DBR6juin2008 Final


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DBR6juin2008 Final

  1. 1. J. Bourdeau, R. Rosenberg, M. Maina, I. Savard LICEF Research Center Tele-University, Montreal June 6th, 2008
  2. 2. 1- Qu’est-ce que DBR? 2- Historique 3- Un tour guidé de DBR 4-Trois types, trois projets Conclusion Invitation
  3. 3. DBR aims at developing empirically grounded theories through combined study of both the process of learning and the means that support that process. (diSessa, Cobb, 2004). 3 caractéristiques principales: 1) Le but est double: comprendre les phénomènes étudiés, et ajuster le design (interventionniste) 2) Le protocole et le design peuvent être modifiés en cours d’expérimentation (souple) 3) Un protocole DBR peut réunir des méthodes et techniques quantitatives et qualitatives (ouvert)
  4. 4. Conducting research in authentic, natural educational contexts, rather than laboratories. (O’Donnell, 2004, A Commentary on Design Research.” Educational Psychologist, v39 n4 p255-260.) The desire for research to have a practical impact, by having clear relevance for the improvement of education- (utility). (Bell, 2004). “On the Theoretical Breadth of Design-Based Research in Education.” Educational Psychologist, v39 n4 p243-253. An insistence on theory-guided educational intervention: ‘interventions embody specific theoretical claims about teaching and learning’ (The DBR Collective, 2003). A pluralist approach with respect to theories, research designs, methods, and procedures - includes mixed methods-hybrid where qualitative and quantitative techniques are used in combination (Bell, 2004) The use of an iterative design and evaluation cycle: interventions are adjusted as the research proceeds ( Dede, 2004. “If Design-Based Research is the Answer, What is the Question? Journal of the Learning Sciences, v13 n1 p105-114. A focus on how the intervention worked. (DBR collective, 6)
  5. 5. DBR est une méthodologie systématique et flexible dans le but d’améliorer la pratique éducative par des analyses itératives, du design, du développement et de l’implantation dans un contexte réel pour établir des principes et des propositions théoriques (Wang and Hannafin, 2005,p. 6)
  6. 6. Ann Brown, 1992, Design Experiments Alan Collins, 1992, A Design Science of Education AERA 1998, presentation: Using Science and Design Experiments to Understand Innovative Uses of Technology in Classrooms DBR Collective, 2001 Educational Researcher Special Issue 2003 ◦ DBR Collective’s Manifesto: Design-Based Research: An Emerging Paradigm for Educational Inquiry Collins & al: Design Research: Theoretical and Methodological Issues DiSessa’s video presentation at Kal’s VDS on DBR, 2006 Tom Reeves’ Tutorial ED-MEDIA 2007
  7. 7. DBR et le design: Explore, Explain, Design (Gibbons & Bunderson ) et Designerly ways of knowing (Cross) Marcelo DBR et la théorie, Rivki DBR et les méthod(es)ologies: Jacqueline DBR: les cycles/étapes, et l’alignement, Isabelle
  8. 8. Gibbons, A. & Bunderson C. (2005). Explore, explain, design. In K. Kempf-Leonard (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Social Measurement (927-938). New York: Elsevier Cross, N. ◦ (2001). Designerly Ways of Knowing: Design Discipline versus Design Science, Design Issues 17(3), 49-55 ◦ (2006). Designerly ways of knowing. In Designerly ways of knowing (pp. 1-13). London: Springer (first published in 1982, Design Studies 3(4), 221-227
  9. 9. Gibbons & Bunderson quot;Designquot; is a term that describes intentional structuring of artifacts and intervention plans to bring about predictable outcomes. Design is both 1) a subject of research and 2) a method of research and knowledge production.
  10. 10. Gibbons & Bunderson Knowledge-producing processes natural history science design technology Type of natural phenomena are seek to discover and seek to learn principles knowledge questions observed, described, describe for connecting human producing they measured, and authoritatively the intentions with the form studies and address collected to amass a single best coherent and function of human experiments into (1) body of facts and description of the made artifacts the act of designing, identify patterns and nature of the attempts to discover (2) the design trends underlying efficient structuring processes and Questions seek the operations that lead principles and processes generative principles growth of collections to observed that will produce a for design, and (3) based on the patterns phenomena variety of solutions to a study of the and trends in order to problem, from which the structural properties support or question most suitable may be of designed things. new models and selected on the basis of hypotheses problem-specific criteria type of Exploratory Explanatory Normative (MM) Normative (MM) knowledge they produce
  11. 11. Gibbons & Bunderson concept designates three synergistically related knowledge- producing enterprises. knowledge-producing enterprises are necessary conditions for each other, each producing results that become mutually and self-inputting, providing a continuous stream of research questions in all three areas. enterprises are discriminated on the basis of the kinds of questions they address and the types of knowledge they produce, but not definitively on the research techniques employed.
