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Exploring the uses of ICT in education: A national survey study

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Presentation at EAPRIL2016 in Porto, Portugal

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Exploring the uses of ICT in education: A national survey study

  1. 1. REUTER, BUSANA & LINCKELS - EAPRIL 2016 - 23-11-2016 - Porto, Portugal - #edtechlu Exploring the uses of ICT in education: A national survey study Robert A.P. REUTER1, Gilbert BUSANA1 & Serge LINCKELS2 1Université du Luxembourg 2Ministère de l’Education nationale, de l’Enfance et de la Jeunesse 1 @bobreuter // #edtechlu Challenges of the Digital Era for Education, Learning and Working: Researchers and Practitioners in Dialogue
  2. 2. REUTER, BUSANA & LINCKELS - EAPRIL 2016 - 23-11-2016 - Porto, Portugal - #edtechlu ■ Context: educational policy “Digital(4)Education” ■ Practical & theoretical foundations ■ Research goals ■ Research method ■ Results ■ Conclusions ■ Implications ■ Discussion Presentation plan 2
  3. 3. REUTER, BUSANA & LINCKELS - EAPRIL 2016 - 23-11-2016 - Porto, Portugal - #edtechlu ■ Digital(4)Education: policy, strategy & measures Context 3 http://zukunft.men.lu/fr/grands-projets/digital-4-education
  4. 4. REUTER, BUSANA & LINCKELS - EAPRIL 2016 - 23-11-2016 - Porto, Portugal - #edtechlu ■ Digital(4)Education: policy, strategy & measures La stratégie Digital (4) Education vise notamment à amener les élèves à développer les compétences nécessaires à une utilisation adéquate et responsable des TIC et à promouvoir des projets pédagogiques innovants utilisant le numérique à l’école. (Bertemes, 2015, emphases added) https://prezi.com/u537jjw7wpza/presentation-de-la-strategie-digital-4-education/ Context 4
  5. 5. REUTER, BUSANA & LINCKELS - EAPRIL 2016 - 23-11-2016 - Porto, Portugal - #edtechlu ■ Digital(4)Education: policy, strategy & measures (Bertemes, 2015) https://prezi.com/u537jjw7wpza/presentation-de-la-strategie-digital-4-education/ Context 5
  6. 6. REUTER, BUSANA & LINCKELS - EAPRIL 2016 - 23-11-2016 - Porto, Portugal - #edtechlu ■ Digital(4)Education: policy, strategy & measures (Bertemes, 2015) https://prezi.com/u537jjw7wpza/presentation-de-la-strategie-digital-4-education/ Context X
  7. 7. REUTER, BUSANA & LINCKELS - EAPRIL 2016 - 23-11-2016 - Porto, Portugal - #edtechlu ■ Digital Lëtzebuerg ■ General political efforts to promote meaningful, responsible & relevant uses of ICT in the general population ■ High penetration of mobile ICT devices ■ High connectivity rate of ICT ■ But average ICT competencies ■ Lack of highly-qualified IT-skilled workforces Context 6
  8. 8. REUTER, BUSANA & LINCKELS - EAPRIL 2016 - 23-11-2016 - Porto, Portugal - #edtechlu ■ Determine current (mid-2015) educational technology practices in Luxembourg, given the start of the Digital(4)Education strategy in September 2015 ■ Assess impact of policy-motivated actions on educational technology practices ■ Comparison with national survey from 2009 ■ Inform Digital(4)Education measures to be taken ■ Recommendations for initial & continuous teacher training Practical foundations 7
  9. 9. REUTER, BUSANA & LINCKELS - EAPRIL 2016 - 23-11-2016 - Porto, Portugal - #edtechlu ■ Part of a larger research project about educational technology policies, strategies, theories and practices in Luxembourg: past, present & future - www.edtech.lu ■ Educational technology practices: supporting, enriching, modifying & transforming learning & teaching activities with digital media & tools; fostering ICT literacy in students (Tools for Learning & Content of Learning) ■ Understand practices in terms of known influence factors: proximal/ internal and distal/external (Ertmer, 1999; Tondeur, Hermans, Valcke & van Braak, 2008; Busana, 2001) ■ Understand the current educational ecosystem (Zhao & Frank, 2003) in terms of hindering and enabling factors (Pelgrum, 2001; Tondeur, Valcke, & van Braak, 2008; ISTE “essential conditions”, 2009) Theoretical foundations 8
