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Making earth little softer
Earthsoft Foundation of Guidance
Edge-Aggressive-Reliable-Trust-Honesty-Soft-Obedient-Fun-Trans...
Making earth little softer
Earthsoft Foundation of Guidance (EFG) has uploaded following
presentations at http://myefg.in/...
Making earth little softer
• Organisation
• Quality
• Quality management
• Quality Assurance
• Quality Control
• Processes...
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Index
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Organisation and projects
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Fundamentals
• Say what you do
• Do what you say
– Prove it
– Documentation
Criteria for Excell...
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Quality Model
•Reviews of deliverables at
every level by supervisor
•Effective communication
•P...
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Organization goals
To create Technical
pool ,To enhance
technical skills of
resources on latest...
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Importance
High-Quality but Slow to Market
Not a Leader
Speed
Quality
Fast to Market but Low Qu...
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Enablers
Quality Management Group
• Designing & implementing the processes
• Conducting Audits ...
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Enablers
To delight customers
Project Monitoring Group
• Review of variances of effort, schedul...
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Enablers
To delight customers
Software engineering process Group
• Process definition & continu...
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Enablers
• Every deliverable must be reviewed by senior
• Sharing experience & education from s...
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 Audits
 Process Design
 Process Improvements
SE Process
Group
Technology Mgt.
Group
Project...
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Milestones
& Dates
Milestones
& Dates
SMC or FP
or LOC
SMC or FP
or LOC
Mitigation
& owner
Miti...
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Project Management
Plan Track Control Measure
Efforts
Schedule
Quality
Cost
Risks
Resources
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•Productivity
•Efforts, Effort Distribution
•Cost of Review, Rework, Testing and Training
•Defe...
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Successful Project
• Successful project management is delivering a
quality solution meeting the...
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Success Tips
Right Project
Management
Right Project
Management
Right TeamRight Team
Right
Proce...
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Projects- Effective monitoring
• Assure client/ sales
• Safeguard decisions
• Prevent collapse
...
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Projects- Effective monitoring
• Don’t shout
• Keep copies & ready
reference
• Incomplete
prere...
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Projects- Effective monitoring
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Triple Contraint
Quality
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Parameters
Current focus
Quality of the resources
Project Management
Client expectation managem...
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A lot of
problems
A lot of
problems
The purpose of Kaizen activities is to improve
customer sat...
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• Quality is often thought of as "degree of
excellence," or "level of goodness”.
• Quality is c...
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Quality
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Structural responsibilities
•Processes
•Audits
•Escalations
•PCB
•Recruitment
•Training – Soft ...
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Quality Policy
• Customer Satisfaction is a key to successful
business. We are determined to be...
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Synthesis
• Start with focusing on only key area/objectives
• Core Quality Needs : i.e. Minimiz...
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• The perceptions of the user determine the
purpose. Quality therefore is a user perception.
• ...
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• Few other factors like Usability, Performance,
Maintainability, Scalability, Flexibility,
Reu...
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• Customer Delight is achieved
• It saves the cost of implementation by reducing
the cycle time...
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What makes client irritate?
• UI OR minor level defects detected within three
hours of the test...
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• Warranty work - that is performed on a product
or application for free under a warranty
• Rep...
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• Lower costs / shorter duration- an initial higher
cost to a quality process will result in le...
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It’s a cost
• Missing project completion deadline
• Huge project efforts & cost overrun
• Devel...
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At what cost…
• Quality is free and have potential
• To delight clients
• To get repeat busines...
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Quality aspects
• Quality :- There are 2 aspects of the quality
• Quality of the project – To a...
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Objectives
There are 3 levels of quality achievements
• Organizational level
• Management level...
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Objectives
• Audit should catch more than 1 NC for every 5
projects audited for standard softwa...
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• To achieve Excellence through Quality
• To review at each stage of output, to maintain
the st...
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Objectives
• Defects: Number of defects detected by the
customer post delivery should not be mo...
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Objectives
• People : We need to continually improve the
quality of deployed resources.
• The m...
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Objectives
• Extra ordinarily high reliability
• Have minimum defects
• Enhances testing skills...
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• No. of defects to be within the organizational set
objective 1 defect for 3 mm efforts, Redu...
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Make a statement
To aim your organisation to be the best in the
industry in terms “Defects Deli...
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Mission Statement
• To adopt Quality as an intrinsic culture of our
organization
• Quality func...
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Quality Management Principles?
Basics of Quality Management principles
• Customer focus
• Leade...
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Quality management
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Quality Management
Quality Management is the process that insure
the project will meet the need...
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Quality Management
How will quality assurance and control be
conducted?
• Identify Quality Stan...
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DatabaseDatabase
Defect
Tracking
Project
Management
The Stakeholders
Senior Management
Review K...
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DatabaseDatabase
Process
Diagnostics
Process
Diagnostics
Gap AnalysisGap Analysis
Solution
Arti...
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Quality Assurance Group - QAG
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Fact & aim
Successful business cannot come without
Satisfied Customer
Organisation should aim t...
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• Quality Assurance is a not an enforcing
function, but includes all the standards, planning
an...
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Quality Assurance
•Customers are extremely demanding for quality.
We must reciprocate their exp...
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Quality Assurance
To encourage
• To do first time right, so that there are minimum
possible def...
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Quality Assurance
• Define standards, processes, reports, forms &
templates & check lists; comp...
Making earth little softerConfidential 61
To improve quality of delivery
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• Ownership & first time right drive culture
• Reviews – Every deliverable is reviewed by
super...
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• Establishing quality framework (measurement,
analysis, preventive & corrective measures,
trac...
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Improve QualityImprove Quality
Creating Technical resources
•The best resource to create 3 – 4 ...
Making earth little softerConfidential 65
Improve QualityImprove Quality
Delivering the best Quality
•To deliver the best ...
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Reducing delivery time
•First time right, Improve productivity, increase
efficie...
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Reducing development cost
•Utilization of Open source code and framework
•Proces...
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• Many organisations witnessed no. of
unmanageable defects in pre & post delivery
• Many organi...
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• QCG services not to be ‘Optional’ or ‘On Call
Basis’, it should be mandatory organisational
p...
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• Responsive
• Affirmative & assertive
• Good negotiator
• Competent
• Accessible
• Courteous
•...
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Inculcating
New Tools &
Techniques
Black Box
Testing
Review of Test
Plan & document
Testing Ski...
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The strength on a building is built in its plan
QAG – test plan
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• Review Test plan , test cases & execution
• Track quality progress
• Measure defect leakages
...
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Responsibilities
• ITC Review and execution (sample basis)
• Periodic defects data collection a...
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Black Box
Testing
White Box
Testing
• Macro- Project Plan
• Requirement
Analysis
• Functional
R...
Making earth little softerConfidential 76
Methodology
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Why
• Early warning mechanism
• Reduction in number of defects since third party
views
• Reduct...
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Methodology
Short Term Goals
• Teaming
• Training
• Formalize a process of QA for all projects
...
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Quality Assurance Paradox
• Software quality must be very high!
• Bugs are much more visible th...
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Quality Strategy Development
• Enhancing the quality of teaching and learning
experience.
• To ...
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• PM to plan for QCG activities in right spirit right
from the beginning assuming internal cust...
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Skill
Enhancemen
t
Identify Training
needs using
Skill Matrix
Identify Training
needs using
Ski...
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Area Description Sad ok Happy
Black Box
Testing
Pre-Delivery Defects per Man Month 10 15 20*
De...
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• Define & try to achieve Quality objectives
• To detect as many review comments, internal
defe...
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Why spend all this time in finding, and
fixing, and fighting when you could
prevent the inciden...
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• Preparing, publishing & training using the
coding convention for each technology
• Conducting...
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• Preparing the detailed test cases
• Through Testing during each and appropriate
phase like Un...
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# Activity Type
1 Review RA document , Prototype (if
available) & Functional specifications
100...
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• Designing & keep on improving test case format
• Training how to write clear & crisp test cas...
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•Executing Test cases is important process to
check the functionality so test cases to be
revie...
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• Using apt tools and technologies can boost
productivity considerably
• Your two hands can do ...
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• Using tools and technologies we can improve
productivity which in turns help to reduce the
co...
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93
• Need to spread awareness for Standard Code
defect detection & Quality measurement tools
• ...
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Quality Control
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Project RAG Status
NOTE: Pl update the RAG status from spectrum
for last 4 weeks. If any of the...
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• Functionality related gap between expectations
of client and actual delivery
• Defects are in...
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Reviews
• Review helps
• To confirm client’s requirements
• To detect defects in early stages
•...
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RA Design Coding UT IT AT
Defectsinsystem
Various Phases of SDLC
To be at better quality after ...
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Team structure & reviews
PMO
Reviews
PMO
Reviews
Reviews of deliverables of each member at ever...
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Reviews
• Assuring:-
• Quality of design document impacts quality of
the code & the test cases....
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Reviews
• Deciding on review density before starting the
activity
• Review comments expected to...
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Code reviews
• Build detailed code checks into the development
process
• Make it impossible to ...
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Performance testing
• Execute to check performance of each query
• Create database as appropria...
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Issue Management
• Issues are restraints to accomplishing the
deliverables of the project.
• Ty...
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Issues/Risks (non-financial)
Highlight highest risks for management attention
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Metrics-Development & Enhancement
NOTE: Pl highlight the summary from the
metrics report
Work
P...
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Metrics-Maintenance & Support
Provide the SLA compliance summary If you use
any tool provide th...
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ASSIGNED
INVALID
CLOSED
DUPLICATE
LATER
REMIND
FIXED
VERIFIED
REOPENED
WONTFIX
WORKSFORME
NEW
R...
