33 part 5-earthsoft-water - pollutants


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  • Pesticides are one of the most significant causes of water pollution.  Many think this only applies to farmers whom spray large crop fields with chemical pesticides.  The reality is, the lawn products that everyday suburban residents apply to their home lawns results in a higher pollution per square foot than the farms.  In some regions, the ability to remove specific pesticide contaminants in the water purification process is an investment that can cost hundreds of millions of dollars per year.
  • 33 part 5-earthsoft-water - pollutants

    1. 1. Making earth little softerEarthsoft Foundation of GuidanceEdge-Aggressive-Reliable-Trust-Honesty-Soft-Obedient-Fun-Transparent
    2. 2. Making earth little softerEarthsoft Foundation of Guidance (EFG) has uploaded followingpresentations at http://myefg.in/downloads.aspxBe mentor using your education, knowledge & experience tocontribute for a social cause & do conduct free training seekinghelp of existing platforms. Kindly share with your friends•Motivation for higher study, Planning for study, Educationguidance, Career guidance, Career available after SSC & HSC•Personality development – 3 files•How to prepare resume, Tips to attend interview successfully•Religion related –To understand basic religion, Do & Don’t tips•Health related - Be vegetarian, Be healthy, Manage health•Corporate - Project management, Assertiveness, Ownership,Effective communication, Leadership, Be entrepreneur•Finance - To avoid speculation in stock market•Social - Women empowerment, Choosing life partner, conflictresolution, stop ragging, stop alcohol, snakebite treatmentAbout us
    3. 3. Making earth little softer• Water pollutants• Types of water pollution• Types of water pollutants• Contamination• Pollutants generation• Pollutants:Landfills Leachates• Pollutants controlIndex
    4. 4. Making earth little softerWater pollutants• Water is one of the most precious gift of naturewithout this no life could survive on earth.• Water is combination of hydrogen and oxygen.• Normally water is never pure in chemical sense.• Water pollutants are natural and man made.
    5. 5. Making earth little softerTypes of water pollution• Inorganic Pollutants• Organic Pollutants• Biologic Pollutants
    6. 6. Making earth little softerTypes of water pollutantsBasis of decomposition Basis of mediumBiodegradable AirNon-Biodegradable WaterSoilBasis of occurrence Basis of existencePrimary Pollutants QuantitativeSecondary Pollutants Qualitative
    7. 7. Making earth little softerClasses of Water pollutants• Pathogens : Bacteria, Viruses, Protozoa,Parasitic Worms, Colliform Bacteria Used AsIndicators Of Water Quality• Oxygen Demanding Wastes : Organics That AreDecomposed By Bacteria And That Use A Lot OfO2, Dissolved Oxygen (DO) Decreases, AndBOD Increases• Water Soluble Inorganic Chemicals : Acids,Salts, Toxic Metal Compounds Like Mercury,And Lead.
    8. 8. Making earth little softerClasses of Water pollutants• Inorganic Plant Nutrients : Water SolublePhosphates, Nitrates => Algal Blooms,Decreased Dissolved O2, Increased BOD,Methemoglobinemia (="blue baby syndrome")• Organic Chemicals - Oil, Gas, Plastics,Pesticides, Cleaning Solvents, Detergents, Etc.• Sediment & Suspended Mater - Insoluble SoilParticulates & Other Solids. Clouds The Water,Decreasing Photosynthesis, Carries PesticidesAnd Disrupts Aquatic Food Webs.