  10. 10. Distal Factors Proximal Factors EdTech Practices Enabling Inhibiting Enabling Inhibiting Model
  11. 11. REUTER, BUSANA & LINCKELS - EAPRIL 2016 - 23-11-2016 - Porto, Portugal - #edtechlu ■ Establish theory-based overview of current uses of ICT education (K-12+) at a national level ■ Technology integration strategies: directed instruction vs. inquiry-based learning (Roblyer & Doering, 2013) ■ Types of learning & teaching activities (Leclercq & Poumay, 2005) ■ Functions of ICT for student-centred learning (Busana, 2001) ■ Learning goals of ICT-supported teaching (Anderson & Kratwohl, 2001) ■ Hardware tools used in classrooms by teachers // students ■ ICT uses beyond the classroom: course preparation, student evaluation and administrative tasks ■ ICT literacy as content of student learning Research goals 10
  12. 12. REUTER, BUSANA & LINCKELS - EAPRIL 2016 - 23-11-2016 - Porto, Portugal - #edtechlu ■ Understand the national educational ecosystem (Zhao & Frank, 2003), in terms of proximal and distal factors, as a more or less favourable breading-ground for EdTech practices (ISTE, 2009): ■ Initial & continuous EdTech teacher training ■ (Self-declared) digital skills of teachers ■ Private uses of ICT by teachers ■ Pedagogical and techno-pedagogical believes and attitudes of teachers ■ (Perceived) school cultures ■ ICT infrastructures ■ (Perceived) national educational technology policies & strategies Research goals 11
  13. 13. REUTER, BUSANA & LINCKELS - EAPRIL 2016 - 23-11-2016 - Porto, Portugal - #edtechlu ■ Large-scale study: big picture approach ■ Online survey, with mostly closed multiple choice questions ■ Distributed to all teachers in public schools (K-12+); population = 10.796, K-6: 5.614, 7-12+: 4.670, SN: 512 ■ 24/06 - 15/07/2015: towards the end of the school year ■ Collaboration between University and 2 departments of the Ministry of Education (SCRIPT-INNO & SCRIPT- ADQS) Research method 12
  14. 14. REUTER, BUSANA & LINCKELS - EAPRIL 2016 - 23-11-2016 - Porto, Portugal - #edtechlu ■ Questions about general demographic variables: age, work experience, gender, grades taught, municipality, discipline(s) taught ■ Questions regrouped by dimensions of the theoretical model: proximal factors, distal factors, EdTech practices (administrative tasks, course preparations, teaching in the classroom, learning in the classroom, student evaluations) Research method 13
  15. 15. Proximal factors Personal data Competencies: Use of ICT Teaching with ICT Private Use of ICT Pedagogical & Techno-pedagogical convictions Research method
  16. 16. Distal factors School culture context ICT infrastructure in school National Digital Education Policy Research method
  17. 17. EdTech practices Teacher-centred: Instruction Learner-centred: Inquiry-based Hardware used Software used Course preparation In the classroom Evaluation Administratives tasks ICT as a content of learning ICT as a tool for learning & teaching Research method
  18. 18. EdTech practices Course preparation In the classroom Evaluation Administratives tasks Taxonomy of Learning & Teaching events
 (Leclercq & Poumay, 2005) Functions of ICT for inquiry learning (Busana, 2001) Bloom’s taxonomy of learning objectives (Anderson & Kratwohl, 2001) Hardware used Software used ICT as a content of learning ICT as a tool for learning & teaching Research method