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Testing Improvements
• PM decides on type of testing - automated or
manual or both
• 400% incre...
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Prerequisites of Testing
Test Cases
• Latest & Completed test cases documents from
CVS (or any ...
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Flow of Testing
• Test cases
• Test Data
• Unit Testing
• Screen Layout, look & feel
• Screen V...
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Testing Guidelines
Why the testing guidelines?
• “Test cases may not cover 100% aspects thus
ex...
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Who should test
There are 2 possible actors
• Developers to execute 100% unit testing
• Reasons...
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Unit Testing - UI
To use a check list & test for following
• Consistency- Control sizes
• Basic...
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Unit Testing - UI
• Tab sequence & Text selection
• Links (Check each link to ensure it works)
...
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Unit Testing - Validations
• Field type & Size (Numeric, Alphanumerical,
Database field width)
...
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Unit Testing - Functionality
To use matrix of screens & functionalities
e.g. File Upload/Downlo...
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Unit Testing - Functionality
To use matrix of screens & functionalities
•Test User login Case S...
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Integration Testing
• Refer Integration Matrix while testing
• Enter boundary values (Min , Max...
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• Testing Business Transactions
• Refer Screen Flow Diagrams while identifying
Business Transac...
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• Application Menu should be in sequence of the
functionality
• User Management->Master Data Mg...
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• Perform transaction using multiple instances of
application, Open other applications like (Wo...
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• Copy Paste of the URLs
• Copy URL after Logging in and paste it in
another instance of browse...
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• Reports printing
• Print Multiple Pages
• Try to print without installing any printer driver
...
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How Much Testing Is Enough?
• There is always one more bug…
• So how much testing is needed to ...
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Types of defects
• Blocker
• Severe/ Critical
• Major
• Normal
• Minor
• Trivial
• To publish p...
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Update defect passbook at end of day and check
status and trend
Defect passbook
Making earth little softerConfidential 131
QAG measures Quality
QAG tracks and measures quality using following
template
O...
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Quality measurement
No. of defects 1
effort in manmonths 3
Loc per hr 10
Lines of code 4800
no....
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Measure where are you
• To set a quality baseline & remain determined
• To seek feedback
• To m...
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Aim for Defect Metrics (sample)
Phase Metrics Unit
Lower
Limit
Avera
ge
Upper
Limit
Requirement...
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Bug content analysis
Phenomenon Action example
Module having
major change
Suspend test work
Rev...
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Bug content analysis
Phenomenon Action example
Bug cause
Problem of
defective
specification
Re-...
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Bug content analysis
Occurrence type Action example
Operational error,
without reproduction,
id...
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• No. of pages/ characters of design document &
LOC of the code
• Check planned No. of test cas...
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•Check the pending test cases on daily &
cumulative basis – check if volume is apt
•Bug fixing ...
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Quantitative analysis
# Category Details Type
1 Specification
Inadequacy
Description Inadequacy...
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• Root cause analysis – assign root cause to
each bug & conduct analysis (fishbone diagram)
• S...
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Process
• This PCB is released as Organization PCB
• This PCB should be referred to when provid...
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PCB Contents
• Productivity Data
• Phase wise effort distribution
• Effort – Actual Vs. Estimat...
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Productivity Data
LOC/ 1 MM
Productivity LCL Target UCL
Java 700 1000 1300
VB.Net 800 1500 2200...
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Plan to Collect Data
• PCB shall be updated every three months, End
of every quarter - Jun, Sep...
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Project Closure
To conduct a meeting with all stake holders
To share following information esti...
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Processes
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Defining Roadmap
Communication to
management & Sales
Appointing Leader
Team Building
Consensus ...
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• Determine the appropriate review participant for
each project (Internal customer)
• To receiv...
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Process Improvement
• CMMI-assessed organizations measured and
reported clear improvements
• Pr...
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Quality Management, Control & Assurance
Measurement & Analysis
Prevention & Improvement
Quality...
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Unique Innovative Functionality
1
1
2
Telelogic provides key functionality
• CMMI compliance
• ...
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ISO9000-
2001
Certified
SEI CMM
IV
Ability
SEI CMM V
(Target)
dd-mm-yyyy
(Target)
dd-mm-yyyy
• ...
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• Capability Maturity Model – A non prescriptive
Reference Model or a framework
• In-built flex...
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5 - Optimizing
4 - Managed
3 - Defined
2 - Repeatable
1 - Initial
ContinuouslyContinuously
Impr...
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CMM
Level 3 – Defined
-- peer reviews, intergroup coordination
-- software product engineering
...
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CMM
Level 5 – Optimizing
-- process change management
-- technology change management
-- defect...
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Audit-Definitions
• Discrepancy: a condition averse to quality,
violation of specified requirem...
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Audit-Definitions
• Major NC: Significant non-compliance with
specified requirement & failure o...
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Audit-Definitions
• Correction
• Refers to repair, rework, or adjustment and
relates to the dis...
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Audit Process
Audit PlanningAudit Planning
Audit ReportingAudit Reporting
Audit PreparationAudi...
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Process Improvements
• Iterative Build Process
• For Each Build
• Upgrade Previous Versions
• I...
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Development Process Overview
Product Deliverables
•Prioritized
List of Release
Candidates
•S & ...
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Development Process Overview
Product
Deliverables
•Certified
Unit Tests
•Completed
Unit Test
Ch...
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Experience – case study
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The mistake made
• Manager makes mistakes in project execution
• Wrong estimation
• Not freezin...
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The problems faced
• Limited budgets of client
• Requirements changes
• Increased the developme...
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Issues & resolution
Issue Resolution
Educating managers Training & sharing case study
Budgets o...
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Software Problems
• No “fundamentals laws” of software
• - Complexity
• Extreme modifiability
•...
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Several serious problems happen in real project.
Cost
20MM
(Client)
20MM
(Client)
65MM (Org)65M...
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Schedule
Cost and Scope
is increased
Cost and Scope
is increased
A lot of
discussion
happened
A...
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A lot of problems
in Cost and
Schedule
A lot of problems
in Cost and
Schedule
Before handling o...
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Strategic Quality Planning
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Strategic Quality Planning
Vision Development
Through Quality
Innovations
Vision Development
Th...
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Services to achieve quality
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Services to achieve Q
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How..delivery mechanism
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How..delivery mechanism
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Simple things…governance
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Simple things…governance
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Cheers- delegate & motivate
How to delegate effectively
Choose Resource based on track record &...
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Cheers- delegate & motivate
How to motivate the team
Question
motivation
Understand reasons lik...
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Top items to achieve Q
• Quality drive across organisation- Ownership &
first time right drive ...
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Top items to achieve Q
• Establishing quality framework (processes,
measurement, analysis, prev...
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Q1-Q2 Q3 Q4
Focus on Basic
Project Mgmt, Risk
Mgmt. & Customer
Mgmt
Implementing the
learning &...
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Vision
Knowledge/Tech.Management
Right Facilities
Right Skills / Motivation
RightManagement
(Pl...
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Thank You
Author has worked at as Sr management professional
Vertex Software, now NTTData
Tech ...
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4 earthsoft - full and full - quality in software organidation

"Earthsoft Foundation of Guidance (EFG) is working as an NGO/NPO for students - Education & Career
guidance and for Professionals for soft skills enhancements. I am working on speading , sharing
knowledge; experience globally.It has uploaded important presentations at http://myefg.in/downloads.aspx.
Also https://dl.dropbox.com/u/83265908/Links-events.xls has links for all ppt files.

Read http://tl.gd/jm1gh5

Be mentor using your education, knowledge & experience to contribute for a social cause & do conduct
free training/ workshop seeking help of existing platforms like rotary,etc
Kindly spread to your friends.Thank you!
- Earthsoft Foundation of Guidance
Let us make earth little softer..
Quality management, Assurance and control..
"

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4 earthsoft - full and full - quality in software organidation

  1. 1. Making earth little softer Earthsoft Foundation of Guidance Edge-Aggressive-Reliable-Trust-Honesty-Soft-Obedient-Fun-Transparent
  2. 2. Making earth little softer Earthsoft Foundation of Guidance (EFG) has uploaded following presentations at http://myefg.in/downloads.aspx Be mentor using your education, knowledge & experience to contribute for a social cause & do conduct free training seeking help of existing platforms. Kindly share with your friends •Motivation for higher study, Planning for study, Education guidance, Career guidance, Career available after SSC & HSC •Personality development – 3 files •How to prepare resume, Tips to attend interview successfully •Religion related –To understand basic religion, Do & Don’t tips •Health related - Be vegetarian, Be healthy, Manage health •Corporate - Project management, Assertiveness, Ownership, Effective communication, Leadership, Be entrepreneur •Finance - To avoid speculation in stock market •Social - Women empowerment, Choosing life partner, conflict resolution, stop ragging, stop alcohol, snakebite treatment About us
  3. 3. Making earth little softer • Organisation • Quality • Quality management • Quality Assurance • Quality Control • Processes • Case studies experience • Strategic Quality Planing Index
  4. 4. Making earth little softer Index
  5. 5. Making earth little softer Organisation and projects
  6. 6. Making earth little softer Fundamentals • Say what you do • Do what you say – Prove it – Documentation Criteria for Excellence 1.Leadership 2.Strategic Planning 3.Quality Focus 4.Information & Analysis 5.Human Resource Focus 6.Process Management 7.Business Results
  7. 7. Making earth little softer Quality Model •Reviews of deliverables at every level by supervisor •Effective communication •Plan, Track, Monitor, Control & measure (efforts, schedule, cost, quality, resources, risks) •Reviews of deliverables at every level by supervisor •Effective communication •Plan, Track, Monitor, Control & measure (efforts, schedule, cost, quality, resources, risks) •Skill enhancement •Stringent resource recruitment •Career Planning, Appraisals •Technical Skills •Skill enhancement •Stringent resource recruitment •Career Planning, Appraisals •Technical Skills •Governance •Practicing the best process & formats •Institutionalization •Ownership & skill training •Audits & Process •Governance •Practicing the best process & formats •Institutionalization •Ownership & skill training •Audits & ProcessQuality
  8. 8. Making earth little softer Organization goals To create Technical pool ,To enhance technical skills of resources on latest technologies To improve the quality of delivery First time right, To improve productivity To increase efficiency reducing development & delivery time To reduce the cost of development and be competitive To delight Clients and make them happy
  9. 9. Making earth little softer Importance High-Quality but Slow to Market Not a Leader Speed Quality Fast to Market but Low Quality Low Customer Satisfaction The quality is largely determined by the quality of the process that is used to develop and maintain it, need a trade-off with speed!
