1- The world divided 1945-1975-After WWII two superpowers emerged: the USA and the USSR.-Both established their spheres of influence creating a bipolar system,and making two blocs in the world, the so-called: Western bloc (led bythe USA), and Eastern bloc (USSR).-This period is characterized by permanent tension between them, butnever war.
A third bloc-Colonies in Africa and Asia during this period demanded and gainedindependence.-These new nations formed a third bloc that was known during theCold War, as the Third World.
Two opposing blocs-Western bloc -> capitalist democracies,led by the USA, the major worldeconomy.-Eastern bloc -> Communist regimes, ledby the Soviet Union, the main Communistregime.-Meanwhile in Spain the Francodictatorship consolidated.
2- The bipolar systemTHE WESTERN BLOC-Marshall Plan (1948) (officially the European Recovery Program)was the American program to aid Europe, in which the US gave economicsupport to help rebuild European economies after the end of WWII inorder to prevent the spread of Soviet Communism.-The plan was in operation for four years beginning in April 1948. The goalsof the US were to rebuild a war-devastated region, remove tradebarriers, modernize industry, and make Europe prosperous again.-The initiative was named after Secretary of State George Marshall.- It offered the same aid to the Soviet Union and its allies, but they did notaccept it, as to do so would be to allow a degree of US control over theCommunist economies.
The Labeling used on MarshallPlan aid packages.
NATO (North Atlantic TreatyOrganization)-Also called the (North) Atlantic Alliance, is anintergovernmental military alliance based on the North AtlanticTreaty which was signed on 4 April 1949. The organizationconstitutes a system of collective defence whereby its memberstates agree to mutual defense in response to an attack by anyexternal party.-NATOs headquarters are in Brussels, one of the 28 member statesacross North America and Europe, the newest of which, Albania andCroatia, joined in April 2009. An additional 22 countries participatein NATOs "Partnership for Peace", with 15 other countries involvedin institutionalized dialogue programs. The combined militaryspending of all NATO members constitutes over 70% of the worldsdefence spending.
The Eastern Bloc-The term Eastern Bloc or Communist Bloc refers to the formercommunist states of Central and Eastern Europe, generally the SovietUnion and the countries of the Warsaw Pact.-Formation of the bloc -> When Soviet Foreign MinisterVyacheslav Molotov expressed concern that the Yalta Agreementsmight impede Stalins plans in Central Europe, Stalin responded"Never mind. Well do it our own way later." After Soviet forcesremained in Eastern and Central European countries, with thebeginnings of communist puppet regimes installed in those countries,by falsified elections, Churchill referred to the region as beingbehind an "Iron Curtain" of control from Moscow.-The Soviets rejected the Marshall Plan and took a hard lineposition against the US and non-communist European nations.
-To prevent some eastern countries to accept the Marshall Planhelp, the USSR created the Comecon in 1949, Council for MutualEconomic Assistance, an economic organization under the leadershipof the Soviet Union that comprised the countries of the Eastern Blocalong with a number of socialist states elsewhere in the world. TheComecon was the Eastern Blocs reply to the formation of theOrganization for European Economic Co-operation in non-communistEurope.-Comecon provided a mechanism through which its leadingmember, the Soviet Union, sought to promote economic links with andamong its closest political and military allies. The East Europeanmembers of Comecon were also militarily allied with the Soviet Unionin the Warsaw Pact.Economy
Warsaw Pact-The Warsaw Treaty Organization of Friendship,Cooperation, and Mutual Assistance (1955–1991), more commonlyreferred to as the Warsaw Pact, was a mutual defense treatybetween eight communist states of Central and Eastern Europe inexistence during the Cold War. The founding treaty was establishedunder the initiative of the Soviet Union and signed on 14 May 1955,in Warsaw. The Warsaw Pact was the military complement to theComecon.-The Warsaw Pact was in part a Soviet military reaction to theintegration of West Germany into NATO in 1955.-The strategy of the Warsaw Pact was dominated by the desireof the Soviet Union to prevent, at all costs, the recurrence ofanother large scale invasion of its territory by perceived hostileWestern Bloc powers.