  19. 19. REUTER, BUSANA & LINCKELS - EAPRIL 2016 - 23-11-2016 - Porto, Portugal - #edtechlu ■ Scales used: ■ strongly disagree, don’t agree, neutral, agree, strongly agree ■ never, ounce per trimester, once a month, once a week, at least once a day ■ none, 1, 2-5, 6-10, 11-19, 20+ ■ no clue, beginner, average, advanced, expert ■ names of municipalities, grades, male/female Research method 18
  20. 20. Distal Factors Proximal Factors EdTech Practices Enabling Inhibiting Enabling Inhibiting Results Descriptive statistics: ‣ Demographic data ‣ Distal factors ‣ Proximal factors ‣ EdTech Practices 19REUTER, BUSANA & LINCKELS - EAPRIL 2016 - 23-11-2016 - Porto, Portugal - #edtechlu
  21. 21. Results ■ General demographic data ■ Sample: n=408 ■ Gender: 54.4% F, 45.6% M (n= 399) ■ Age: average 41 years, range 23-70 years (n=402) ■ Experience: average 15 years, range 0-42 years (n=400) 20REUTER, BUSANA & LINCKELS - EAPRIL 2016 - 23-11-2016 - Porto, Portugal - #edtechlu
  22. 22. Age (years) Experience(years) o Female o Male Gender Age x Experience per Gender Results XREUTER, BUSANA & LINCKELS - EAPRIL 2016 - 23-11-2016 - Porto, Portugal - #edtechlu
  23. 23. 0 50 100 150 200 712 2 26 185 123 67 5954 39 EF-C1 EF-C2 EF-C3 EF-C4 ES EST EST-RP EDIFF ADULTES ACCUEIL Distribution per grades TOTAL K-6: 165 (cumulative) TOTAL 7-12: 239 (cumulative) TOTAL others: 21 (cumulative) Results
  24. 24. 123 Geographic distribution 29 1 Results
  25. 25. Distal factors School culture ICT infrastructure in schools National Digital Education Policy Results
  26. 26. ICT Infrastructure: Hardware 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Projector Desktop Printer Laptop Photocamera Scanner Videocamera InteractiveWhiteboard Tablet 0 1 2-5 6-10 11-19 20+ (relative frequencies) Results Directed Instruction
  27. 27. ICT Infrastructure: Internet access 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Ethernet WIFI Mobile None yes no (relative frequencies) Results Wired
  28. 28. School culture Echangedematériel
 &préparations Echangessur
 lesTICenclasse Outilsfonctionnels Accès
 auxoutilssuffisant Accèséquitable Support
 Techno-Pédagogique SallesTICadaptées TIC=important Soutienpar
 ladirection Aideparcollègues Moyensfinanciers Strongly agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly disagree (average scores) Results Neutral
  29. 29. National digital education policy Visionclaire
 21stcentury Mise
 àdisposition
 desoutils
 nécessaires Formations
 continues
 adaptées Budgets
 suffisants (average scores) Results Strongly agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly disagree
  30. 30. Proximal factors Personal data Competencies: Use of ICT Teaching with ICT Private Use of ICT Pedagogical & Techno-pedagogical beliefs Results
  31. 31. Private use of ICT: hardware Téléphoneportable Smartphone Desktop Laptop Tablette ConsoleJeux >1/day 1/week 1/month 1/trimester Never (average scores) Results
  32. 32. Private use of ICT: tasks Communiquer
 avecfamille/amis Planifiier/Réserver
 Vacances Achats Administrations LirelesInfos Jouer PartagerPhotos RegarderVidéos Produire/Partager
 Vidéos Chercher
 Informations (average scores) Results >1/day 1/week 1/month 1/trimester Never
  33. 33. ICT competencies Engénéral Traitementdetexte Tableur Présentation Courriel RechercheInternet ProduireMultimédia Expert Advanced Average Beginner No clue (average scores) Results
  34. 34. EdTech competencies Enseigner
 aveclesTIC Soutenir
 apprentissages