  10. 10. Making earth little softer Enablers Quality Management Group • Designing & implementing the processes • Conducting Audits & assuring compliances • Improving the Processes Technology Management Group • To create a technical pool of resources • White Box Testing, Use of Open source • Technical Skill Enhancement • Knowledge Management Quality Assurance Group • To improve quality of delivery, To enhance the testing skills • Review of RA and Test Cases & sample testing • Testing Skill Enhancement • Black Box Testing, Inculcation of Testing Tools & Techniques
  11. 11. Making earth little softer Enablers To delight customers Project Monitoring Group • Review of variances of effort, schedule & quality • Risk Management Resource Review • Appropriate Project closure, To control the cost • To track & improve the productivity Resource Management Group • Learning through contribution & sharing • Adopting emerging technologies & professional practices • Advance functions knowledge enhancement • Effective Communication Education Service Group • Better utilization & billability of the resources • Skill enhancement, Right resources for right tasks • Infrastructure management. Finance management
  12. 12. Making earth little softer Enablers To delight customers Software engineering process Group • Process definition & continuous improvement • Implementation and Audits • Capturing historical data & publishing PCB
  13. 13. Making earth little softer Enablers • Every deliverable must be reviewed by senior • Sharing experience & education from senior management till project managers levels • Define Goal, Objectives, Mission for each enabler group • Vibrant & visible enablers • QMG – Quality Management Group • TMG – Technology Management Group • RMG – Resource Management Group • SEPG – Software Engineering Process • PMO – Project Management Office
  14. 14. Making earth little softer  Audits  Process Design  Process Improvements SE Process Group Technology Mgt. Group Project Monitoring Group Quality Assurance Group  Black Box Testing  Review of Test Cases & RA Docs  Testing Skill Enhancement  Project Review  Risk Management  Resource Review  White Box Testing  Skill Enhancement  Knowledge ManagementQuality Apex Committee Quality mechanism
  15. 15. Making earth little softer Milestones & Dates Milestones & Dates SMC or FP or LOC SMC or FP or LOC Mitigation & owner Mitigation & owner Defect per mm Defect per mm Man- month Man- month Infra, People Technology Infra, People Technology Project Management
  16. 16. Making earth little softer Project Management Plan Track Control Measure Efforts Schedule Quality Cost Risks Resources
  17. 17. Making earth little softer •Productivity •Efforts, Effort Distribution •Cost of Review, Rework, Testing and Training •Defect Injection, Delivered Defect, Defect Distribution •Schedule & efforts relation Project Planning Project Closure Project Data (efforts, defects, schedule, estimate) Project Execution Project Status Report Project Closure Report Projects Capability Baseline (PCB) Status Review Organizations Capability Baseline Project execution
  18. 18. Making earth little softer Successful Project • Successful project management is delivering a quality solution meeting the customer’s requirements within efforts, time, scope & budget making profit for the organisation. Requirements satisfied/exceeded Requirements satisfied/exceeded Completed within effort & time frame Completed within effort & time frame Completed within allocated budget Completed within allocated budget Accepted by the customer Accepted by the customer
  19. 19. Making earth little softer Success Tips Right Project Management Right Project Management Right TeamRight Team Right Processes Right Processes Project Success (Quality & Timely delivery) Project Success (Quality & Timely delivery)
  20. 20. Making earth little softer Projects- Effective monitoring • Assure client/ sales • Safeguard decisions • Prevent collapse • Include basic details • Make comparisons • Underline problems • Allow question time • Be available • Write mom
  21. 21. Making earth little softer Projects- Effective monitoring • Don’t shout • Keep copies & ready reference • Incomplete prerequisites • Wrong estimation • In-efficiencies • Encourage ideas • Cost effectiveness • Judge the work
  22. 22. Making earth little softer Projects- Effective monitoring
  23. 23. Making earth little softer Triple Contraint Quality
  24. 24. Making earth little softer Parameters Current focus Quality of the resources Project Management Client expectation management Current Focus Right Estimation No. of resources Include all Efforts (Reviews, QA, KT, VC, Management) Would evolve After addressing Schedule & Cost Parallel initiatives are going on Education to PM (Project management, Impact of CR, etc) System improvement would improvement transactions
  25. 25. Making earth little softer A lot of problems A lot of problems The purpose of Kaizen activities is to improve customer satisfaction. Kaizen Activities Kaizen Activities Customer Satisfaction Customer Satisfaction Kaizen activities should be related to current real problems Purpose
  26. 26. Making earth little softer • Quality is often thought of as "degree of excellence," or "level of goodness”. • Quality is considered as "fitness for purpose." • Quality is "conformance to the requirements“ • Quality is the way we live our lives! What is Quality
  27. 27. Making earth little softer Quality
  28. 28. Making earth little softer Structural responsibilities •Processes •Audits •Escalations •PCB •Recruitment •Training – Soft Skill & Tech •Grooming & Handholding •To be profitable delivery •Enablers •TMG •QMG •RMG •SEPG •Translation •Growth •Client relationship •Cost control •Tracking profitability
  29. 29. Making earth little softer Quality Policy • Customer Satisfaction is a key to successful business. We are determined to be an organization to achieve “Customer Delight” by providing products & services having minimum defects, adhere schedule and cost effectiveness • We will create a culture of continuous improvement in ourselves and in the value of products and services we offer to the customers. • We want to continually change and improve various aspects of our organization with the objective of being able to service our customer
  30. 30. Making earth little softer Synthesis • Start with focusing on only key area/objectives • Core Quality Needs : i.e. Minimizing the Defects & Total Cost to customer, adhering the Schedule • Utilise the best of the resources: i.e. People, Processes, Infrastructure • Need for continuous improvement • Quality objective to derive quantitative measurement on each of the above key areas • Over the period expand the objectives to be measured and monitored and keep improving on the expected numbers
  31. 31. Making earth little softer • The perceptions of the user determine the purpose. Quality therefore is a user perception. • Correctness : Does it as per users agreed on? (Unit Level) • Integrity : Does it maintain accurate data? (Integration Level) • Reliability: Does it behave right all the time? (Application Level) • Efficiency : Does it run as well as it could? (Application Level) • Robustness: Does it handle invalid data? (Application Level) Quality & User perceptions
  32. 32. Making earth little softer • Few other factors like Usability, Performance, Maintainability, Scalability, Flexibility, Reusability, Interoperability, Audit ability etc offer judgment on Quality. • These factors to be well thought during Requirement gathering & Design phases. Quality & user perceptions
  33. 33. Making earth little softer • Customer Delight is achieved • It saves the cost of implementation by reducing the cycle time & efforts required • It is a joy, proud & tremendous job satisfaction to deliver defect free solution • Enhanced reputation & branding Advantages
  34. 34. Making earth little softer What makes client irritate? • UI OR minor level defects detected within three hours of the testing post delivery. These defects turn out to be most critical in nature. • Functional defect detected within eight hours • Defect detection exceeding 1 defect per hour What makes client delight? • Timely delivery within budget • Graphics as agreed during requirement analysis • Solution functions as per agreed functionality • Defects detected are really very few during first day of testing How does client react?