China and the Eastern Bloc-In China, the Peoples Republic ofChina was established by Mao Zedong in1949. It was a Communist State or regimeknown as Maoism.-Although it was a Communist state,it did not join the Eastern Bloc because ofdifficult relations with the USSR.-They signed a treaty of friendship fora period, but soon Mao abandoned it dueto the beginning of conversations betweenthe USSR and the USA. Mao thought theUSSR was betraying the principles of theirideology.
Dissidence in the USSR-Hungarian Revolution, 1956 - spontaneous nationwide revoltagainst the government of the Peoples Republic of Hungary and its Soviet-imposed policies, lasting from 23 October until 10 November. It was thefirst major threat to Soviet control since the USSRs forces drove out theNazis at the end of WWII and occupied Eastern Europe. Despite the failureof the uprising, it was highly influential, and came to play a role in thedownfall of the Soviet Union decades later.-Prague Spring, 1968 - period of liberalization in Czechoslovakiaduring the era of its domination by the USSR after WWII. It began onJanuary 1968, when reformist A. Dubček was elected the First Secretaryof Communist Party of Czechoslovakia, and continued until 21 Augustwhen the Soviet Union and all members of the Warsaw Pact, with thenotable exception of Romania, invaded the country to halt the reforms.
3- The Cold War-The Cold war was a sustained state of political and militarytension between powers in the Western Bloc, dominated by the USwith NATO among its allies, and powers in the Eastern Bloc,dominated by the Soviet Union along with the Warsaw Pact.3.1. Initial conflicts 1948-1962-1948 Berlin blockade - it was one of the first majorinternational crisis of the Cold War. During the multinationaloccupation of post–WWII Germany, the Soviet Union blocked theWestern Allies railway, road, and canal access to the sectors ofBerlin under Allied control. Their aim was to force the westernpowers to allow the Soviet zone to start supplying Berlin with food,fuel, and aid, thereby giving the Soviets practical control over theentire city.
1948 Berlin blockade-In response, the Western Allies organized the Berlin airlift tocarry supplies to the people in West Berlin. Aircrews from the US AirForce, the British Royal Air Force, the Royal Australian Air Force, theRoyal Canadian Air Force, the Royal New Zealand Air Force, and theSouth African Air Force flew over 200,000 flights in one year,providing up to 4700 tons of daily necessities such as fuel and foodto the Berliners.-By the spring of 1949, the effort was clearly succeeding and, byApril, the airlift was delivering more cargo than had previously beentransported into the city by rail. The success of the Berlin Airliftbrought embarrassment to the Soviets who had refused to believe itcould make a difference. The blockade was lifted in May 1949 andresulted in the creation of two separate German states.
Berlin Wall-The Berlin Wall was a barrier constructed by the GermanDemocratic Republic starting on August 1961, that completely cutoff (by land) West Berlin from surrounding East Germany and fromEast Berlin. The barrier included guard towers placed along largeconcrete walls, which circumscribed a wide area (later known asthe "death strip") that contained anti-vehicle trenches, "fakir beds"and other defenses.-The Eastern Bloc claimed that the wall was erected to protect itspopulation from fascist elements conspiring to prevent the "will ofthe people" in building a socialist state in East Germany. In practice,the Wall served to prevent the massive emigration and defectionthat marked Germany and the communist Eastern Bloc during thepost-World War II period.
Immediate effects-With the closing of the East-West sector boundary in Berlin,the vast majority of East Germans could no longer travel oremigrate to West Germany.-Many families were split, while East Berliners employed in theWest were cut off from their jobs.-West Berlin became an isolated exclave in a hostile land. WestBerliners demonstrated against the wall, led by their Mayor WillyBrandt, who strongly criticized the US for failing to respond.-The East German government claimed that the Wall was an"anti-fascist protective rampart" intended to dissuade aggressionfrom the West.