 aveclesTIC Bureautique EnseignerlesTIC Initial Training Continuous Training (average scores) Results Strongly agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly disagree
  35. 35. Pedagogical beliefs Mixed positions No clear dichotomy separating teachers Problem with our items? Results
  36. 36. Techno-pedagogical beliefs S'occuper
 enattendant JeuxEducatifs Exercicer Tutoriels Chercher
 desinformations Collaborer Communiquer Produire Publier Learning ParadigmTeaching Paradigm (average scores) Results Strongly agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly disagree
  37. 37. Techno-pedagogical attitudes LimiterlesTIC
 àl'école PasbesoindesTIC Programme
 tropchargé TravailavecTIC
 déstabilisant Apportpédagogique
 desTIC Rapportausavoir
 transformé Outilsindispensables Arguments against Arguments in favour (average scores) Results Strongly agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly disagree
  38. 38. EdTech practices Teacher-centred: Instruction Learner-centred: Inquiry-based Hardware used Software used Course preparation In the classroom Evaluation Administratives tasks ICT as a content of learning ICT as a tool for learning & teaching Results
  39. 39. EdTech practices • Administratives tasks • Course preparations • Use of ICT in classrooms • ICT-supported teaching • ICT-supported learning • Student evaluations Results
  40. 40. Administratives tasks Noterles
 présences/absences Informerlesélèves
 desdevoirsàdomicile Inscrirelesnotes Communiquer
 aveclesélèves Communiqueravec
 lahiérarchiescolaire Communiquer
 aveclescollègues Informerlesparents Communiquer
 aveclesparents Tenir
 unjournaldeclasse Sitewebclasse/école (average scores) Results >1/day 1/week 1/month 1/trimester Never Communication
  41. 41. Course preparations: Search Medocumenter Chercherdestextes Chercherdesimages Chercherdesvidéos Chercher
 desanimations Chercherdes
 scénariosdidactiques Chercherdes
 tâchesd'apprentissage Chercher
 desréponses (average scores) Results >1/day 1/week 1/month 1/trimester Never
  42. 42. Course preparations: Produce ProduireExercices ProduireProblèmes ProduireVideo ProduireAudio ProduireSlides (average scores) Results >1/day 1/week 1/month 1/trimester Never Worksheets
  43. 43. Course preparations: Share Préparations
 deleçon Fichesdetravail Resources
 multi-média Documentations
 &Réflexions (average scores) Results >1/day 1/week 1/month 1/trimester Never
  44. 44. In class: Teacher (hardware) Desktop Laptop Projecteur Tablette Smartphone AppareilPhoto CaméraVidéo Scanner Imprimante Imprimante3D TableauInteractif (average scores) Results >1/day 1/week 1/month 1/trimester Never Directed Instruction
  45. 45. In class: Students (hardware) Desktop Laptop Projecteur Tablette Smartphone AppareilPhoto CaméraVidéo Scanner Imprimante Imprimante3D TableauInteractif (average scores) Results >1/day 1/week 1/month 1/trimester Never
  46. 46. In class: Teacher (ICT Literacy) OS Clavier&Souris Logicielsdebase Imprimer Utiliserpériphériques Termesinformatiques (average scores) Results >1/day 1/week 1/month 1/trimester Never
  47. 47. In class: Teacher (activities) Démonstration
 Illustration Simulation Imitation Compréhension Soutiende
 monexposé Commenter/Annoter
 destravaux (average scores) Results >1/day 1/week 1/month 1/trimester Never Directed Instruction
  48. 48. In class: Students (activities)Réaliserdescalculs Sauvegarderdesinformations Rattrapages Automatiser Apprendrequelque
 chosedenouveau Jeuxéducatifs Résoudredesproblèmes Rechercherdes
 informationscomplémentaires Comparerdifférentessources Annoter&Commenter
 desdocuments Produiredesdiagrammes Comprendre
 denouveauxconcepts Organiserleursidées Rechercherlesensd'unmot Organiserdesinformations