  35. 35. Making earth little softer • Warranty work - that is performed on a product or application for free under a warranty • Repairs / maintenance - work that is done to fix problems after the solution goes live • Client dissatisfaction - If a solution is of poor quality, the client may not continue future orders • Help desk service may be required to address problems client is facing with the solution • Poor morale - No one likes to work for an organization that has poor processes or produces poor quality solutions. Costs here include increased absenteeism, higher attrition, less productivity and frustration from the staff. Cost of poor quality
  36. 36. Making earth little softer • Lower costs / shorter duration- an initial higher cost to a quality process will result in less rework & reduced project duration. • Lower team morale due to higher defects in the testing process. If the testing goes smoothly with lesser defects & deliverables being right the first time, team morale will rise accordingly. • Fewer errors / defects. Higher quality shows up over the life of the solution with fewer defects and errors. If you are producing a product, higher quality means fewer returns, less warranty work, fewer repairs, etc. Results to be achieved
  37. 37. Making earth little softer It’s a cost • Missing project completion deadline • Huge project efforts & cost overrun • Developers frustration • Sales losing the confidence on delivery capability • Customer dissatisfaction • Organisational branding
  38. 38. Making earth little softer At what cost… • Quality is free and have potential • To delight clients • To get repeat business • To grow business • Brand value for the organisation • Employee happiness & feel good factor
  39. 39. Making earth little softer Quality aspects • Quality :- There are 2 aspects of the quality • Quality of the project – To adhere to the requirements specified by client • Quality of serviceability –Aligning to the cultural expectations & agreements
  40. 40. Making earth little softer Objectives There are 3 levels of quality achievements • Organizational level • Management level • Project Level To execute the project within agreed • Defect density • Defect Matrices • Test cases & related matrices • To service the client more than the expectations • Response to email, telecon, requests, SMS, etc • Following commitment as per communication/ resolution or agreement
  41. 41. Making earth little softer Objectives • Audit should catch more than 1 NC for every 5 projects audited for standard software development processes. • Project-specific feedback should result in improvements actions for key parameters. This is to help continually fine tune the standard processes to ensure more effective delivery • Infrastructure : Continuous improvement in various objectives defined by Enablers groups like Education Service, Resource Management, Project Monitoring, Technology Management, Quality Management Administration & Finance
  42. 42. Making earth little softer • To achieve Excellence through Quality • To review at each stage of output, to maintain the statistics and set a feedback mechanism • To deliver the extremely high quality solution to the customers • Automatic mechanism to deliver quality deliveries in time thus excellence lasting forever • To minimise the personalities/hero based approach and drive towards process orientation • Process driven Objectives
  43. 43. Making earth little softer Objectives • Defects: Number of defects detected by the customer post delivery should not be more than 1 per 3 Person Months of efforts estimated • Schedule: Project completion extended to maximum within 5% of accepted schedule • Total Cost to Customer : Customers overall rating (client happiness index) on services should not be less than 4 on a scale of 1 to 5
  44. 44. Making earth little softer Objectives • People : We need to continually improve the quality of deployed resources. • The measure for this will be a combination of: 1. Skills - Business analysis, Technical & soft skills of customer interfaces (onsite & offshore), Technical expertise of the developers 2. Experience – Domain & industry related 3. Success rate of the Project Managers
  45. 45. Making earth little softer Objectives • Extra ordinarily high reliability • Have minimum defects • Enhances testing skills • Through doing certifications in QA area • Through training on ‘How to write test cases ?’ • Through training on ‘How to test ?’ • Enhance testing process • Testing Process • Testing Methodology • Building Knowledge base • Achieve quality objectives
  46. 46. Making earth little softer • No. of defects to be within the organizational set objective 1 defect for 3 mm efforts, Reduced cycle time, client delight & reduced total cost • Client will be more satisfied if quality is better • Higher service quality will make the client experience more pleasant. This will result in goodwill and may translate into additional sales, or higher margins. • To charge premium to the customer for higher quality & higher productivity. • If the deliverables are produced with less effort the first time, the overall productivity will go up. Expected results
  47. 47. Making earth little softer Make a statement To aim your organisation to be the best in the industry in terms “Defects Delivered Ratio” and thus be able to achieve the organization objective of being an extraordinarily reliable company using.. •The best of the tools & technologies •Recruiting the best of the people •Incorporating processes •Measurements & feedback •Continuous Improvements
  48. 48. Making earth little softer Mission Statement • To adopt Quality as an intrinsic culture of our organization • Quality function is to be called Mission. • Quality is to be not negotiable • To take organisation to newer height and to be the lowest in the industry in terms of “Post delivery Defects to efforts Ratio” • To achieve the organization objective of reliable company • To save the cost of customers
  49. 49. Making earth little softer Quality Management Principles? Basics of Quality Management principles • Customer focus • Leadership • People involvement • Process approach • Systematic approach to management • Continual improvement • Factual approach to decision-making • Mutually beneficial supplier relationships • Understand how these principles can be applied to CEO management practices
  50. 50. Making earth little softer Quality management
  51. 51. Making earth little softer Quality Management Quality Management is the process that insure the project will meet the needs •Conformance to requirements - Crosby •Fitness for use - Juran •The totality of characteristics of an entity that bear on its ability to satisfy stated and implied need - ISO 8402:1994
  52. 52. Making earth little softer Quality Management How will quality assurance and control be conducted? • Identify Quality Standards • Quality Assurance • Quality Control • Quality Matrices • Improve How? What? Check Sometimes performed by a 3rd Party Measure Next?
  53. 53. Making earth little softer DatabaseDatabase Defect Tracking Project Management The Stakeholders Senior Management Review Key Parameters Review Customer Satisfaction Review Process Maturity Process Champion Verify Process compliance Review SLAs/ Dashboard Monitor SQA activities Project Management/ Dev. Manage Project Deliveries Ensure Customer Satisfaction Project Resource Management SQA Group Verify Prod. /Process Quality Causal Analysis Defect Trend Analysis Maint/Integ/Admin Group Network Management Workstation Management Configuration Management Measures & Metrics Process Diagnostics Process Diagnostics Gap AnalysisGap Analysis Solution Articulation Solution Articulation Project Planning Project Planning Process Definition Process Definition Process Implementatio Process Implementatio Reviews, SLAs, Metrics Reviews, SLAs, Metrics Implementation model
  54. 54. Making earth little softer DatabaseDatabase Process Diagnostics Process Diagnostics Gap AnalysisGap Analysis Solution Articulation Solution Articulation Project Planning Project Planning Process Definition Process Definition Process Implementatio Process Implementatio Reviews, SLAs, Metrics Reviews, SLAs, Metrics • Major Milestones : Project Planning (Scope, Detailed Timeline, Deliverables etc.): Documentation, Review, Approval • Team Formation • Processes, Procedures, Policies: Definition, Documentation, Review, Approval, Release • Training • Implementation: Pilot, Review, Roll-out Planning, Measurements, Roll-out • Continuous Improvement: Review thru Measures/ Metrics, Goals & Objectives Implementation timeline
  55. 55. Making earth little softer Quality Assurance Group - QAG
  56. 56. Making earth little softer Fact & aim Successful business cannot come without Satisfied Customer Organisation should aim to go beyond ‘Satisfaction’ and achieve “Customer Delight”
  57. 57. Making earth little softer • Quality Assurance is a not an enforcing function, but includes all the standards, planning and monitoring processes. It’s orientation towards preventing the defects from occurring. • Quality Control encourages for detection and correction of defects • Quality Assurance is proactive and preventative; Quality Control is detective and corrective. QA & QC
  58. 58. Making earth little softer Quality Assurance •Customers are extremely demanding for quality. We must reciprocate their expectations and demands. In the process we improve our delivery capabilities and organization as a whole. •Org to aim to be the reliable software company which delivers the quality solution hence want to try to achieve lowest possible “Post delivery Defects to efforts ratio” •It is essential to review all output critically and test the application and ensure extra-ordinary quality of delivery for the customer.
  59. 59. Making earth little softer Quality Assurance To encourage • To do first time right, so that there are minimum possible defects in the output / delivery • To get output reviewed at every phase • To do self code review • To perform unit testing • To do peer to peer code review • To detect as much defects before delivery • To reduce the defects detected by the client • Thus saving cost of the client
  60. 60. Making earth little softer Quality Assurance • Define standards, processes, reports, forms & templates & check lists; complete the check list without fail for each step • Appropriate defect tracking system to be used • Measure the quality status and progress by way of effective weekly/ periodic reports • Manage the quality by prevention, implementation and feedback • Improve using experience & knowledge sharing
  61. 61. Making earth little softerConfidential 61 To improve quality of delivery
  62. 62. Making earth little softer • Ownership & first time right drive culture • Reviews – Every deliverable is reviewed by supervisor • Process for marking completion of the tasks using check list • Special attention for understanding/confirming the requirements • Brainstorming sessions, reviews of RA & DD & SI test cases (PL), Self review for LLD, Code, Unit test cases, testing for developers, audits of these phases; Framework for communication Quality drive
  63. 63. Making earth little softer • Establishing quality framework (measurement, analysis, preventive & corrective measures, tracking & closure and audits) • HR & RMG framework & Project Structure – Assigning DM/AVP for each projects & teaming with Account managers & OSC • Governance- To be scalable We need • Guidance and structure • A way to assess improvements • Recognition of our improvement and • To demonstrate the results Quality drive
  64. 64. Making earth little softer Improve QualityImprove Quality Creating Technical resources •The best resource to create 3 – 4 resources of better capability •To share technical achievement, lessons learnt and spread knowledge & experience •To enhance of technical skills for latest technologies •To set up R & D center •To manage training •To recruit the best technical resources Reduce CostReduce Cost Improve ProductivityImprove Productivity Organisational Goals
  65. 65. Making earth little softerConfidential 65 Improve QualityImprove Quality Delivering the best Quality •To deliver the best possible quality as per schedule with minimum defects •Reviewing deliverables at each level; checking for completeness & coverage •Training in writing/ executing UT, IT & AT •Finding maximum defects in early phases •Measurement & root cause analysis Reduce CostReduce Cost Improve ProductivityImprove Productivity Organisational Goals
  66. 66. Making earth little softerConfidential 66 Reducing delivery time •First time right, Improve productivity, increase efficiency •Inculcating tools, mostly freeware and latest technology, Utilizing open source •Maximizing automation •Following the best practices and processes •Setting up knowledge management center, sharing experiences and lesson learnt •Implementing automation tools Improve QualityImprove Quality Reduce CostReduce Cost Improve ProductivityImprove Productivity Organisational Goals
  67. 67. Making earth little softerConfidential 67 Reducing development cost •Utilization of Open source code and framework •Process improvement •Automation •Minimizing licensing costs •Utilization of Open source code and framework •Capability building and enhancing •Efficient & motivating environment •Controlling indirect cost Improve QualityImprove Quality Reduce CostReduce Cost Improve ProductivityImprove Productivity Organisational Goals
  68. 68. Making earth little softer • Many organisations witnessed no. of unmanageable defects in pre & post delivery • Many organisations lost some potential accounts due to bad delivery for ever • Management of organisation generally go by personalities and their feel about the project than actually reviewing the output at each stage • Reviews at each stage of the SDLC reduces the risk, efforts and the cost at later stage Necessity of QAG
  69. 69. Making earth little softer • QCG services not to be ‘Optional’ or ‘On Call Basis’, it should be mandatory organisational process. • QCG acts as an internal customer for projects • Dedicated team for QA Group QAG - Responsibility
  70. 70. Making earth little softer • Responsive • Affirmative & assertive • Good negotiator • Competent • Accessible • Courteous • Good communicators • Credible • Knowledgeable of the client business • Reliable • Commanding • Passion for Quality Internal customer
  71. 71. Making earth little softer Inculcating New Tools & Techniques Black Box Testing Review of Test Plan & document Testing Skill Enhancement QAG – Key focus areas
  72. 72. Making earth little softer The strength on a building is built in its plan QAG – test plan
  73. 73. Making earth little softer • Review Test plan , test cases & execution • Track quality progress • Measure defect leakages • Causal analysis & improvement • Raise early warning signals QAG – Test Plan
  74. 74. Making earth little softer Responsibilities • ITC Review and execution (sample basis) • Periodic defects data collection and analysis • Compiling standard functionalities components • Review of Requirement Analysis & proposal • Review of Functional Specifications • Review of Prototype • Review Unit Test cases & execution (Sample) • Review of Integration & Application Test cases & execution (100%) • Review of Test results (Sample Basis) • Effort matrix for QA Activities • Defects matrix for QA Activities
  75. 75. Making earth little softer Black Box Testing White Box Testing • Macro- Project Plan • Requirement Analysis • Functional Requirements • Prototype + ATC • ITC • UTC (Sample) Reviewed by Technology Group:- •Design Review •Code Review To be reviewed by Internal Customer QAG - Responsibility
  76. 76. Making earth little softerConfidential 76 Methodology
  77. 77. Making earth little softer Why • Early warning mechanism • Reduction in number of defects since third party views • Reduction in number of cycles of testing, eventually reduce duration & cost & enhance client’s satisfaction
  78. 78. Making earth little softer Methodology Short Term Goals • Teaming • Training • Formalize a process of QA for all projects • Measure Effectiveness of QA • Tune QA process Long Term Goals • Develop testing process • Building Knowledge base • Achieve quality objectives
  79. 79. Making earth little softer Quality Assurance Paradox • Software quality must be very high! • Bugs are much more visible than before. • Complexity is increasing • Time to market is critical • Cost control • Does quality assurance conflict with cost control and time to market? • Can QA actually decrease cost and improve time-to-market???