Defection attempts-During the years of the Wall, around5,000 people successfully defected to WestBerlin.-The number of people who died tryingto cross the wall, or as a result of the wallsexistence, has been disputed. The mostvocal claims by Alexandra Hildebrandt,Director of the Checkpoint Charlie Museumand widow of the Museums founder,estimated the death toll to be well above200. A historic research group at the Centerfor Contemporary Historical Research inPotsdam has confirmed 136 deaths. Priorofficial figures listed 98 as being killed.
DemolitionThe date on which the Wallfell is considered to have been 9November 1989 but the Wall in itsentirety was not torn downimmediately. Starting that eveningand in the days and weeks thatfollowed, people came to the wallwith sledgehammers or otherwisehammers and chisels to chip offsouvenirs, demolishing lengthyparts of it in the process andcreating several unofficial bordercrossings. These people werenicknamed "Mauerspechte" (wallwoodpeckers).
The Korean War, 1950-1953-It was a war between the Republic of Korea (South Korea),supported by the United Nations, and the Democratic PeoplesRepublic of Korea (North Korea), at one time supported by thePeoples Republic of China and the Soviet Union.-It was primarily the result of the political division of Korea by anagreement of the victorious Allies at the conclusion of the PacificWar at the end of WWII. The Korean Peninsula was ruled by theEmpire of Japan from 1910 until the end of WWII. Following thesurrender of the Empire of Japan in September 1945, Americanadministrators divided the peninsula along the 38th parallel, withU.S. military forces occupying the southern half and Soviet militaryforces occupying the northern half.
-The failure to hold free elections throughout the KoreanPeninsula in 1948 deepened the division between the two sides;the North established a communist government, while the Southestablished a right-wing government.-The 38th parallel increasingly became a political borderbetween the two Korean states.-Although reunification negotiations continued in the monthspreceding the war, tension intensified. Cross-border skirmishesand raids at the 38th Parallel persisted. The situation escalatedinto open warfare when North Korean forces invaded South Koreaon 25 June 1950.
-In 1950, the Soviet Union boycotted the UN Security Council, inprotest at representation of China by the Republic of China government,which had taken refuge in Taiwan following defeat in the Chinese CivilWar.-In the absence of a dissenting voice from the Soviet Union, whocould have vetoed it, the US and other countries passed a SecurityCouncil resolution authorizing military intervention in Korea.-The USA provided 88% of the international soldiers which aided SouthKorea in repelling the invasion, with 20 other countries of the UN helping.- The fighting ended on 27 July 1953, when the armistice agreementwas signed, restoring the border between the Koreas near the 38thParallel and creating the Korean Demilitarized Zone (DMZ), a 4.0 km-widefortified buffer zone between the two Korean nations. Incidents stillcontinue today.
Suez crisis 1956-The Suez Crisis was a diplomatic and military confrontation inlate 1956 between Egypt on one side, and Britain, France and Israel onthe other, with the US, the Soviet Union, and the United Nations playingmajor roles in forcing Britain, France and Israel to withdraw.-The attack followed the President of Egypt Nassers decision ofJuly 1956 to nationalize the Suez Canal, after the withdrawal of anoffer by Britain and the US to fund the building of the Aswan Dam,which was in response to Egypts new ties with the Soviet Union andrecognizing the Peoples Republic of China.-The aims of the attack were primarily to regain Western control of thecanal and to remove Nasser from power, and the crisis highlighted thedanger that Arab nationalism posed to Western access to Middle Eastoil.
The 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis-The Cuban Missile Crisis was a 13-day confrontation between theSoviet Union and Cuba on one side, and the US on the other, in October1962. It was one of the major confrontations of the Cold War, and isgenerally regarded as the moment in which the Cold War came closestto turning into a nuclear conflict.-After provocative political moves and the failed US attempt tooverthrow the Cuban regime, in May 1962 Khrushchev proposed theidea of placing Soviet nuclear missiles on Cuba to discourage anyfuture invasion attempt. During a meeting between Khrushchev andFidel Castro, a secret agreement was reached and construction ofseveral missile sites began in the late summer.-Such a move would also neutralize the USs advantage of havingmissiles in Turkey.
