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  1. 1. Hinduism, India’s History, Gandhi, and India Today Notes and questions to think about.
  2. 2. Hindu <ul><li>Used in ancient Persia to describe the practice and beliefs of people who live near the Indus River. </li></ul><ul><li>Today there are over 900 million followers all over the world. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Basic Beliefs <ul><li>Polytheistic – belief in many gods </li></ul><ul><li>No holy book (Like the Bible or the Koran, but some do treat the Vedas as scriptures) </li></ul><ul><li>Sanskrit – ritual language of Hinduism </li></ul><ul><li>They are tolerant of all religions, and believe that all religions are paths to God. </li></ul><ul><li>Puja – worship </li></ul><ul><li>Guru – spiritual leader </li></ul>
  4. 4. Important concepts of Hinduism <ul><li>Reincarnation – reborn into the body of another being </li></ul><ul><li>Dharma – sacred duty </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Individual dharma determined by personality, age, sex, and social class. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Following dharma promotes harmony. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Karma – sum of good and bad actions that the atman (soul) carries from life to life </li></ul><ul><li>Samsara – continuous cycle of birth, death, and rebirth </li></ul>
  5. 5. Important concepts of Hinduism <ul><li>Cows and other animals are sacred, because they could be a person’s ancestors. </li></ul><ul><li>Major Holidays </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mahashivarati (mid-February) Holi (Spring) Ramnavami (late March) Dusserah (early November) Diwali (mid-November) </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. The Gods of Hinduism <ul><li>Brahma – The Lord of Creation </li></ul><ul><li>Has four heads </li></ul><ul><li>Light and darkness is a battle between him and Shiva </li></ul>
  7. 7. The Gods of Hinduism <ul><li>Shiva – Destroyer of the world </li></ul><ul><li>Represents death and is important in samsara. </li></ul><ul><li>With out Shiva their can be no rebirth. </li></ul>
  8. 8. The Gods of Hinduism <ul><li>Vishnu – Preserver and protector </li></ul><ul><li>Helps maintain the balance between creation and destruction, and good and evil. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Hinduism and the other religions in Asia. <ul><li>What religion has the most similarities to Hinduism, and why? </li></ul><ul><li>What religion has the least similarities to Hinduism, and why? </li></ul><ul><li>Why are Hindus the most accepting of people with different religions than there own? </li></ul>
  10. 10. Warm Up #1 <ul><li>Define the following: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reincarnation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Guru </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dharma </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Karma </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Samsara </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brahman </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Warm Up #2 <ul><li>How are Dharma and Karma important to Hindu beliefs? </li></ul>
  12. 12. Warm Up #3 <ul><li>Why is this person stuck cleaning the sewers? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When answering this question you must include the terms reincarnation, dharma, and karma. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. The Caste System <ul><li>List 10 jobs that people do in the U.S. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Now place a ranking next to each of those jobs based on how respectful it is to do them. 10 = the most respect, and 1 = the least. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why do some jobs have more respect than others? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What if at birth it was determined what job you would have, is that fair? </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. The Caste System <ul><li>The caste system separates and ranks social order in India. </li></ul><ul><li>There are four main groups or varnas: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brahmins--priests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kshatryas--warriors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vaishyas--traders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shudras—laborers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Caste not only dictates one's occupation, but dietary habits and interaction with members of other castes as well. </li></ul>
  15. 15. The Caste System <ul><li>Members of a high caste enjoy more wealth and opportunities while members of a low caste perform menial jobs. </li></ul><ul><li>Upward mobility is very rare in the caste system. Most people remain in one caste their entire life and marry within their caste. </li></ul>
  16. 16. The Caste System <ul><li>Outside of the caste system are the Untouchables. </li></ul><ul><li>Untouchable jobs, such as toilet cleaning and garbage removal, require them to be in contact with bodily fluids. </li></ul><ul><li>Untouchables have separate entrances to homes and must drink from separate wells. </li></ul>
  17. 17. The Caste System <ul><li>Today in India cities have made the caste system difficult to follow, because of the close contact. </li></ul><ul><li>The government of India is trying to include the Untouchables in it, and some backlash has occurred. </li></ul><ul><li>In rural communities the caste system still remains strong. </li></ul>
  18. 18. India’s History <ul><li>India's extraordinary history is intimately tied to its geography. A meeting ground between the East and the West, it has always been an invader's paradise, while at the same time its natural isolation and magnetic religions allowed it to adapt to and absorb many of the peoples who penetrated its mountain passes. </li></ul>
  19. 19. India’s History <ul><li>India was first invaded by the Aryans, which left India with the caste system. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1001 Muslims began invading India. </li></ul><ul><li>One of the greatest Islamic monuments in India is the Taj Mahal. This monument was built as a tomb to a sultan’s favorite wife. </li></ul>
  20. 20. India’s History <ul><li>Islamic rule continued in India until the 1600’s when European rule was brought to India. </li></ul><ul><li>At first the Portuguese had claimed India, but the British eventually drove them away. </li></ul><ul><li>Through a combination of outright combat and deft alliances with local princes, the East India Company gained control of all European trade in India by 1769. </li></ul>
  21. 21. India’s History <ul><li>How a tiny island nation, thousands of miles away, came to administer a huge territory of 300 million people is one of history's great spectacles. </li></ul><ul><li>Infrastructure had been developed, administration established, and an entire structure of governance erected. </li></ul><ul><li>The British however were reluctant to give up any power in India. As the 20 th century started independence movements started across India. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Gandhi
  23. 23. Gandhi <ul><li>Born October 2, 1869. </li></ul><ul><li>Died January 27, 1948. </li></ul><ul><li>Is known for leading the movement for India’s independence. </li></ul><ul><li>Was the inspiration for others like Martin Luther King Jr. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Gandhi <ul><li>He used two tactics to achieve his objectives. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Civil Disobedience: knowing breaking an unfair law. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Passive Resistance: accepting punishment without resisting. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Both tactics use non-violence. </li></ul><ul><li>They worked because they appealed to the good side of people. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Gandhi <ul><li>Important events in India’s independence. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gandhi helped Indians in South Africa get equal rights for 20 years. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Returned to India and worked with the Indian National Congress to gain independence. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In 1930 led the Salt March which made in a national figure. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In 1932 started to fast to improve the conditions for the Untouchables. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In 1947 he finally helped to achieve his goal of India independence. </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Random facts on India. <ul><li>The number of births each year in India is greater than the entire population of Australia. </li></ul><ul><li>The number system was invented by India. Aryabhatta was the scientist who invented the digit zero. </li></ul><ul><li>Chess was invented in India. </li></ul><ul><li>India has the most post offices in the world </li></ul><ul><li>The largest employer in the world is the Indian railway system, employing over a million people </li></ul>