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Fermentation slide by sajda ansari on 17 oct 2015

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  1. 1. FERMENTATION Sajdaparvin J. ansari
  2. 2. FERMENTATION  Any process mediated by or involving microorganisms in which a product of economic value is obtained is called “Fermentation”  By microbiologists “define as mass culturing of microorganisms in a culture medium or the provided substrate ,which microorganisms by the virtue of its metabolic potential synthesize a product.
  3. 3.  By biochemists “it as energy yielding process in which process in which organic compounds serve both as electron donors or acceptors. The organic compounds are usually the intermediates or end products of a metabolic pathway. In fermentation, there must be regeneration of reduced pyridine nucleotides (NADH) which serves as hydrogen donors and must be re- oxidized (NAD) for the cycle to continue.
  4. 4. ALCOHOLIC FERMENTATION:  Ethanol fermentation converts two pyruvate molecules, the products of glycolysis, to two molecules of ethanol and two molecules of carbon dioxide with the help of Zymase enzyme. C6H12O6 + Zymase→ 2 C2H5OH + 2 CO2
  5. 5. CLASSIFICATION OF FERMENTATION Fermentation Requiring Oxygen Fermentation Processes Can Be Carried Out In Two Ways Surface Or Submerged Production
  6. 6. “Aeration not needed!! BUT In some case….. “the air present in the headspace of the fermenter should be replaced by CO2,H2,N2 EX. obligate anaerobes like clostridium
  7. 7. Aerobic Fermentation: Aerobic Fermentation “Aeration needed!!! BUT in some case. (1) stirred tank type (2) Air lift type EX. Yeast
  8. 8. SUBMERGED PRODUCTION The sterile medium and mould is added to fermenters where it is constantly mixed and supply of sterile air is bubbled through.(since the fermentation process is aerobic )
  9. 9. •Solid state fermentation •Continuous fermentation •Batch fermentation •Dual fermentation
  10. 10. SOLID STATE FERMENTATION • Microbial growth and product formation occur At the surface of solid substrates EX. Mushroom cultivation ,starter cultures etc… • Used for the production of extracellular enzymes, fungal toxins
  11. 11. CONTINUOUS FERMENTATION CHARACTERISTICS OF CONTINUOUS CULTURE  A method of prolonging the exponential growth phase of an organism in batch culture  Particularly well suited of the production of biomass and growth-associated primary metabolites
  12. 12. ADVANTAGES • Lower operating cost • In theory ,more productive the batch system. DISADVANTAGES •Higher initial capital expenditure •Contamination •Genetic instability
  13. 13. BATCH FERMENTATION  It is one of the method used is the industrial production of microorganisms, where the sterile growth medium is inoculated with the microorganisms and no additional growth medium is added
  14. 14. ADVANTAGES •The physiological condition of the inoculums(log phase is usually better) •Initial capital expenditure is lower DISADVANTAGES •Less effective for the production of biomass and primary metabolites. •Batch-to-batch variability of the products
  15. 15. DUAL FERMENTATION  In the fermentation more then one microorganisms that type of fermentation is called as dual fermentation  It is either batch or continuous fermentation  Ex vinegar fermentation