-These preparations were noticed and on October, a US U-2 aircrafttook several pictures clearly showing sites for medium-range andintermediate-range ballistic nuclear missiles under construction. Theseimages were processed and presented on October 15, which marks thebeginning of the 13-day crisis from the US perspective.-The US considered attacking Cuba via air and sea, but decidedon a military blockade instead, for legal and other reasons.-On the Soviet side, Khrushchev wrote in a letter from October 24to President Kennedy that his blockade constituted "an act ofaggression propelling humankind into the abyss of a world nuclear-missile war". However, in secret back-channel communications thePresident and Premier initiated a proposal to resolve the crisis.
-The confrontation ended on October 28, when Kennedy and UNSecretary-General reached an agreement with Khrushchev. Publicly, theSoviets would dismantle their offensive weapons in Cuba and return themto the Soviet Union, subject to UN verification, in exchange for a USpublic declaration and agreement never to invade Cuba.
3.2. Peaceful coexistence 1963-1975-Peaceful coexistence was a theory developed and applied bythe Soviet Union at various points during the Cold War in thecontext of its ostensibly Marxist–Leninist foreign policy and wasadopted by Soviet-influenced "Socialist states" that they couldpeacefully coexist with the capitalist bloc.-This was in contrast to the antagonistic contradiction principlethat Communism and capitalism could never coexist in peace. TheSoviet Union applied it to relations between the western world andin particular, the United States and NATO countries and the nationsof the Warsaw Pact.
The Vietnam War 1961-1975-It was a Cold War-era military conflict that occurred in Vietnam,Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30April 1975. The Viet Cong (also known as the National LiberationFront), a lightly armed South Vietnamese communist common frontdirected by the North, largely fought a guerrilla war against anti-communist forces in the region. The Vietnam Peoples Army (NorthVietnam) engaged in a more conventional war, at times committinglarge units into battle. U.S. and South Vietnamese forces relied on airsuperiority and overwhelming firepower to conduct search anddestroy operations, involving ground forces, artillery, and airstrikes.-The US government viewed involvement in the war as a way toprevent a communist takeover of South Vietnam as part of their widerstrategy of containment.
-US military involvement ended on 15 August 1973 as a result ofthe Case–Church Amendment passed by the US Congress. The captureof Saigon by the Vietnam Peoples Army in April 1975 marked the endof the war, and North and South Vietnam were reunified the followingyear.-The war exacted a huge human cost in terms of fatalities.Estimates of the number of Vietnamese service members and civilianskilled vary from 800,000 to 3.1 million. Some 200,000–300,000Cambodians, 20,000–200,000 Laotians, and 58,220 US servicemembers also died in the conflict.
The Arab-Israeli conflict-The Arab–Israeli conflict refers to the political tension and militaryconflicts between the Arab League and Israel and between Arabs andIsraelis. The conflict between Palestinian Jews and Arabs emerged inthe early 20th century during the 1920 Nebi Musa riots, explodinginto a full scale civil war in 1947 and expanding to all Arab Leaguecountries with the creation of the modern State of Israel in May1948.-The conflict, which started as a political and nationalist conflictover competing territorial ambitions following the collapse of theOttoman Empire, has shifted over the years from the large scaleregional Arab–Israeli conflict to a more local Israeli–Palestinianconflict, as large-scale hostilities largely ended with the cease fire,following the 1973 October War.
4- Decolonisation and non-alignment4.1. DECOLONISATION-Decolonization is the undoing of colonialism, the unequalrelation of polities whereby one people or nation establishes andmaintains dependent Territory over another. It can be understoodpolitically or culturally. The term refers particularly to thedismantlement, in the years after WWII, of the Neo-Imperialempires established prior to World War I throughout Africa and Asia.-The UN Special Committee on Decolonization has stated thatin the process of decolonization there is no alternative to thecolonizers allowance of self-determination, but in practicedecolonization may involve either nonviolent revolution or nationalliberation wars by the native population. It may be intramural orinvolve the intervention of foreign powers.