    9. 9. Making earth little softerClasses of Water pollutants• Radioactive Isotopes - Are Biologically AmplifiedTo Higher Concentrations In The Food Chain.Ionizing Radiation & Birth Defects, Cancer.• Warmed Water - From Power Plants, DecreasesDO And Increases Susceptibility To DiseasesAnd Parasites And Toxic Wastes.• Alien Species - Zebra Mussels, Asiatic Catfish,Sea Lamprey, etc. Out compete Native SpeciesAnd Ultimately Decrease Biodiversity
    10. 10. Making earth little softerDrinking Water QualityIndustrialization&TechnologyIndustrialization&TechnologyLeadLeadMercuryMercuryAgri-PollutionAgri-PollutionDrugs&ShampooDrugs&ShampooChlorineChlorine ArsenicArsenicFluorideFluorideAluminumAluminumTap WaterRustRust
    11. 11. Making earth little softerContamination
    12. 12. Making earth little softerContamination• One or more organic chemicals contaminateabout 45% of municipal groundwater supplies inthe US• About 26000 industrial waste ponds in US donot have liners• Leaking undergraound storage tanks• Nitrates, fluoride, arsenic
    13. 13. Making earth little softerWater pollutants (degradable)• Domestic sewage• Fertilizers• Some industrial wastes
    14. 14. Making earth little softerWater pollutants• Sewage/waste water;• Fertilizers/Pesticides;• Alien species• Global Warming• Atmospheric Deposition;• Pathogens; from untreated sewage, stormdrains, septic tanks, runoff from farms• Petroleum;• Radioactive substances;• Heat;• Siltation/sediments;
    15. 15. Making earth little softerWater pollutants• Salinization- Increased salinization and saltrunoff from irrigated farms causes salinization ofmajor rivers.;• Heavy metals cause unpleasant taste and odourto drinking water;• Suspended particles like sediments
    16. 16. Making earth little softerWater pollutants• Warm water from cooling towers (thermalpollution)• Floating debris• Garbage• Foam• These physical pollutants interfere mainly withthe usability and/or aesthetic appeal of thewater. In certain cases, thermal pollution can killfish.
    17. 17. Making earth little softerWater pollutants• Industrial Effluents - This waste water maycontain acids, alkalis, salts, poisons, oils and insome cases harmful bacteria.• Mining and Agricultural Wastes Mines,especially gold and coal mines, are responsiblefor large quantities of acid water.• Agricultural pesticides, fertilizers and herbicidesmay wash into rivers and stagnant water bodies.• Sewage Disposal and Domestic WastesSewage as well as domestic and farm wasteswere often allowed to pollute rivers and dams.
    18. 18. Making earth little softerPollutants : Unsewered Towns• Wastewaters and pollutants from unseweredTowns• 22% of wastewater (Class I cities) and 14% ofwastewater (Class II cities) is collected throughsewerage.• Most cities / towns do not have seweragesystem.
    19. 19. Making earth little softerPollutant – Sewage & sullage• Sewage, sullage and pollutants from UrbanAreas• Only 40 – 50% of population of major metrocities are served by sewer systems.• Sewers often leak
    20. 20. Making earth little softerPollutants : Industrial• Industrial pollutants from cottage / small scaleindustries• 3 million SME in the country• Causes significant water pollution
    21. 21. Making earth little softerThe toxic industrial waste• Industries release toxic waste heavy metals(mercury as a fungicide; lead used in batteries),Hydrocarbons & Chromium, in rivers and seas• The metal oxides and other products of thepharmaceutical industry.• Hydrocarbons toxic (used to make insecticides -DDT or processing of plastics and paints)
    22. 22. Making earth little softerPollutants : Industrial• Industrial pollutants from large industries• Installed Treatment and disposal• Treated effluents having some pollutants getleached and causes pollution.• Waste dumping, ash-ponds, sludge-pits, etc.
    23. 23. Making earth little softerWater pollutants• Major water pollutants :• Pesticides and biocides like BHC, DDT,Alluminium phosphide, chlor benzilate, lindane,nicotine sulphate which are highly pollutant sosuch pesticide are restricted in India.
    24. 24. Making earth little softerWater pollutants• Cadmium and its compounds are used invarious industry they are cadmium acetate,cadmium sulphide, cadmium oxide, cadmiumcarbonate etc.• The sulphate, chloride and acetate of cadmiumare soluble in water which leads toxicity.• Floride is universally present in varing amount insoil and water atmosphere, vegetation andanimal tissue.• Toxic substance like cyanide, phenol, heavymetals like mercury, lead, arsenic causedamage to flora and fauna
    25. 25. Making earth little softerWater pollutants-Heavy metal• They are present in all the phase ofenvironment-air, water and land• Metal pollutant is include copper, lead, zinc,chromium, nickel, cadmium, mercury andselenium.• Lead is one of the heavy metal pollutant of bothatmosphere and ocean, which is mainly derivedfrom vehicle burning fuel.• Mercury is the another very toxic pollutant
    26. 26. Making earth little softerWater pollutants• These pollutants enter waterways throughuntreated sewage, storm drains, septic tanks,runoff from farms, and particularly boats thatdump sewage.• Though microscopic, these pollutants have atremendous effect evidenced by their ability tocause sickness.
