 Wars in Spain and Russia.-1815 Napoleons Hundred days.-June 1815 Battle of Waterloo -> final defeat of Napoleon.
  8. 8. 5- The Consequences of the FrenchRevolution and the Napoleonic Empire-Changes in three aspects: Political Economic Social
  9. 9. 6- Spain: occupation andliberation-1788 Charles IV king of Spain.
  10. 10. 6.1. Napoleons occupation ofSpain-Weak King -> prime ministers governed-Floridablanca, Aranda, Godoy-The importance of Godoy policies-1793 coalition against France
  11. 11. -1805 Battle of Trafalgar-1807 Treaty of Fontainebleau -> french troops entered Spain-1808 Aranjuez riots -> Godoy was removed and Charles IV abdicated in his son-Bayonne -> Charles IV and Ferdinand VII
  12. 12. 6.2. The Spanish War ofIndependence-2 May 1808 the war began in Madrid
  13. 13. The War-July 1808 Battle of Bailén.-Only Cádiz resisted.-1813 French troops were defeated. Guerrilla attacks were the key.-During the war Joseph I was reigning
  14. 14. The Political revolution-Two governments coexisted during the war in Spain:-Joseph I, French government -> Bayonne Statute-Central Council (Ferdinand VII) -> elected representatives.
  15. 15. The importance of Cádiz-1810 Regency Council, a five-person Regency -> Cortes of Cádiz, a permanent government-19 March 1812 - CONSTITUTION (la Pepa) -> ideas from Enlightenment -> end of the Ancien Régime.-1814 Ferdinand VII abolished the Constitution.
  16. 16. Spanish Constitution of 1812-Constitutional monarchy-Popular sovereignty (universal indirect male suffrage)-Catholicism as the state religion-Separation of powers-Some rights and freedoms arenow guaranteed.
  17. 17. Life during the Revolution andthe Empire-Family -> Civil Code, changes-Women -> advances-Daily life -> calendar change-Technological advances
  18. 18. The Empire Style and Goya-Art during the French Revolution and the Napoleonic Empire, late 18th century and early 19th century.-Enlightenment ideas.-Neoclassicism.
  19. 19. Neoclassicism: the Empire Style-1800-1820.-Napoleons tastes.-Imperialist propaganda.-Copy Neoclassicism style.
  20. 20. Characteristics-Simple forms. A variant of Neoclassicism.-Imitation of classical forms.-Propaganda through his themes.
  21. 21. Architecture-Based on the Roman Empire.-Style of the people -> not ostentatious, but sober and evenly balanced.-Timber frames and box-like constructions.-Creators: Charles Percier and Pierre Fontaine.
  22. 22. Examples in France-Arc de Triomphe du Carrousel, Paris (1806-8) -> to commemorate Napoleons military victories of the previous year.
  23. 23. -Arc de triomphe de lEtoile, Paris -> honours those who fought and died for France in the French Revolution. It was designed by Chalgrin in 1806.
  24. 24. -Vendôme Column, Paris -> it was modelled after Trajans column to commemorate the victoy of Austerlitz.-Designed by Bergeret.
  25. 25. -La Madeleine, Paris -> it was designed as a temple to the glory of Napoleons Army.-By Vignon.
  26. 26. Sculpture-Empire Style used sculpture as a part of their overall style, it was part of the interior decoration.-It imitated the classical art (like neoclassicism).-The main figure was Canova.
  27. 27. -Paulina Bonaparte, by Canova.
  28. 28. -Napoleon as Mars the Peacemaker, by Canova, 1802-1806.
  29. 29. Painting-Historical and mythological themes.-Portraits.-Neoclassicism style.-Main examples: David, Ingres or Gérard.
  30. 30. -Bonaparte Crossing the Grand Saint-Bernard Pass, 20 May 1800-1802, by David.
  31. 31. -The coronation of Napoleon in Notre Dame, by David, 1806.
  32. 32. - Napoleon on his imperial throne, by Ingres, 1806.
  33. 33. -Bonaparte First Consul, by Gérard, 1803.
  34. 34. Cupid and Psyque, by Gérard
  35. 35. SPAIN: Francisco de Goya y Lucientes(Zaragoza 1746- Bordeaux 1828)-Early years -> At age 14 Goya studied with painter Luzán. Then he moved to Madrid, where he studied with painter Mengs.-First important works->he painted cupolasat Basilica del Pilar(Zaragoza) andother religioustheme works.
  36. 36. Court Period (1774-1808)-Cartoons for tapestries.
  37. 37. The family of Carlos IV
  38. 38. Portraits of the Royal Family and nobility Carlos III Carlos III Los duques de Osuna y sus hijos
  39. 39. La familia del Infante Don Luis
  40. 40. TheClothedMaja andthe NudeMaja
  41. 41. Religious paintings Frescoes in San Antonio de la Florida
  42. 42. Prints for etchings: The Caprices"the innumerable foibles and follies to be found in any civilized society, and from thecommon prejudices and deceitful practices which custom, ignorance, or self-interesthave made usual"
  43. 43. "The sleep of reason produces monsters".
  44. 44. The Spanish War of IndependencePeriod (1808-1820)-He was working at the court, so he never did any public declaration about his position or his ideas respect the war.-He was affected by the war and its consequences.-He made several works about this theme.
  45. 45. Historical themes, 1814
  46. 46. The Disparates, 1815-1823
  47. 47. Thetauromaquia
  48. 48. The disastersof war (1810-1820)
  49. 49. Retirement and exile (1820-1828)-After becoming deaf because of an illness, he retired from social life.-He made reflections on old age and death.-His style change again into dark colours, night scenes, etc.-He used loose brush-strokes and less- defined figures now.-In 1824 he went on exile to Bordeaux, France.
  50. 50. Black paintings, 1819-1823
  51. 51. Burgundy paintings, 1824-1828
  52. 52. Activities•22, 24, 25, 26 page 91•4, 5, 6 page 92•10, 11, 14 page 93•Page 94 (in your notebooks)