India - Mahatma Gandhi-Gandhi was the preeminent leader of Indiannationalism in British-ruled India. Employing non-violent civil disobedience, Gandhi led India toindependence and inspired movements for non-violence, civil rights and freedom across theworld.-In his last year, unhappy at the partition ofIndia, Gandhi worked to stop the carnagebetween Muslims, Hindus and Sikhs that raged inthe border area between India and Pakistan. Hewas assassinated on 30 January 1948 by NathuramGodse who thought Gandhi was too sympatheticto Indias Muslims.
Indonesian independence-The Proclamation of Indonesian Independence was read on August17, 1945. The declaration marked the start of the diplomatic and armed-resistance of the Indonesian National Revolution, fighting against theforces of the Netherlands until the latter officially acknowledgedIndonesias independence in 1949. The document was signed by Sukarnowho was appointed President the following day.Sukarno, accompaniedby Mohammad Hatta(right), proclaiming theindependence ofIndonesia.
Algerian independence-The Algerian War, also known as the Algerian War ofIndependence, was a war between France and the Algerianindependence movements from 1954 to 1962, which led to Algeriagaining its independence from France.-An important decolonization war, it was a complex conflictcharacterized by guerrilla warfare, maquis fighting, terrorism againstcivilians, the use of torture on both sides, and counter-terrorismoperations by the French Army.-The conflict was also a civil war between loyalist Algerians whobelieved in a French Algeria and their insurrectionist Algerian Muslimcounterparts.
4.2. The Non-Aligned Movement-The Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) is a group of states which arenot aligned formally with or against any major power bloc. As of2012, the movement has 120 members and 17 observer countries.-The organization was founded in Belgrade in 1961, and waslargely conceived by Yugoslavias president, Tito; Indonesias firstpresident, Sukarno; Egypts second president, Nasser; Ghanas firstpresident Nkrumah; and Indias first prime minister, Nehru. All fiveleaders were prominent advocates of a middle course for states inthe Developing World between the Western and Eastern blocs in theCold War.-The phrase itself was first used to represent the doctrine byIndian diplomat and statesman V.K. Krishna Menon in 1953, at theUnited Nations.
Third World-The term Third World aroseduring the Cold War to definecountries that remained non-alignedwith either NATO, or the CommunistBloc.-This terminology provided a wayof broadly categorizing the nations ofthe Earth into three groups based onsocial, political, and economicdivisions. The Third World wasnormally seen to include manycountries in Africa, Latin America, andAsia, which had a colonial past. It wasalso sometimes taken as synonymouswith countries in the Non-AlignedMovement.
Third World problems-Some of the political, economic and social problems that thesecountries had, are the product of either, imperialism, and thedecolonization process.-These problems include:.wars between ethnic or religious groups which wereseparated when the borders of new independent nations wereestablished..poverty caused by these countries dependence on sellingraw materials to developed countries.
5- Post-war society-WESTERN SOCIETY.Social inequalities..Improvement on living standards..Establishment of the welfare state..Growth of the middle class..Consumerism..Protest movements during the 1960s: in the US a movementagainst the racial segregation (led by Martin Luther King), and thehippy movement, and in France, student protests against thegovernment.
Civil Rights. M. Luther King-Martin Luther King, Jr. was anAmerican clergyman, activist, andleader in the African-American CivilRights Movement. He is best known forhis role in the advancement of civilrights using nonviolent civildisobedience. King has become anational icon in the history of Americanprogressivism.-King also helped to organize the1963 March on Washington, where hedelivered his "I Have a Dream" speech.
Civil Rights Act of 1964-The Civil Rights Act of 1964 is a landmark piece of civil rightslegislation in the United States that outlawed major forms ofdiscrimination against racial, ethnic, national and religiousminorities, and women. It ended unequal application of voterregistration requirements and racial segregation in schools, at theworkplace and by facilities that served the general public (knownas "public accommodations").-Powers given to enforce the act were initially weak, but weresupplemented during later years.-The Act was signed into law by President Lyndon B. Johnson,who would later sign the landmark Voting Rights Act into law.