  80. 80. Making earth little softer Quality Strategy Development • Enhancing the quality of teaching and learning experience. • To enhance life-long skills of the students that matched with the demand and requirement of the industry/employer. • Enhancing the quality of research and publication, etc.
  81. 81. Making earth little softer • PM to plan for QCG activities in right spirit right from the beginning assuming internal customer • To plan complete involvement of assigned QCG member from kickoff meetings, KT session, project meetings, etc • Project to fulfill the readiness criteria for QCG • QCG member to present understanding to PM • QCG member to be updated for requirements • QCG & PM to decide internal quality objectives • QCG to support PM for defect prevention & minimising using historical data & experience • To raise early signals to management QCG – better services
  82. 82. Making earth little softer Skill Enhancemen t Identify Training needs using Skill Matrix Identify Training needs using Skill Matrix Plan training preparing the calendar Plan training preparing the calendar Execute Training by competent faculties Execute Training by competent faculties Measure enhanced skills & Feedback Measure enhanced skills & Feedback QAG – skill enhancements
  83. 83. Making earth little softer Area Description Sad ok Happy Black Box Testing Pre-Delivery Defects per Man Month 10 15 20* Defect detected by customer per 3 man month > 1 1 < 1 Total Cost to Customer (Task, Review, Rework) 1-2 3 4 Skill Enhancement Quantify Skill level in the organization in ‘n’ months time 2 1.5 1 Improve Skill level over 6 months time frame by 2% 5% 10% Number of resources trained (% of Billable team) 2% 5% 10% Tools and Tech. Introducing at least 1 new tools / technologies in the organization every ‘n’ months 2 1 0.5 Process Improvement Improve Processes / Define new ones - 1 instance every “n” month 3 2 1 QAG – Key Objectives
  84. 84. Making earth little softer • Define & try to achieve Quality objectives • To detect as many review comments, internal defects during Unit testing & IT/AT (Target 15-20 defects per man-month of efforts) • To improve quality using defect elimination where defect delivered ratio is not more than 1 defect for 3 man-month of efforts • Testing of 3 hours should not detect the defect • Conduct Root Cause Analysis • Implement action plan derived after RCA • Training & Building Knowledge base • Achieve high level of satisfaction with the quality QAG - Goals
  85. 85. Making earth little softer Why spend all this time in finding, and fixing, and fighting when you could prevent the incidents in the first place - Phil Crosby
  86. 86. Making earth little softer • Preparing, publishing & training using the coding convention for each technology • Conducting technical skill enhancement training • Through design reviews • Through code review • Avoiding repeat issue in the code • Creating standard components & liabrary • Help your peer to make the code clean QAG – White box testing
  87. 87. Making earth little softer • Preparing the detailed test cases • Through Testing during each and appropriate phase like Unit, Integration and Application testing • Accepting the challenge that we will find the defect ourselves and not anyone else • We will ask question .. Why should we be delivering defects…?? • Help your peer to make the code clean • Help your peer to unit test their code QAG – Black box testing
  88. 88. Making earth little softer # Activity Type 1 Review RA document , Prototype (if available) & Functional specifications 100% 2 Review the Application Test Cases 100% 3 Review the Unit & Integration Test Cases sample 4 Conduct Unit and Integration Testing sample 5 Review test results for Unit and Integration testing sample 6 Review test Application test results sample 7 Conduct Application testing (pre-delivery) 100% QAG to give GO-ahead based on above results QAG – Black box testing
  89. 89. Making earth little softer • Designing & keep on improving test case format • Training how to write clear & crisp test cases • Writing a good test case is a skill, to be learned • Test cases coverage to be maximum • Efficient process of Task, review and rework • Appropriate & Higher skills is higher productivity and lesser cost • Improving skills through sharing experience and knowledge and by way of training • Skill enhancement is growth in personality • Test cases though well written might not cover 100% scenarios, so testers skills can play a role QAG – Skills enhancement
  90. 90. Making earth little softer •Executing Test cases is important process to check the functionality so test cases to be reviewed & enhanced •Phase wise (Unit / Integration/ Application test cases) •Module wise matching to functionality •Aim to cover maximum functionality Purpose is to •Track depth of understanding •To detect gap in understanding the functionality •Measure defect leakages and •Raise early warning signals QAG – review o test cases
  91. 91. Making earth little softer • Using apt tools and technologies can boost productivity considerably • Your two hands can do a lot, but not all • Evaluate new testing tools and technologies • Conduct training on new tools and technologies • Publish white paper / develop proto application • Help projects with new tools and technologies QAG – Tools & Technologies
  92. 92. Making earth little softer • Using tools and technologies we can improve productivity which in turns help to reduce the cost Tools • Code Quality Tools ( Open Source) – Emma, Junit, Findbugs, Checkstyle, JDepend and CPD. • Code review checklist • Recurring Issues Checklist • Internal Checklist - based on live issues and testing feedback of previous releases (knowledge management) QAG – Tools & Technologies
  93. 93. Making earth little softer 93 • Need to spread awareness for Standard Code defect detection & Quality measurement tools • Emma – Code Coverage Tool to find percentage of code covered by Junit test cases. • JDepend – Dependency checker to find interdependencies within the java code. • CPD – A tool to find out the duplicate code that means that bugs can appear in several places. It means more compilation times & bigger binaries • FindBugs – A tool to find bugs in Java programs. It looks for instances of "bug patterns" --- code instances that are likely to be erroneous. QAG – Tools & technologies
  94. 94. Making earth little softer Quality Control
  95. 95. Making earth little softer Project RAG Status NOTE: Pl update the RAG status from spectrum for last 4 weeks. If any of the parameter is Red / Amber, pl update the action required and status for the current week. Parameter Last Week -1 Last Week Current Week Action Required Status Target Date Budget Scope Effort Schedule Resource Quality
  96. 96. Making earth little softer • Functionality related gap between expectations of client and actual delivery • Defects are injected during Requirement analysis, High & Low level Design and coding phase. • Continuous reviews help to prevent/ remove defect injection • Rigorous testing during Unit level, Integration and application level testing detect the defects. RA R Desig n R Coding R UT IT AT Achieving Quality
  97. 97. Making earth little softer Reviews • Review helps • To confirm client’s requirements • To detect defects in early stages • To reduce rework at later phases
  98. 98. Making earth little softer RA Design Coding UT IT AT Defectsinsystem Various Phases of SDLC To be at better quality after every phase • Removing defects by reviewing & testing • From each deliverable • At each phase Reviews & Testing
  99. 99. Making earth little softer Team structure & reviews PMO Reviews PMO Reviews Reviews of deliverables of each member at every level by supervisor help improving quality Creating proposal Project Plan, Reports Following Process & best practices Review of DD, Coding conventions Reviews of Proposal; Reports, Escalations Compliances of the best practices, client management & business growth Creating DD, Design Framework, Coding convention, Reviews of deliverables of Developers & testers Creating Specification, Code, Unit & SI test cases, Testing, etc Completion checklist, Self review
  100. 100. Making earth little softer Reviews • Assuring:- • Quality of design document impacts quality of the code & the test cases. • To identify the right resource for the reviews depending on entity to be reviewed • Assuring incorporating review comments • Reviews are discontinued when progress is delayed. To assure to have reviews as planned • Tracking review efforts & duration for each entity (like code, unit test cases, etc) (e.g. review time per page)
  101. 101. Making earth little softer Reviews • Deciding on review density before starting the activity • Review comments expected to reduce on repeat cycle • Cause for concerns • No. of review comments & No. of major comments are not decreasing on progress as expected is indication of unstable quality • Volume change of entity (e.g. no of pages for design doc, no. of test cases, etc) pre & post review
  102. 102. Making earth little softer Code reviews • Build detailed code checks into the development process • Make it impossible to release code that violates these checks • Few errors would only be discovered by code reviews or testing • Many errors only occurred on specific datasets
  103. 103. Making earth little softer Performance testing • Execute to check performance of each query • Create database as appropriate • Compile & Check manually all the queries individually for performance time, keep record • Every SQL statement is run against multiple real world customer databases • Improve/ optimise the queries • Log the bugs for worst performing statements
  104. 104. Making earth little softer Issue Management • Issues are restraints to accomplishing the deliverables of the project. • Typically identified throughout the project and logged and tracked through resolution. Issues impact cost, time, quality, most important is reputation and branding! Types of issue – Minor, Normal, Major, Critical, Blocker Minor issue is dangerous!