 extraitesdedocuments Produireundocument Présenterdesinformations Evaluerlaqualitéd'unproduit Collaborerautourd'un
 documentcommun Publier Communiquer Manipulerdessimulations Explorerdesenvironnements Documenterleurs
 apprentissages (average scores) Results >1/day 1/week 1/month 1/trimester Never Inquire & Produce
  49. 49. Student Evaluations Sheetstoprint Onlinetests (average scores) Results >1/day 1/week 1/month 1/trimester Never
  50. 50. REUTER, BUSANA & LINCKELS - EAPRIL 2016 - 23-11-2016 - Porto, Portugal - #edtechlu ■ Rather high level of (self-declared) ICT skills and private use of ICT tools; but more consumers and communicators than multimedia producers ■ Teachers use digital media for their own productivity: search for existing digital resources and tools ■ ICT infrastructure more oriented towards ICT- supported instruction by teachers than towards inquiry-based learning by students ■ Mixed pedagogical beliefs and favourable EdTech beliefs & attitudes Conclusions 46
  51. 51. REUTER, BUSANA & LINCKELS - EAPRIL 2016 - 23-11-2016 - Porto, Portugal - #edtechlu ■ Teachers are aware of the importance and relevance of ICT in education, as well as the transformative effects of ICT on learning & knowledge and want to stay up-to-date with their teaching practices ■ However their EdTech competencies are less developed ■ Current educational technology practices are relatively stable compared to the last national survey study done a few years ago (Linckels et al., 2009), they remain rather teacher-centred approach, while the wish to use ICT in education has increased Conclusions 47
  52. 52. REUTER, BUSANA & LINCKELS - EAPRIL 2016 - 23-11-2016 - Porto, Portugal - #edtechlu ■ Need to broaden wireless access to the Internet in schools ■ Need to provide digital learning devices to (all) students, if we wish to move beyond teacher- centred uses of ICT in classrooms ■ Need to develop a culture of sharing of educational resources in the teacher community Implications 48
  53. 53. REUTER, BUSANA & LINCKELS - EAPRIL 2016 - 23-11-2016 - Porto, Portugal - #edtechlu ■ Need to provide digital educational resources of high quality and (perceived as) in line with the curriculum ■ Need to train teachers about meaningful and learner- centred “in class” educational technology practices ■ Make national “digital education” policy more visible and desirable ■ Need to make “technology use expectations” more explicit: dos & don’ts Implications 49
  54. 54. REUTER, BUSANA & LINCKELS - EAPRIL 2016 - 23-11-2016 - Porto, Portugal - #edtechlu ■ Beyond descriptive statistics: searches for meaningful relationships ■ How to develop a shorter version of our survey? - number of constructs too large ■ How to better understand (current) EdTech practices embedded in diverse niches of the (national) educational ecosystem? - part of larger research project, with variety of methods Discussion 50
  55. 55. REUTER, BUSANA & LINCKELS - EAPRIL 2016 - 23-11-2016 - Porto, Portugal - #edtechlu ■ How to nurture a favourable educational technology school culture? ■ Teachers as “digital producers”? ■ How to develop effective teacher trainings (initial & continuous)? Discussion 51
  56. 56. REUTER, BUSANA & LINCKELS - EAPRIL 2016 - 23-11-2016 - Porto, Portugal - #edtechlu THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION! QUESTIONS? 52
  57. 57. Contact 53 https://lu.linkedin.com/in/bobreuter https://www.facebook.com/RReuterPhD/ http://staff.uni.lu/robert.reuter @bobreuter robert.reuter@uni.lu REUTER, BUSANA & LINCKELS - EAPRIL 2016 - 23-11-2016 - Porto, Portugal - #edtechlu

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