Hippy movement-The hippie subculture developedas a youth movement that began inthe US during the early 1960s andspread around the world.-From around 1967, itsfundamental ethos — includingharmony with nature, communalliving, artistic experimentationparticularly in music, and thewidespread use of recreational drugs— spread around the world.-They made protests against thewar.
May 1968 events in France-It was a volatile period of civil unrest punctuated by massive generalstrikes and the occupation of factories and universities across France.-It was the largest general strike ever attempted in France, and thefirst ever nation-wide wildcat general strike. At the height of its fervor,the agitation virtually brought the entire advanced capitalist economy ofFrance to a dramatic halt.-The events would have a resounding impact on French society thatwould be felt for decades to come.-The events began with a series of student occupation protests,followed by strikes involving 11,000,000 workers, over 22% of the totalpopulation of France at the time, for two continuous weeks, and itsimpact was such that it almost caused the collapse of French PresidentCharles de Gaulles government.
Eastern-Bloc society-Society was supposed to be classless.-Services were provided by the State.-Economy was controlled and planned by the State.-Industry was focused on heavy industry.-Citizens were not free.-SOVIET UNION: Stalinism features had transformed daily life.-CHINA: Chinese communism changed also the peoples lives.-In both, there were not private property, collectivisation wasapplied.
6- The post-war economy6.1. The Western-Bloc economy-Several factors made possible the economic growthduring the period between 1945-1975:.European reconstruction, helped by the Marshall Plan.Europe after the recovery became an important market forAmerican goods..State intervention to improve public services..New technology influenced in the growth of industry.
The European EconomicCommunity (EEC)-The EEC was an international organization created by the Treaty ofRome of 1957.-Its aim was to bring about economic integration, including acommon market, among its six founding members: Belgium, France, Italy,Luxembourg, the Netherlands and West Germany.-The EEC was also known as the Common Market in the English-speaking world and sometimes referred to as the European Communityeven before it was officially renamed as such in 1993.-Two previous institutions established the foundations of the EEC:.Benelux: Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg created in 1948the Benelux Customs Union..ECSC: in 1951 the European Coal and Steel Community was created.
European Atomic EnergyCommunity (EAEC or Euratom)-It is an international organisation founded in 1958 withthe purpose of creating a specialist market for nuclear powerin Europe, developing nuclear energy and distributing it to itsmember states while selling the surplus to non-memberstates.-It was established by the Euratom Treaty on 25 March1957 alongside the EEC, being taken over by the executiveinstitutions of the EEC in 1967. The Common Assemblyproposed extending the powers of the European Coal andSteel Community to cover other sources of energy, but theywanted a separate community to cover nuclear power.
First EEC enlargement-After much negotiation, and following a change in the FrenchPresidency, Denmark, Ireland and the UK eventually joined the EEC on 1January 1973.
6.2. The Eastern-Bloc and Chineseeconomies-The Stalinist planned economy-Main goal: to promote heavy industry, infrastructure andarms production.-Measures to achieve its aim:.Hydroelectric plants to provide energy..Agricultural land collectivisation.-In Eastern-Bloc countries changes were also made:nationalization of agricultural estates, industry, banks andtelecommunications.-The USSR became the worlds second leading economy afterreducing centralised planning with Stalins successors.
COMECONThe Council for MutualEconomic Assistance, 1949–91, was an economicorganization under theleadership of the SovietUnion that comprised thecountries of the Eastern Blocalong with a number ofsocialist states elsewhere inthe world. The Comeconwas the Eastern Blocs replyto the formation of theOrganization for EuropeanEconomic Co-operation innon-communist Europe.
The Chinese planned economy-The Great Leap Forward-The Great Leap Forward of the Peoples Republic of China wasan economic and social campaign by the Communist Party from1958 to 1961. It was led by Mao Zedong and aimed to rapidlytransform the country from an agrarian economy into a communistsociety through rapid industrialization and collectivization. Thecampaign led to the Great Chinese Famine.-Chief changes in the lives of rural Chinese included theintroduction of a mandatory process of agricultural collectivization,which was introduced incrementally. Private farming wasprohibited, and those engaged in it were labeled as counterrevolutionaries and persecuted.
