GCSE Hazards RevisionHaiti Earthquake and Montserrat Volcano
Types of Plate BoundaryType of Plate Example of Movement? Diagram Features HazardsBoundary BoundaryDestructive Nazca plate, Oceanic Nazca Ocean trench Volcanoes and South American plate moves earthquakes plate towards and under continental N S S. American plateConstructive Eurasian plate, Plates moving Mid-Atlantic Volcanoes and North American away from each Ridge earthquakes plate otherConservative North American Sideways, past San Andreas Earthquakes plate, Pacific plate each other, Pacific Fault plate moving faster than N. American
Earthquakes• Occur along FAULT LINES.• Movements in the ground due to sudden release of friction in the form of SEISMIC WAVES.• The FOCUS is inside the earth’s crust where the earthquake happened.• The EPICENTRE is the point on the Earth’s surface above the focus, where the shakes are strongest.• Measured using the RICHTER SCALE where each number is 10 times greater than the last
Earthquakes - Haiti• 12th January 2010• Haiti is an island in the Caribbean Sea• Magnitude measured 8.0 on the Richter Scale• Conservative plate boundary – N. American plate moving past the Caribbean plate
Earthquakes - HaitiPrimary Effects L – 200 000 deaths i – 3 million people left homeless, moved into tents n – 8 hospitals damaged in Port-au-Prince (capital) kSecondary Effects s ? – The Haitian tourist industry declined – Outbreaks of disease eg. Cholera – Destruction of government buildings made the island difficult to control, the police force collapsed
Earthquakes - Haiti Aid struggled to get to those who needed it most because of the damaged Overseas infrastructure aid agencies eg. Oxfam, Red Cross Trying to rebuildResponses healthcare and agriculture but not enough money Social media such as Facebook and twitter used to spread messages
Earthquakes - HaitiReducing the Effects of Earthquakes • Earthquake proof buildings (MEDC and LEDC) • Earthquake drills (regular practices) • Preparing and planning in the home (earthquake kits) • Earthquake prediction amps and shaking maps • Overseas aid and rebuilding WHICH OF THESE ARE SHORT TERM? WHICH ARE LONG TERM?
Why do people live near earthquakes? They cannot Worth the risk – unlikely that an afford to live earthquake will anywhere else happen in their lifetime Many plate boundaries are near the coast (best land for farming/trade) Family and friends live there
Volcanoes Dormant Active Volcano has Extinct Volcano has erupted in the last Volcano unlikely toerupted recently 2000 years, but ever erupt again not recently
Volcanoes – Soufriere Hills• Destructive plate boundary• In the south of the Caribbean island of Montserrat• Much of the population are poor and rely on subsistence farming• Having been dormant for 500 years the volcano erupts in August 1995 and again in 1997
Volcanoes – Soufriere HillsPrimary Effects – 50% of people evacuated to the North to live in shelters L – 19 people dies – Pyroclastic flows destroyed farms and started fires i – 2/3 of island covered in ash n – Plymouth (capital) turned into a ghost town kSecondary Effects s – Poor sanitation and crowding in the North – Tourist industry still suffering ? – Over half the population have not returned after they were evacuated
Volcanoes – Soufriere Hills Helicopters from France help to find missing people Medical assistance from neighbouringResponses Caribbean islands Many people still relying on aid 15 years How could later Montserrat reduce their dependence on aid?
VolcanoesReducing the Effects of Volcanoes • Improved warning • Better buildings – smooth, sloped roofs to prevent ash build up • Education – what to do if the volcano erupts • Prevent/restrict building on land vulnerable to effects • Emergency kit for households…
VolcanoesEmergency Kit• Non-perishable food• Torch• First aid kit• Water• Radio• Whistle• Blankets• Face masks and goggles
Why do people live near volcanoes? Those in LEDCs Tourism from those wanting to often cannot see the dramatic afford to move landscape away Fertile soils producing better crops People feel aneruption will not occur in their lifetime Geothermal energy for example in Iceland