    27. 27. Making earth little softerWater pollutants : Detergents• Stories about particular pollutant forms:Detergents• The nitrates in fertilizers promote excessivegrowth of algae and larger aquatic plants,causing offensive algae blooms and driving outsport fish.• Phosphates are often thought to culprit, nitrogenis the “limiting factor” in most aquatic systems.
    28. 28. Making earth little softerPollutant : Thermal pollution• 26% of all water in U.S. is affected by this• Up to a point of adding heated water, you canget thermal enrichmentAdding more heat, You get• Thermal pollution
    29. 29. Making earth little softerNon-persistent (degradable)• These compounds can be broken down bychemical reactions or by natural bacteria intosimple, non-polluting substances such ascarbon dioxide and nitrogen.• if the pollution load is high, this process canlead to low oxygen levels and eutrophication.• This damage is reversible.
    30. 30. Making earth little softerPersistent Water pollutants• Some pesticides (e.g., DDT, dieldrin)• Some leachate components from landfill sites(municipal, industrial)• Petroleum and petroleum products• PCBs, dioxins, polyaromatic hydrocarbons(PAHs)• Radioactive materials such as strontium-90,cesium-137, radium-226, and uranium• Metals such as lead, mercury, cadmium
    31. 31. Making earth little softerPersistent Water pollutants• This is the most rapidly growing type of pollution• This includes substances that degrade veryslowly or cannot be broken down at all;• They may remain in the aquatic environmentfor years or longer periods of time.• The damage they cause is either irreversible orrepairable only over decades or centuries
    32. 32. Making earth little softerPollutant : Detergents• The nitrates in fertilizers promote excessivegrowth of algae and larger aquatic plants,causing offensive algae blooms and driving outsport fish.• Phosphates are often thought to culprit, nitrogenis the “limiting factor” in most aquatic systems.
    33. 33. Making earth little softerPollutant : Sediments• The largest form of water pollution• Erosion is source – we’ve sped up rate oferosion, e.g. during urban construction can loseup to 43 tons of topsoil/acre/year• Natural rates of erosion: leads to aquaticsuccession
    34. 34. Making earth little softerOrganic Pollutants• Three classes of compounds• Pesticides and Herbicides• Materials for common household and industrialuse• Materials for industrial use
    35. 35. Making earth little softerInorganic Pollutants• Examples:• Pb in gasoline• Radionuclides• Phosphorus, nitrogen (Great Lakes)• Other heavy metals
    36. 36. Making earth little softerInorganic Pollutants• 3 groups• 1) Produce no heavlth effects until a thresholdconcentration is exceeded—e.g., NO3 –ook at ,50mg/liter; at higher levels:methaemoglobinaemia• 2) No threshold—e.g.—genotoxic substances:some natural and synthetic organic compounds,microorganic compunds, some pesticides,arsenic• 3) Essential to diets: F, I, Se—absence causesproblems, but too much also causes problems
    37. 37. Making earth little softerInorganic trace contaminants• Mercury—methyl Hg and dimethyl Hg in fish—probably most significant path to humans—Minamata Bay, Japan, 1950’s• Rhine River drains 185,000 sq km—heavilypolluted by 1970’s• Lead—toxicity has been known for a long time• 1859 book• Tetraethyl lead—anti-knowck additive for gas,1930-1966
    38. 38. Making earth little softerRadionuclides• Bikini Atoll in South Pacific: > 20 tests, 1946-1958• Inhabitants evacuated before 1946 tests; theirdescendents are still exiled• Atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons is nowbanned• National labs…now trying to clean up (Hanford)
    39. 39. Making earth little softerPhosphates and Nitrates• Phosphates—mostly a result of sewage outflowand phosphate detergents• Additional phosphate grows excess algae…oxygen depletion, Lake Erie…1972 phosphatemanagement plant…$7.6 billion• Nitrates—sewage and fertilizers
    40. 40. Making earth little softerPesticides• Pesticides are one of the most significantcauses of water pollution.• Farmers spraying large crop fields with chemicalpesticides• The lawn products that everyday residentsapply to their home lawns results in a higherpollution per square foot than the farms• In-ability to remove specific pesticidecontaminants in the water purification process