  12. 12. Gibbons & Bunderson Seek two kinds of theoretical knowledge ◦ a descriptive explanation of the processes operative in a domain (e.g. in education: descriptive progression of learning or growth) , and ◦ technological or design knowledge about how to create and implement the tools-both measurement instruments and the treatment control technologies. Are attempts to discover ◦ new artifact- and intervention-related principles ◦ or to improve the effectiveness of existing artifacts or intervention plans. Take place in live settings, and are iterative, cyclical applications of a process of principled design, implementation, evaluation, and redesign. Often aid in exploring a domain and possible treatments, and thus may be largely qualitative producing narrative accounts of intense, iterative, often ideographic observations over each cycle.
  13. 13. Nigel Cross phenomenon of study appropriate methods values sciences the natural world controlled experiment, objectivity, rationality, classification, analysis neutrality, and a concern for ‘truth’ humanities human experience analogy, metaphor, subjectivity, imagination, evaluation commitment, and a concern for ‘justice’ design the artificial world modeling, pattern- practicality, ingenuity, formation, synthesis empathy, and a concern for 'appropriateness' Technology involves a synthesis of knowledge and skills from both the sciences and the humanities, in the pursuit of practical tasks; it is not simply 'applied science', but 'the application of scientific and other organised knowledge to practical tasks ... ' (Cross, et al., 1981).
  14. 14. Nigel Cross Problem Ill-defined, ill-structured, or 'wicked' (Rittel and Webber, 1973). Not problems for which all the necessary information is, or ever can be, available to the problem-solver. Not susceptible to exhaustive analysis, and there can never be a guarantee that 'correct' solutions can be found for them. Solution A solution-focused strategy is clearly preferable to a problem- focused one: it will always be possible to go on analyzing 'the problem', but the designer's task is to produce 'the solution'. It is only in terms of a conjectured solution that the problem can be contained within manageable bounds (Hillier and Leaman; 1974): ◦ What designers tend to do, therefore, is to seek, or impose a 'primary generator' (Darke, 1979) which both defines the limits of the problem and suggests the nature of its possible solution.
  15. 15. Nigel Cross The scientific method is a pattern of problem-solving behaviour employed in finding out the nature of what exists, whereas the design method is a pattern of behaviour employed in inventing things of value which do not yet exist. Science is analytic; design is constructive. (Gregory, 1966) The natural sciences are concerned with how things are ... Design, on the other hand, is concerned with how things ought to be. (Simon, 1969) To base design theory on inappropriate paradigms of logic and science is to make a bad mistake. Logic has interests in abstract forms. Science investigates extant forms. Design initiates novel forms. (March, 1976)
  16. 16. Nigel Cross Donald Schön challenged the positivist doctrine underlying much of the “design science” movement, and offered instead a constructivist paradigm. He criticized Simon’s view of a “science of design” for being based on approaches to solving well-formed problems, whereas professional practice throughout design and technology and elsewhere has to face and deal with “messy, problematic situations.” Schön proposed, instead, to search for “an epistemology of practice implicit in the artistic, intuitive processes which some practitioners do bring to situations of uncertainty, instability, uniqueness, and value conflict,” and which he characterized as “reflective practice.”
  17. 17. Nigel Cross Despite the positivist, technical-rationality basis of The Sciences of the Artificial, Simon did propose that “the science of design” could form a fundamental, common ground of intellectual endeavor and communication across the arts, sciences, and technology. Design as a discipline, therefore, can mean design studied on its own terms, and within its own rigorous culture. It can mean a science of design based on the reflective practice of design: design as a discipline, but not design as a science. This discipline seeks to develop domain-independent approaches to theory and research in design.