ActivitiesExercises 14, 15 and 16 on page 239.
7- Francoist regimeFrancoist Spain, also known as Fascist Spain,refers to the period of Spanish history between1936 and 1975 when the authoritarian dictatorship of FranciscoFranco, Caudillo por gracia de Dios, took control of Spain from thegovernment of the constitutionally liberal democratic SecondSpanish Republic in the Spanish Civil War.
Domestic policyFrancos regime could be divided into two periods,in the first one, known as Totalitarian Spain, we were almostisolated internationally, and the main measures introduced were:-Franco concentrated all the power, with the support of the onlyofficial party: Falange Española de las JONS.-The Constitution of 1931 was replaced by a set of constitutionallaws dictated by Franco, they were known as the Fundamental Lawsof the Realm.-Power was centralised and regionalism was suppressed. The useof other languages was prohibited.
The second part of his regime wasknown as Technocrat Spain, it began in1959 and it was characterised by theobjective of modernising the country.In order to achieve that,government became more technocratic,and Franco appointed a number oftechnical specialists as ministers.In 1969 Franco designated JuanCarlos (Bourbon House) as his successor,and change some laws in order to modifythe regimes authoritarian image.
Foreign policyDuring the first period Spain wasisolated because the UN had imposedan embargo for being a dictatorship.From the end of this period Francobegan to open the regime and toestablish new relations.He made a military agreement with theUSA in 1953.He made a Concordat with the CatholicChurch head, the Vatican, in 1953 aswell.Spain also became a UN member in1955.
Concordat of 1953The Concordat of 1953 was the last classic concordatof the Roman Catholic Church. Concluded by Spain(under the regime of Francisco Franco) with the Vatican,and together with the Pact of Madrid, signed the same year, itwas a significant effort to break Spains international isolation afterWWII .In return for the granting by the Vatican of the "royal patronage"(Patronato real, the privilege of Spanish kings to appoint clericalfigures) to Franco, the concordat gave the Church a set ofprivileges, e.g. state funding and exemption from governmenttaxation.The Concordat of 1953 superseded the Concordat of 1851 andFrancos 1941 Convention with the Vatican.
Pact of Madrid-The Pact of Madrid, signed in 1953 by Spain and the UnitedStates, ended a period of virtual isolation for Spain, although theother victorious allies of WWII and much of the rest of the worldremained hostile to what they regarded as a fascist regimesympathetic to the Nazi cause and established with Axis assistance.-The 1953 accord took the form of three separate executiveagreements that pledged the United States to furnish economic andmilitary aid to Spain.-The United States, in turn, was to be permitted to constructand to utilize air and naval bases on Spanish territory.
7.2. The economy under Franco-During the first period of the regime, Spain suffered an economiccrisis due to the embargo imposed by the UN. As a result Spaindeveloped a self-sufficient economy that led to economicstagnation and stopped industrial development.-Spain tried to achieve economic development through autarky.-Once more the rationing system and the black market appeared.-During the second phase of the regime, Spain began to change itseconomy with the new technocratic government because theyconsidered the autarky a failure.-New industrial zones were created and foreign currency began toarrive (mainly from spanish emigrants who sent money home andfrom tourism).
Economical advances-Spain joined the main international organizations (IMF, W, OECD)-Plan de Estabilización, 1959.-Planes de Desarrollo, 1964.-Arrival of massive tourism.-Foreign investments.-Emigration to Europe and America.All of them led Spain to the end of a rural and agriculturaleconomy and transformed it into an industrial economy quickly.
7.3. Society under Franco-Indoctrination: to promote traditional ideas. This was carriedout by organizations like the Sección Femenina or the Frente deJuventudes or by the NO-DO.-Non-government trade unions and all political opponentsacross the political spectrum were either suppressed or controlledby all means, including police repression.-The Confederación Nacional del Trabajo (CNT) and the UniónGeneral de Trabajadores (UGT) trade unions were outlawed, andreplaced in 1940 by the corporatist Sindicato Vertical, the onlylegal trade union organisation in Francoist Spain (1940–1975), and amain component of the Movimiento Nacional Francoist apparatus.