  105. 105. Making earth little softer Issues/Risks (non-financial) Highlight highest risks for management attention
  106. 106. Making earth little softer Metrics-Development & Enhancement NOTE: Pl highlight the summary from the metrics report Work Packets Effort Variance On-time Delivery Defect Density Field Defect Density Productivity COQ Review Effective ness Goal Actual G A G A G A G A G A G A
  107. 107. Making earth little softer Metrics-Maintenance & Support Provide the SLA compliance summary If you use any tool provide the snap shot of the same. The number of tickets includes the new received in the reporting month as well as the backlog from previous months Priority Number of Tickets/Faults Response SLA Compliance% Resolution SLA Compliance% Remarks Goal Actual Goal Actual P1 P2 P3 P4
  108. 108. Making earth little softer ASSIGNED INVALID CLOSED DUPLICATE LATER REMIND FIXED VERIFIED REOPENED WONTFIX WORKSFORME NEW REASSIGNED Tester Upload Snaps / Doc / XLS , Steps to reproduce bug, Ref. to Db Backup in CVS * Bug Detected During * Bug Injected During * Severity PL Bug Priority Assigned To (Induced By) Reassign To Tester PL Developer Should the Bug be fixed? PL PL Recurrence of the Bug? Yes No Yes No Upload Test Result Snap Ref to Bug Analysis Template in CVS Issue tracking flow
  109. 109. Making earth little softer Testing Improvements • PM decides on type of testing - automated or manual or both • 400% increase in automated regression tests in the same efforts • Tests created for all key business flows • Created by dedicated product QA teams • Used for • Ongoing maintenance/bug fixes • Platform certification (e.g. Linux) • Technology certifications • eBusiness Flows certified prior to release • Progress measured daily, and reported
  110. 110. Making earth little softer Prerequisites of Testing Test Cases • Latest & Completed test cases documents from CVS (or any Configuration management tool) Test Environments • Document that gives the details of H/W and S/W required to start testing • Identical environment which client would have while going live • Development environment • Testing environment
  111. 111. Making earth little softer Flow of Testing • Test cases • Test Data • Unit Testing • Screen Layout, look & feel • Screen Validations • Functionality • Integration Testing • Application Testing • Users Acceptance Testing
  112. 112. Making earth little softer Testing Guidelines Why the testing guidelines? • “Test cases may not cover 100% aspects thus extend your thoughts beyond the written statement of the test case.”
  113. 113. Making earth little softer Who should test There are 2 possible actors • Developers to execute 100% unit testing • Reasons being they take the entire ownership of quality of the delivery • Second possibility is dedicated testing team executing test cases • Testing being skill of expert!
  114. 114. Making earth little softer Unit Testing - UI To use a check list & test for following • Consistency- Control sizes • Basic functionalities • Tables, navigation to next page • Search listing result • Validation error message • Layout (as per Prototype) • Spelling Mistakes • Font (Type & Size) • Icons display • Color Scheme • Screen resolution
  115. 115. Making earth little softer Unit Testing - UI • Tab sequence & Text selection • Links (Check each link to ensure it works) • Current selection indication • Alignments (Text, Numbers, Row, Column) • Compatibility with various browsers • Duplicate display of information • Mention of Copyright
  116. 116. Making earth little softer Unit Testing - Validations • Field type & Size (Numeric, Alphanumerical, Database field width) • Formatted fields (e.g. Date, E-mail, Phone Numbers, Security ID) • Mandatory Fields • Messaging (Alert, Warning, field message, message post submissions, sequence, etc) • Database Records verification • Verify the values stored in database for Radio buttons & Checkboxes • Test spaces trimming (leading & trailing spaces) • Update By & Update on fields
  117. 117. Making earth little softer Unit Testing - Functionality To use matrix of screens & functionalities e.g. File Upload/Download •Try all types of files – image files, office files, animated GIF •Try downloading files – verify they don’t contain garbage •Search using special characters like (%,_,’ etc.) Sorting functionality - Check the number of records before and after the sorting are same • In case of mailing functionality, check for non- existing e-mail address. (The mail should be returned back to some preset mail address)
  118. 118. Making earth little softer Unit Testing - Functionality To use matrix of screens & functionalities •Test User login Case Sensitivity •Test the dependant behaviors of the controls •Enabling / Disabling based on some actions •Data shown in Popup Screens based on some actions (Refreshing) •Language Support Test (Wherever applicable Japanese / German/ French, etc Input) •Test readability by changing encoding type in the browser
  119. 119. Making earth little softer Integration Testing • Refer Integration Matrix while testing • Enter boundary values (Min , Max, 0 , negative etc) • Errors occur when values passed by once screen are used in calculations on other screen
  120. 120. Making earth little softer • Testing Business Transactions • Refer Screen Flow Diagrams while identifying Business Transactions • Identify the User Roles to perform testing (Sales Person, Purchase Manager, Dispatch Person OR User , Administrator) • Ensure Test Data Variety & Test data Volume • Roles & Rights testing (Test for access rights) • Logging Mechanism testing (Errors and User Actions) • Deployment Testing (Perform Deployment as per the Deployment Document) Application Testing
  121. 121. Making earth little softer • Application Menu should be in sequence of the functionality • User Management->Master Data Mgt-> Order Entry->Purchase Mgt->Dispatch • Navigation • Using Browser ‘Back’ & ‘Forward’ buttons • Using ‘Back Button’ & ‘Links’ in the application • Browser dependency • Test for all the browsers as per client request (Min should be IE & Netscape) • Disable Cookies and try to login or perform Transactions Application Testing
  122. 122. Making earth little softer • Perform transaction using multiple instances of application, Open other applications like (Word, Excel, Access, Others) • Quick Actions in the Application • Click Submit button twice • Switch between the screens quickly • Enter data in one instance & try to see it immediately in another instance • Random operations • Enter any number of characters and click anywhere • Clicks on read only area Application Testing
  123. 123. Making earth little softer • Copy Paste of the URLs • Copy URL after Logging in and paste it in another instance of browser • Same operation while in the middle of a business Transactions • Session Timeout verification (test for < / = / > defined timeout value) • Disconnection Test (to verify there is no inconsistent data generated) • Disconnect Net connection in the middle of a transaction • Stop Database service while transaction is in process on the client Application Testing
  124. 124. Making earth little softer • Reports printing • Print Multiple Pages • Try to print without installing any printer driver • Verify Report Margins for the printed copy • Status related tests (Display only ‘Active’ / ‘Live’ records) • Multi-user Testing • Concurrent users (Different users / users with different roles) • Concurrent Transactions (Add / Update / Delete / File Upload) • Locking Issues Test • Common Tests…ref file Application Testing
  125. 125. Making earth little softer How Much Testing Is Enough? • There is always one more bug… • So how much testing is needed to find “all” ? • Cost • Time to market • Feasibility • Rate of detection of defects • Industry-specific standards • To predict how many bugs will be in a release? • In order to provide correct budget and schedule estimates, QA managers need the means to predict fault levels.
  126. 126. Making earth little softer Types of defects • Blocker • Severe/ Critical • Major • Normal • Minor • Trivial • To publish phase wise defect data for each module for above types • Responsibility wise Sample statistics
  127. 127. Making earth little softer Update defect passbook at end of day and check status and trend Defect passbook
  128. 128. Making earth little softerConfidential 131 QAG measures Quality QAG tracks and measures quality using following template Organisation
  129. 129. Making earth little softer Quality measurement No. of defects 1 effort in manmonths 3 Loc per hr 10 Lines of code 4800 no. of defects 1 % of defects to LoC 1*100/4800=2.1% Achieved quality 97.9167% • 1 defect detected by customer for 3 man months of efforts is said to be fairly good quality • Count each type of defect (minor, normal, major, critical or blocker) ; Minor defect is worst!