  18. 18. Theory building is a must! (diSessa, Cobb, 2004) ◦ We must develop theoretical constructs that empower us to see order, pattern, and regularity in the complex settings in which we conduct DE. Theory building is integral to the work of advancing knowledge building within a domain (Palincsar, 2005) DBR is an important methodology for understanding how, when, and why educational innovations work in practice DBR is a lens or set of analytical techniques that balances the positivist and interpretivist paradigms and attempts to bridge theory and practice in education DBR is a blend of empirical educational research with the theory-driven design of learning environments DBR methods aim to uncover the relationships between educational theory, designed artifact, and practice (Brown 1992; Collins, 1992; DBR Collective) The primary aim of DBR is to develop DOMAIN-SPECIFIC THEORIES in order to understand the learning process (Mor, 2006)
  19. 19. What is theory? ◦ A set of related propositions that attempts to explain, and sometimes predict a set of events (Hoover 1992, p. 66 In Richey, 1997) ◦ Explanations of phenomena or events that help us understand and deal with the world (Seels, 1997) Role of theory ◦ Providing patterns for the interpretation of data ◦ Linking one study with another ◦ Supplying frameworks ◦ Allowing us to interpret the larger meaning of findings (Hoover 1992 In Seels 1997) Criteria (Richey, 1997) - accuracy - validity - utility
  20. 20. Theories have always displayed a principal part of the power and elegance of science. They embody generalization, bringing order to a vast array of seemingly disparate phenomena that come to be seen as special cases of some theory. They enable us to discriminate between relations that are necessary and those that are contingent. They delineate classes of phenomena that are worthy of inquiry and specify how to look and what to see in order to understand them. “Teaching us how to see”—is particularly evident in the type of theory in DBR
  21. 21. Formal systems of laws and propositions (built around suggested relationships among variables) Narrative explanations and predictions Models (verbal, visual or mathematical) Set of laws Form of an organization and summary of existing knowledge Form of hypothesis Describe and often predict events
  22. 22. Domain theories- describe learning situations involving students, teachers, learning environments and their interactions. Design framework- is a “design solution” that provides a set of “design guidelines for a particular class of design challenge” Design methodologies- are prescriptive in nature, serving as guidelines for how to implement a set of designs, what kind of expertise is required and who should provide the expertise. As a result of the iterative design process, researchers also continuously refine design interventions to make them more applicable to practice
  23. 23. Domain theories Design framework Design methodologies (RR, 2008 ? ) (IS, 2008 ? ) (MM, 2008 ? ) Generalization of some Generalized design General design procedure. portion of a problem solution. Describe the Provides guidelines for the process rather than analysis. This theory characteristics that a the product. Describes: might be about learners design artifact must have a. A process for achieving a class of designs and how they learn, to achieve a particular set teachers how they teach, of goals in a context b. Forms of expertise requires learning environ. and how c. Roles to be played by the individuals they influence teaching representing those forms of expertise and learning Descriptive Prescriptive Prescriptive
  24. 24. DBR: Méthodologie? ◦ Design-based research (DBR) is a research paradigm that intertwines research with practice and fits well with the purposes of education (Bell, 2004) DBR et autres méthodologies ◦ Development Research ◦ Design Experiment ◦ Design Research ◦ Formative Research Cycles et étapes
  25. 25. DBR is: ◦ an emerging method (Kelly, 2004) ◦ a methodology (Wang, Hannafin, 2005) ◦ a framework (diSessa, 2007) Method- is a procedure, a process, a set of steps to follow. A way of doing something, especially a systematic way; implies an orderly logical arrangement (usually in steps) Methodology- what, who,when a given activity should be preformed? It is a structure geared toward a goal. The way in which information is found or something is done. The methodology includes the methods, procedures, and techniques used to collect and analyze. Framework- model: a hypothetical description of a complex entity or process; quot;the computer program was based on a model of the circulatory and respiratory ... the underlying structure; quot;restoring the framework of the bombed buildingquot;; quot;it is part of the fabric of societyquot; . A structure supporting or containing something
  26. 26. 1 2 3 4 Développer des Réfléchir à la Effectuer des théories, des solutions production de théories, Analyser des cycles itératifs sur la base des de principes de problèmes pratiques de tests et de principes de conception conception en collaboration raffinement existants et mettre en évidence entre praticiens des théories, et des solutions et chercheurs des solutions des innovations d’implémentation en pratique technologiques Raffinement de théories, de problèmes, de solutions et de principes de conception 5 (Adaptée de Reeves, 2006)
  27. 27. Corroboration (Popper) Une proposition sfx = réfutable, n’est pas vérifiable par l’expérience, on ne peut pas affirmer qu’elle ne sera jamais réfutée… C’est vrai jusqu’à preuve du contraire! La théorie (étape 2 DBR) précède l’observation (étape 3 et 4 DBR). Une théorie (ou proposition théorique) est scientifique si elle se divise en deux sous-classes d'énoncés de base : 1) la classe des énoncés qui la contredisent, appelés falsifieurs potentiels (si ces énoncés sont vrais la théorie est fausse); 2) la classe des énoncés avec lesquels elle s'accorde (si ces énoncés sont vrais, ils la corroborent).
  28. 28. « Methodological alignment » = s’assurer que les méthodes de recherche que nous utilisons testent bien ce que nous pensons qu’elles testent. La notion d’alignement est essentielle à notre compréhension de la validité de la recherche. La validité d’une recherche = notre interprétation des résultats corrobore la théorie et les hypothèses examinées: ◦ “2 autres types de validité en recherche dont nous devons nous soucier”: 1) La validité de traitement – les traitements que nous créons sont bien alignés avec les théories qu’ils représentent. 2) La validité systémique— l’ensemble de la recherche doit créer 1) un test juste pour les théories mais aussi 2) une façon de communiquer ces théories qui respecte les inférences utilisées pour les prouver. Pour atteindre une vraie validité systémique ◦ Nos recherches doivent informer nos théories, - Qui doivent informer la pratique
  29. 29. La conception des théories, des solutions Dans le DBR, l’implication des mêmes acteurs dans: 1) la formulation de la théorie, 2) l’implémentation des interventions, et 3) la “mesure” des produits favorise un meilleur alignment méthodologique. DBR est, en fait, une tentative de combinaison du design intentionnel des l’exploration empirique de notre environnements d’apprentissage compréhension de ces environnements avec et de leur façon d’interagir avec les individus.