Religion under Franco-Franco was a very conservative Roman Catholic.-The Law of Political Responsibility of February 1939 gave the Churchthe chance to become an extralegal body of investigation with eachparish in charge of policing its parishioners at the same level as thelocal government officials and local leaders of the falange. Someofficial jobs required a "good behavior" statement by a priest.-The law of 1939 made the priests, in communion with governmentofficials, investigators of peoples ideological and political pasts.Catholicism was made the official religion of the Spanish State,which enforced Catholic traditional values. The remaining nomads ofSpain (Gitanos and Mercheros) were especially affected.
8- Art and architecture during the Cold War8.1. Western-Bloc art and architecture-ORGANIC ARCHITECTUREOrganic architecture is a philosophy of architecture whichpromotes harmony between human habitation and the naturalworld through design approaches so sympathetic and wellintegrated with its site, that buildings, furnishings, andsurroundings become part of a unified, interrelated composition.The term organic architecture was coined by Frank LloydWright (1867–1959), main figure in this movement.The idea of organic architecture refers not only to thebuildings literal relationship to the natural surroundings, but howthe buildings design is carefully thought about as if it were aunified organism.
Frank Lloyd WrightAmerican architect, interiordesigner, writer and educator,who designed more than 1,000structures and completed 532works. Wright believed indesigning structures which werein harmony with humanity andits environment, a philosophyhe called organic architecture.It was best exemplified by hisdesign for Fallingwater (1935),which has been called "the bestall-time work of Americanarchitecture".
Pop ArtPop art is an art movement that emerged in the mid-1950s inBritain and in the late 1950s in the US. Pop art presented achallenge to traditions of fine art by including imagery frompopular culture such as advertising, news, etc.In Pop art, material is sometimes visually removed from itsknown context, isolated, and/or combined with unrelatedmaterial. The concept of pop art refers not as much to the artitself as to the attitudes that led to it.Pop art employs aspects of mass culture, such as advertising,comic books and mundane cultural objects. It is widelyinterpreted as a reaction to the then-dominant ideas of abstractexpressionism, as well as an expansion upon them.
Andy WarholAndy Warhol was an American artist who was a leading figurein the visual art movement known as pop art. His works explorethe relationship between artistic expression, celebrity culture andadvertisement that flourished by the 1960s.After a successful career as a commercial illustrator, Warholbecame a renowned and sometimes controversial artist.Warhols art encompassed many forms of media, including handdrawing, painting, printmaking, photography, silk screening,sculpture, film, and music. He was also a pioneer in computer-generated art using Amiga computers that were introduced in1984, two years before his death.
Kinetic SculptureKinetic art is art from any medium thatcontains movement perceivable by the viewer ordepends on motion for its effect.More pertinently speaking, kinetic art is aterm that today most often refers to three-dimensional sculptures and figures such asmobiles that move naturally or are machineoperated. The moving parts are generallypowered by wind, a motor or the observer. Kineticart encompasses a wide variety of overlappingtechniques and styles.Alexander Calder is an artist who manybelieve to have defined firmly and exactly thestyle of mobiles in kinetic art.
8.2. Official art in Communist regimesThe Communist regimes did not allow artistic freedom, so manyartists went into exile.Communist states used an official art as a form of propaganda. Theywere works to glorify the leader and his regime.The main characteristics of official art and architecture were:.Architecture: monumental buildings were designed to hostnational institutions..Sculpture: large commemorative sculptures were created..Painting: Socialist Realism in China or Soviet Realism in the USSRwere the new styles that idealised the lives of workers andpeasants under Communist regimes, or presented glorified imagesof the leaders.
"Spring day" by Nikolai PozdneevA relief from the Soviet militarycemetery in Warsaw showing workersgreeting victorious soldiers.
ActivitiesExercises 2 and 5 on page 244.Exercise Unit Summary on page 246.