    41. 41. Making earth little softerScale of Pesticide Use in US• Since 1959: 50-fold increase in pesticide use• Most present pesticides are 10-100 x more toxicthan those used in 1050’s• About 25% of pesticide use in US is in houses,gardens, lawns, parks, swimming pools, andgolf courses• Average lawn receives 10x more pesticides thanequivalent area of cropland• 2.4 million tons of pesticides are used per year• 600 active chemicals mixes with 1200 solvents,‘inactive’ ingredients• About 25000 commercial pesticide products
    42. 42. Making earth little softerPesticides• Each year about 250,000 people are admitted tohospitals and/or emergency rooms withpesticide poisoning• Broad spectrum vs narrow spectrum• Persistence
    43. 43. Making earth little softerPesticides• Chlorinated hydrocarbons• DDT, heptachlor, etc—2-15 years• Organophosphates• Malathion, methyl parathion—1-2 weeks• Carbamates• Carbaryl, maneb, aldicarb—days to weeks• Pyrethroids• Pemethrin, decamethrin—days to weeks
    44. 44. Making earth little softerHerbicides• Contact• Triazines—e.g. atrazine, paraquat (interfere withphotosynthesis)• Systemic—phenoxy compounds, N compounds,Alar, glyphosate (create excess growthhormones)• Soil sterilants• trifluralin, dalapon (kill soil microorganisms)
    45. 45. Making earth little softerPollutants generation• Chloride (Tanneries)• Fluorides (Fertilizer – Phosphate)• Sulphide (Oil refineries)• Total Wastewater generation from industries is10,125 MLD
    46. 46. Making earth little softerPollutants:Landfills Leachates• They are strong polluters• BOD (200 mg/L), COD (340 mg/L) and TS (900mg/L)
    47. 47. Making earth little softerPollutants : Handling• Pollutants in leakages and due to accidentsduring transportation, storage or handling• Contribution from this is growing
    48. 48. Making earth little softerWashover from Cattle-farms• Washover from Cattle-farms and AnimalHusbandry• No adequate, arrangements for collection,treatment and proper disposal of liquid wastes
    49. 49. Making earth little softerPollutants : Agricultural• Pollutants in Agricultural Drainage waters• High in salts• Intensive use of chemical fertilizers, pesticides• Contribute significant loads of salts, nutrients,chemicals, etc.
    50. 50. Making earth little softerDeposition of Air Pollutants• Acid rain cause water pollution• Heavy metal deposition from air emissions on towater
    51. 51. Making earth little softerThank You
    52. 52. Making earth little softerReferences• www.wikipedia.org; www.google.com, www.slideshare.net• Gannon; Osmond, , Humenik, Gale, Spooner, Agricultural Water Quality Water resource• U.S.A. Environmental protection agency, washington, dc (usa)• MacKenzie, SH The Ecosystem ISLAND PRESS, CA (USA), 1996, 240• Water pollution and society ByDavid Krantz and Brad Kifferstein• Water pollution, By Mahesh & Ram, By Shohail Motahir Choudhury, Prasen Raptan,ExecutiveDirector,Jankalyana• Living in the Environment, By G. Tyler Miller’s• Authors Arnone Matteo,Belingheri Omar,Fasce Federico,Migliorino Lorenzo,Ernest Kyć,• Michał Stolarski,Adam Chłąd,Kamil Tratkiewicz• Water Pollution by Dr. B. Victor• Refresher course on sewage treatment plant design by PAUL• Trends and Scenarios in Agricultural Development by COLIN CHARTRES; International Water ManagementInstitute• Diamond Energy Water. The close relationship between Water & Our Body. 19 April 2008• <http://www.be-with-you.com/dew/WaterAndOurBody.html>.• We Rise. Water Facts. Allabout_facts. 15 May 2008 <www.werise.us/allabout_facts.html>• “Olympic Science: The Hydration Rate.” Popular Mechanics. August 2008. 68.• Water Security: Leadership and Commitment by Shuichi Hirayama• Environmental Pollutants By Dr.Rathnakar U.P.MD.DIH.PGDHM (K.M.C. Mangalore)• Water Pollution By DiGiT• Water Pollution & Cleanup By Andrew J Penniman• Water Pollution by Home• Air, Water and Soil pollution - By B.Tungalagtuya• John Rodgers - Lecture 8: Water Pollution• pppst.com• kangenforall.com