  30. 30. DBR se base sur l’idée que l’universalité est rare dans les phénomènes étudiés en éducation. Et parce que la méthode entame les étapes expérimentales en examinant des contextes individuels, les chercheurs DB généralisent leurs constatations seulement provisoirement en en faisant une science locale
  31. 31. Les chercheurs en DBR doivent documenter: ◦ leur perspective ou point de départ MAIS AUSSI ◦ toutes stratégies d’intervention pertinentes utilisées par les participants observés ET par le chercheur lui-même En documentant les pratiques de planification de l’apprentissage du point de vue de ceux qui ont pour but de favoriser l’apprentissage, nous allons peut- être établir le cadre d’une forme de recherche plus utilisable et plus valide
  32. 32. “When one foregoes experimental controls, how can one generalize to other settings regardless of how rich are the local descriptions?” (Kelly, 2004, p.120). DBR’s goal is to design something that not only develops theory, but also is valuable to others. This criterion not only requires the deep understanding of one particular context, but DBR must also show relevance to other contexts. This type of generalization has been referred to as a petite generalization (Stake, 1995) A Humble Theory rather than Grand Theories grain size, different scales (diSessa):
  33. 33. DBR: ◦ trying to understand the world by trying to change it ◦ creating and testing theories in complex situations ◦ building theoretical empirical propositions about learning with technology Une innovation? Prendre Design Science comme source d’inspiration au lieu de la sociologie ou la psychologie Reconnaissance : ◦ AERA, JLS (NSF?) ◦ ICLS2008? ….que dit le conférencier d’ouverture?
  34. 34. From Design Experiments to Formative Interventions Human learning takes place in increasingly complex, continuously changing activity settings which makes traditional well controlled experiments difficult and render their ecological validity questionable. On the other hand, various modes of action research typically lack in methodological and theoretical rigor. Design experiments are an increasingly popular attempt to resolve this dilemma. However, I will show that the notion of design experiments reproduces crucial limitations of traditional research design and fails to address the foundational issue of agency of the research subjects
  35. 35. Bibliographie ◦ Brown, A. , Design Experiments, Journal of the Learning Sciences(2), 141-178, 1992 ◦ Collins, A. (1992). Toward a Design Science of Education. In E. Scanlon and T. O'Shea. New Directions in Educational Technology ◦ DBR Collective, Educational Researcher, 2003 ◦ A.Collins; D.Joseph & K. Bielaczyc, Design Research: Theoretical and Methodological Issues Journal of the Learning Sciences (13, 1) 15-42, 2004 ◦ Gibbons ◦ Ross, S. et al, Research Designs, in Handbook of Research on Educational Communications and Technology ◦ Van den Akker, J., Gravemeijer,K., McKenney, S. & Nieveen, N., Educational Design Research. http://www.lrc.ctu.edu.vn/VietnamCourse/VietnamCourse/EducationalDesignResearch.pdf ◦ Anthony Cocciolo’s Lit. Review: http://anthony.thinkingprojects.org/wp-content/dbr.doc ◦ Terry Anderson’s biblio: http://cider.athabascau.ca/CIDERSIGs/DesignBasedSIG/dbrreferences ◦ Simon, H. The science of the artificial, (1969), MIT Press (Design Science) Webographie ◦ The DBR Collective, http://www.designbasedresearch.org/ ◦ A PEER Tutorial on DBR, Georgia U. PhD students: http://projects.coe.uga.edu/dbr/index.htm ◦ http://www.lkl.ac.uk/projects/designresearch/
  36. 36. Séminaire le 18 juin Y. Mor, -Institute of Education, U. of London -Chercheur à London Knowledge Lab Article: Design Approaches in Technology- Enhanced Learning (TEL)
  37. 37. • Exhibit all aspects of a design study, except that, in seeking explanatory and design theories, reliance on narrative methods is supplemented with invariant measurement of the growth or change constructs spanning the domain. • The measurement instruments evolve over the cycles of design; they implement, evaluate, redesign, and come to embody an increasingly adequate descriptive theory of the processes operative in the domain. • In addition, the technological devices designed to introduce and control the treatment effects are forthrightly described using the emerging layers and languages of technology in that domain.