  130. 130. Making earth little softer Measure where are you • To set a quality baseline & remain determined • To seek feedback • To measure and conclude current levels from desired level • To draw action plan to be at set goal 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Vertex NTTD Desired level Current Level Current level Desired level
  131. 131. Making earth little softer Aim for Defect Metrics (sample) Phase Metrics Unit Lower Limit Avera ge Upper Limit Requirement definition Requirement documents Review comments Per 100 pages 9.8 15 24 Design Detail design (DD) Review comments Per 100 pages 7.6 13 21 Program design (PD) Review comments Per 100 pages 4.9 12 30 Coding Unit Testing Test Case Density KLOC 65 110 170 Defect density KLOC 3 6.4 9.7 Integration Testing (SI) Test Case Density KLOC 16 39 92 Defect density KLOC 0.7 2.2 3.6 Testing System Testing (PT) Testing density KLOC 2.3 9.5 39 Bug detection density KLOC 0 0.7 1.4 Entity which is measured, can be managed well
  132. 132. Making earth little softer Bug content analysis Phenomenon Action example Module having major change Suspend test work Review of design document, review of source code with the designer Enhanced test according to test items, bug contents Test density < allowable range Enhanced test according to test items, bug contents Bug detection density is less than allowable Enhanced test according to test item, bug contents Bug detection density exceeds allowable range As per 1 above
  133. 133. Making earth little softer Bug content analysis Phenomenon Action example Bug cause Problem of defective specification Re-check specifications for client, business Design document review with an expert Indetermination of specifications of design doc. ambiguous part Bug cause Problem of development from specification Confirmation of specification to designer Review of design document & source code with the designer Clarification of implementation, implementation method Bug - Other than specification Thoroughness of walk through and source code review Occurrence type Environment Specify reason according to occurrence period, contents Re-examination of test environment, system
  134. 134. Making earth little softer Bug content analysis Occurrence type Action example Operational error, without reproduction, identification mistake) Review of test item, process Re-adjustment of design document, test environment Educational guidance to designer Coding/ modification mistake Thoroughness of source code review Occurrence of important bug that impacts test progress Suspend test work Review of design document & review of source code Enhanced test according to the test item, bug contents occurrence of similar bugs Check the latency of a similar bug in another module
  135. 135. Making earth little softer • No. of pages/ characters of design document & LOC of the code • Check planned No. of test cases (a statistical index page for test cases shows the progress) • Test cases planned & actually execution • To capture No. of test cases executed on daily basis and cumulative basis • No. of defects detected on daily and cumulative basis – check if volume is apt • Calculate defect density–check if volume is apt • Check if any delay in execution, understand & remove the delay Quantitative analysis
  136. 136. Making earth little softer •Check the pending test cases on daily & cumulative basis – check if volume is apt •Bug fixing on daily and cumulative basis - check if volume is less or more •Check if any delay in fixing, understand & remove the delay Quantitative analysis Matrix Analysis Test density Low Target value Upper limit Bug Density -Low Less Bugs detection Retest adding few more test cases Member skill level? Target Value Write additional test cases Judge verification of the result qualitatively Judge verification of the result qualitatively Upper Limit Multiple bugs occurred Multiple bugs occurred Suspend testing, get into other measure like code review, etc
  137. 137. Making earth little softer Quantitative analysis # Category Details Type 1 Specification Inadequacy Description Inadequacy Interface Error Logical Error Data definition error Table definition error Format Error Others Wrong description Ambiguous Standard Violation Document not corrected Document not consistent 2 Issue while deploying Slipping over the specification Lack of understanding the Lack of confirming the specification Insufficient investigation of specs 3 Issues except the matters related to specification Less knowledge for language usage Halfway publicize / communication Standard violation Not checked while re-using Not checked while modifying Unforced mistake
  138. 138. Making earth little softer • Root cause analysis – assign root cause to each bug & conduct analysis (fishbone diagram) • Severity wise • Developer wise • Tester wise • Defect injection phase v/s defect detection • Defect injection phase v/s root cause • Daily status (like a bank passbook) Quantitative analysis Defect detected RA-Review HLD, IT -Review LLD, UT-Review Code review UT IT AT Defect injected RA HLD LLD Coding
  139. 139. Making earth little softer Process • This PCB is released as Organization PCB • This PCB should be referred to when providing Organizational Data to the customers • Each project depending on the size, complexity and customer requirement shall define the metrics for the project. • This would be done in Process Plan as part of the project initiation. • In case the project targets are outside the UCL or LCL limits an approval would be required from the respective VP.
  140. 140. Making earth little softer PCB Contents • Productivity Data • Phase wise effort distribution • Effort – Actual Vs. Estimated • Schedule – Actual Vs. Estimated • Defect Metrics
  141. 141. Making earth little softer Productivity Data LOC/ 1 MM Productivity LCL Target UCL Java 700 1000 1300 VB.Net 800 1500 2200 C# .net 700 950 1200 C 700 1000 1300 This data applies to all the efforts spent on all SDLC Phases – from RA to Acceptance testing To finalise parameters for data to be captured To create PCB data for each project Thus organisational data will be created Analyse & use the data
  142. 142. Making earth little softer Plan to Collect Data • PCB shall be updated every three months, End of every quarter - Jun, Sep, Dec, and Mar • For development, testing & maintenance project • Finalise project metrics during kickoff of project • The project metrics collection plan shall be finalized as part of the project initiation process (Process Plan) • The projects shall contribute Phase End data or Milestone data every six months • To share PCB data during project closure
  143. 143. Making earth little softer Project Closure To conduct a meeting with all stake holders To share following information estimated & actual • Efforts • Schedule • Defect Matrices • Profitability • Client happiness Index Detailing • Key learning • Best performance • What next? Remember
  144. 144. Making earth little softer Processes
  145. 145. Making earth little softer Defining Roadmap Communication to management & Sales Appointing Leader Team Building Consensus of Roadmap, Governance & Operations Communication to All Framework (Analysis, Measurement, Reporting, Methodologies, Checklist, Team building, Asset management, PCB, Calendars, Institutionalization) Delivery running like an Engine When…time frame
  146. 146. Making earth little softer • Determine the appropriate review participant for each project (Internal customer) • To receive the review material • Conduct the timely reviews • Send feedback review to the project manager • Interact till all points are closed • Conclude the review Process
  147. 147. Making earth little softer Process Improvement • CMMI-assessed organizations measured and reported clear improvements • Productivity • Quality • Schedule • Cost • Customer Satisfaction • Mean Return on Investment • measured = 4.8 : 1 • Varies from 2:1 to 27.7:1! • They say, quality is free!
  148. 148. Making earth little softer Quality Management, Control & Assurance Measurement & Analysis Prevention & Improvement Quality Management, Control & Assurance Measurement & Analysis Prevention & Improvement Process change Initiatives Acceptance Process change Initiatives Acceptance Process Improvement Training & Education Implementation Process Improvement Training & Education Implementation StructureStructure People Skills Performance Reward Development Leaders People Skills Performance Reward Development Leaders Software Solutions Deliveries Client Delight More business Software Solutions Deliveries Client Delight More business Project Management Plan, Track, Monitor & Control, Communication Effort, schedule, Quality, Cost, Resource, Risk Project Management Plan, Track, Monitor & Control, Communication Effort, schedule, Quality, Cost, Resource, Risk Business process improvements
  149. 149. Making earth little softer Unique Innovative Functionality 1 1 2 Telelogic provides key functionality • CMMI compliance • Strategic QA • Project scheduling • Effort estimation • Causal analysis • Process enforcement • Duplicate management
  150. 150. Making earth little softer ISO9000- 2001 Certified SEI CMM IV Ability SEI CMM V (Target) dd-mm-yyyy (Target) dd-mm-yyyy • To prepare a realistic plan with target dates • To seek consensus from all stake holders Quality certification
  151. 151. Making earth little softer • Capability Maturity Model – A non prescriptive Reference Model or a framework • In-built flexibility allowing organizations to define their own processes, templates, forms, reports etc. to suit their needs, culture, practices etc. • Different models for different purposes (Software Development, IT Services, People Management ,etc.) • Based on evolutionary improvement path • Focus is on the organizational process maturity and not on individuals / individual services or projects CMM - Overview
  152. 152. Making earth little softer 5 - Optimizing 4 - Managed 3 - Defined 2 - Repeatable 1 - Initial ContinuouslyContinuously ImprovingImproving PredictablePredictable Standard, ConsistentStandard, Consistent Disciplined ProcessDisciplined Process Ad-hoc ProcessAd-hoc Process Five steps staged Framework
  153. 153. Making earth little softer CMM Level 3 – Defined -- peer reviews, intergroup coordination -- software product engineering -- integrated software management -- training program -- organization process definition & focus Level 2 – Repeatable -- software configuration management -- software quality assurance -- software project planning, tracking and oversight -- requirements management Level 1 – Initial
  154. 154. Making earth little softer CMM Level 5 – Optimizing -- process change management -- technology change management -- defect prevention Level 4 – Managed -- software quality management -- quantitative process management
  155. 155. Making earth little softer Audit-Definitions • Discrepancy: a condition averse to quality, violation of specified requirement, because of • Lack of system/ method/ procedure - this is system discrepancy • Lack of implementation or practice not in line with the intent - implementation discrepancy • System or practice is not effective - effectiveness discrepancy • Non Conformance (NC) • Clear case of deviation from the stated intentions or arrangements (plan) or absence of a system to meet the requirement
  156. 156. Making earth little softer Audit-Definitions • Major NC: Significant non-compliance with specified requirement & failure of system • Significant number of instances of minor failures • Minor NC: minor problem warrants for attention • an isolated witnessed incident of failure to comply with the procedure • Small deviation, which if left unattended, could lead to a problem in future or a failure in some part of the system • Observation : Factual information gathered • Strengths :Practices observed that are better than the normal
  157. 157. Making earth little softer Audit-Definitions • Correction • Refers to repair, rework, or adjustment and relates to the disposition of an existing non conformity • Corrective Action • Relates to the elimination of the causes of a non conformity • Preventive Action • Action taken to eliminate the cause of a potential non conformity, defect or other undesirable situation in order to prevent re- occurrence
  158. 158. Making earth little softer Audit Process Audit PlanningAudit Planning Audit ReportingAudit Reporting Audit PreparationAudit Preparation Audit ExecutionAudit Execution Audit Follow-upAudit Follow-up Audit AnalysisAudit Analysis Corrective / Preventive Actions Corrective / Preventive Actions
  159. 159. Making earth little softer Process Improvements • Iterative Build Process • For Each Build • Upgrade Previous Versions • Installation Tests • Automatic Coding Standards Checkers • Review Documentation • Consulting Tests Setups & Flows • Central QA Tests Flows • Product QA Teams Test Flows/Products • Measure Everything • Install Issues, Product Bugs, % Tests Complete
  160. 160. Making earth little softer Development Process Overview Product Deliverables •Prioritized List of Release Candidates •S & A documents for Release Candidates •Preliminary Release Plan •S & A Review with Key Sponsors •Updated Release Plan •Database Diagrams •High Level Designs •High Level Design Review •Final Release Plan •Detailed Designs •Detailed Design Review •Unit and System Test Plans •Coded Modules •Formal Code Walkthrough PreliminaryPreliminary Release PlanningRelease Planning StrategyStrategy & Analysis& Analysis High LevelHigh Level DesignDesign DetailedDetailed DesignDesign BuildBuild DesignDesign Applications Development Process Bug/Error Feedback Loop Customer Feedback Milestones
  161. 161. Making earth little softer Development Process Overview Product Deliverables •Certified Unit Tests •Completed Unit Test Checklists •Certified System Tests •System Test Regression Tests •Certified Integration Tests •Integration Test Regression Tests •Completed Performance Tuning •Product Documentation •Satisfactory Feedback •Final Product Documentatio n (Bound) •Shipping Applications Development Process SystemSystem TestTest IntegrationIntegration TestTest CertificationCertification TestingTesting Unit TestUnit TestBuildBuild ProductionProduction ReleaseRelease TestingTesting Beta/Beta/ CertificationCertification Bug/Error Feedback LoopCustomer Feedback Milestones
  162. 162. Making earth little softer Experience – case study
  163. 163. Making earth little softer The mistake made • Manager makes mistakes in project execution • Wrong estimation • Not freezing the requirements, specifications & documentation and sign-off • Timely team building & Resource talent • Research on technologies, Implementing coding conventions • Critical reviews and Traceability between RA, design & coding • Quality Assurance & Control; Process compliance • Client expectation management
  164. 164. Making earth little softer The problems faced • Limited budgets of client • Requirements changes • Increased the development time & efforts • Potential to make system unstable • Implementation of few functions which could be taken in next phase • Project tracking became difficult; lot of time of project manager spent with client in VC meetings
  165. 165. Making earth little softer Issues & resolution Issue Resolution Educating managers Training & sharing case study Budgets on quality Need to be budgeted Parameters measurement Create format, assign responsibility Authority & responsibility To authorize PM/DM while expecting responsibility Too many interventions to be avoided Bandwidth of PM Dedicated front end team member for client communication & reporting PM must focus in managing project Estimation skill Education, Experience, Training Reviews of every deliverable Audits and measurements
  166. 166. Making earth little softer Software Problems • No “fundamentals laws” of software • - Complexity • Extreme modifiability • - Software is easy to change • - Difficult to control changes • - Significance of changes • - Defects • Technology churn • - Structured development process plus testing • Very low manufacturing cost • - Software quality: Primarily a design issue • No borders -----Philippe Kruchten
  167. 167. Making earth little softer Several serious problems happen in real project. Cost 20MM (Client) 20MM (Client) 65MM (Org)65MM (Org) Estimation Scope A lot of discussion happened A lot of discussion happenedGap can’t charge additionally can’t charge additionally Losing business & Relationship After External Design After External Design A lot of request comes A lot of request comes Analyze CR or Defect Analyze CR or Defect Almost of them are CR Almost of them are CR Spent much time Scope is increasin g Spent much time Common problems
  168. 168. Making earth little softer Schedule Cost and Scope is increased Cost and Scope is increased A lot of discussion happened A lot of discussion happened Spend much time Schedule remains the same Phase I Phase II ED, ID, Coding UT, SI Common problems
  169. 169. Making earth little softer A lot of problems in Cost and Schedule A lot of problems in Cost and Schedule Before handling only on quality issue, we need to tackle the bottleneck real issues Before handling only on quality issue, we need to tackle the bottleneck real issues Objective Deliver realistically and success fully Quality ImprovedQuality Improved OutputOutput Missing •Coding Standard •Strict Process Missing •Coding Standard •Strict Process Focus on the serious issues in Kaizen Activities Focus on the serious issues in Kaizen Activities 95 % 5 % Conclusion
  170. 170. Making earth little softer Strategic Quality Planning
  171. 171. Making earth little softer Strategic Quality Planning Vision Development Through Quality Innovations Vision Development Through Quality Innovations Corporate Strategies Corporate Strategies Quality Strategy Development Quality Strategy Development Quality Performance Objectives Quality Performance Objectives Performance Measurement Performance Measurement Quality Action Plans Quality Action Plans Key Stakeholders’ Feedback Key Stakeholders’ Feedback Quality Initiatives Identified Quality Initiatives Identified Staff Engagement Staff Engagement Benchmarking (e.g. AUN-QA) Benchmarking (e.g. AUN-QA) AlignmentAlignment
  172. 172. Making earth little softer Services to achieve quality
  173. 173. Making earth little softer Services to achieve Q
  174. 174. Making earth little softer How..delivery mechanism
  175. 175. Making earth little softer How..delivery mechanism
  176. 176. Making earth little softer Simple things…governance
  177. 177. Making earth little softer Simple things…governance
  178. 178. Making earth little softer Cheers- delegate & motivate How to delegate effectively Choose Resource based on track record & potential Communicate clearly Communicate expectations clearly, exact nature of the tasks, Avoid ignorance Set realistic targets Understand potential, capability, experience & energy while setting the tasks Monitor progress Indicate clear milestone, define % completion in agreement, check list to declare the completion of the tasks, seek inputs on daily basis Get & give feedback Seek updates on performance, check the results, ask the supervisor & give feedback setting / reminding the expectations Encourage accountability Encourage commitment & time from team members to complete the tasks as planned; to cover up if lagging, challenge their ownership
  179. 179. Making earth little softer Cheers- delegate & motivate How to motivate the team Question motivation Understand reasons liking of challenges, status of the assignment, recognition, salary, security & stability. Understand liking & disliking & act; demand high standards of them & encourage hard work, think something new always. Recognize good work Credit members for the tasks well done, be specific on compliment, Steer them Understand the resistance to change, get the agreement sharing the cons of the old system, support while establishing the change Encourage change Select employee who dares & like the change, Support & guide to take more, share success story Set up appraisals Appraise regularly, focus on hard facts & quantify., set up measurement
  180. 180. Making earth little softer Top items to achieve Q • Quality drive across organisation- Ownership & first time right drive culture • Reviews – Proposal reviews by DM, process for marking completion of the tasks using check list, Special attention for understanding/confirming the requirements; Brainstorming sessions, reviews of RA & DD & SI test cases (PL), Self review for LLD, Code, Unit test cases, testing for developers, audits of these phases; • Framework for communication & governance • Project monitoring office implementation
  181. 181. Making earth little softer Top items to achieve Q • Establishing quality framework (processes, measurement, analysis, preventive & corrective measures, tracking & closure and audits) • Project Cost Estimation & proposal • Software Project Planning, Project Tracking & Scheduling, Requirements Management • Development, reviews & testing • HR & RMG framework & Project Structure – Assigning sr manager to each projects & teaming with Sales, Account managers & OSC • Education of PM & resources • Governance- To be scalable
  182. 182. Making earth little softer Q1-Q2 Q3 Q4 Focus on Basic Project Mgmt, Risk Mgmt. & Customer Mgmt Implementing the learning & best ways Define Org. wide Processes & Review / Control Awareness, Training & Pilots (SST, Sales, PMPL) Strengthen Delivery Mgmt, QMG, TMG, & & coordination Governance & coordination Continual Improvement Stringent Implementation of Processes & best practices Reorganize and Strengthen Talent & skilled resources Delivery Organisation Road Map Predictable, Repeatable, Reliable Defined, Managed, Optimised Quality Schedule Customer Satisfaction Successfully Complete Current Projects & get stability in Delivery Org. Improve Repeatability / Reliability in Delivery Organization
  183. 183. Making earth little softer Vision Knowledge/Tech.Management Right Facilities Right Skills / Motivation RightManagement (Plan/Measure/Control) Right Processes Right Communication Trust and Comfort Feel QualityofResponse Value for Money Tech./ Domain Skills / Experience SpeedofResponse Human Resource Management Facility/Infrastructure Right Skills / Motivation Finance Management EXECUTION MARKETING ORGANISATION  Minimum Defects  Timely Delivery  Minimum TCC
  184. 184. Making earth little softer Thank You Author has worked at as Sr management professional Vertex Software, now NTTData Tech Mahindra SoftBridge Solutions, India & extremely thankful to these organisation for offering exciting opportunity to work in related areas, gain experience & contribute & a gentleman having deep passion about quality..Mukand Bhagwat

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