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33 part 3-earthsoft-water - pollution-challenges-solution


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33 part 3-earthsoft-water - pollution-challenges-solution

  1. 1. Making earth little softerEarthsoft Foundation of GuidanceEdge-Aggressive-Reliable-Trust-Honesty-Soft-Obedient-Fun-Transparent
  2. 2. Making earth little softerEarthsoft Foundation of Guidance (EFG) has uploaded followingpresentations at mentor using your education, knowledge & experience tocontribute for a social cause & do conduct free training seekinghelp of existing platforms. Kindly share with your friends•Motivation for higher study, Planning for study, Educationguidance, Career guidance, Career available after SSC & HSC•Personality development – 3 files•How to prepare resume, Tips to attend interview successfully•Religion related –To understand basic religion, Do & Don’t tips•Health related - Be vegetarian, Be healthy, Manage health•Corporate - Project management, Assertiveness, Ownership,Effective communication, Leadership, Be entrepreneur•Finance - To avoid speculation in stock market•Social - Women empowerment, Choosing life partner, conflictresolution, stop ragging, stop alcohol, snakebite treatmentAbout us
  3. 3. Making earth little softer• Water cycle• What is pollution• Form of Pollution• Types of Pollution• Causes• Effect• Prevention• Ground water• Water quality• Diseases• SolutionsIndex• Prevention and control• Solutions• Waste water treatment• Clean production• Solutions• Suggestions• Legislation• Assessment• Statistics• Sanitation• Septic Systems• Sewage treatment
  4. 4. Making earth little softerChallenges
  5. 5. Making earth little softerChallenges- IndustryOverexploitationOverexploitationGroundwaterdepletionGroundwaterdepletionPollutionPollutionLandDegradedLandDegradedAgricultureSpoiledGroundwater &Surface water pollutedGroundwater &Surface water pollutedHealthIssuesHealthIssues
  6. 6. Making earth little softerChallenges- Government• Inefficient Government – State construction• Lack of integrated water management• Inadequate enforcement of environmentlegislation relating to water• Insufficient facilities for waste water treatment• Insufficient local technological research onwater
  7. 7. Making earth little softerChallenges - Public• Wasting Water• Polluting Water
  8. 8. Making earth little softerChallenges – Climate change• 2020 India will become a water stressed nation.• 66 million Indians in 20 states are at risk due toexcess fluoride• 10 million due to excess arsenic in groundwater• Out of these 6.3 lakh rural schools only 44 %have water supply facilities• Half of all Indian children are undernourishedand half of all adult women suffer from anaemia.
  9. 9. Making earth little softerChallenges• 37.7 million Indians are affected by waterbornediseases annually• 1.5 million children are estimated to die ofdiarrhoea alone• 180 million working days are lost due towaterborne disease each year• Economic burden is estimated at $600 million ayear.• 1,95,813 habitations in the country are affectedby poor water quality.
  10. 10. Making earth little softerChallenges• India’s rivers carry 90% of the water during theperiod from June to November, but only 10% isavailable during the other six months.• Biofuel threatens India’s water supply.• 161 of out of approximately 600 districts in Indiahave been declared drought.• At least 45% of Indias land area is degraded.• 90% of the sewage generated by municipalcouncils and over 50% of sewage discharged bymunicipal corporations goes untreated
  11. 11. Making earth little softerChallenges• Overview of the major problems:• Drinking Water• Inadequate and intermittent supply of drinkingwater• Metallic and bacterial pollution of water• Inadequate piped water supply in rural areasand some urban slum areas• Loss of water in transmission (distribution) andstorage• Lack of financial resources for improvements.
  12. 12. Making earth little softerChallenges• Affect agriculture production• Insufficient local technological research onwater• Lack of integrated water management• Inadequate enforcement of environmentlegislation relating to water• Lack of control over-exploitation of groundwaterresources• Insufficient facilities for waste water treatment
  13. 13. Making earth little softerChallenges- Industrial water• Inadequate enforcement of special water regimefor industries requiring considerable amounts ofwater• Inability of municipal water supplier to meetincreasing demands of existing & new industries
  14. 14. Making earth little softerChallengesUncontrolled exploitation of ground water bysome industrial establishmentsSafety of industrial establishments from surplussurface water and floodsLack of proper drainingfacilities
  15. 15. Making earth little softerChallenges• River Yamuna- “the principal drain for NewDelhi’s waste.”• “Residents pour 150 million gallons of sewageinto the river each day.”• “In New Delhi the Yamuna itself is clinicallydead.”• River Ganges- “River of Dead Bodies”
  16. 16. Making earth little softerChallenges• The Worlds Most Polluted Places (Timessurvey)• Sukinda, India• Number of peoplepotentially affected: 2,600,000• Groundwater in Sukinda is believed to becontaminated with chromium. Sukinda, whichcontains one of the largest open cast chromiteore mines in the world, 60% of the drinkingwater contains hexavalent chromium
  17. 17. Making earth little softerChallenges• Most common reasons for not enough supply• Not enough rain or drought• Changes to a river basin• Wells run dry
  18. 18. Making earth little softerWater Pollution SolutionsWhat can we contribute?
  19. 19. Making earth little softerPrevention• Better to NOT pollute than to clean up later• Clean up is expensive• Clean up never complete get completed
  20. 20. Making earth little softerPrevention and control• Various ways and technique suggested forprevention and control of water pollution arefollowing• Stabilization of eco-system.• Re-utilization or recycling of wastes
  21. 21. Making earth little softerPollution ControlMeasures of pollution control :• Public awareness.• Minimizing the use of polypacks.• Use of fuel-efficient automobiles.• Effective traffic management.• Fertilizers & pesticides to be used in adequatequantity as minimum as possible• Plantation of native species of plants.• Solid wastes should be pre-treated & re-cycled.• Proper laws to be enforced
  22. 22. Making earth little softerSolutions• Solutions: Preventing and Reducing SurfaceWater PollutionNonpoint Sources• Reduce runoff• Buffer zone vegetation• Reduce soil erosionPoint Sources• Clean Water Act• Water Quality Act
  23. 23. Making earth little softerONLY SOLUTIONISCLEANER PRODUCTIONClean production
  24. 24. Making earth little softerDo You Want?
  25. 25. Making earth little softerSolutionProgress is Must,ButEnvironment isFirst.
  26. 26. Making earth little softerSolution• Solutions to water problems require theconsideration of cultural, educational,communication and scientific aspects.• Plant Trees• Avoid Pollution• Conserve water• Technologies and Innovations• Water Purification Systems• Seawater desalination• Water Footprint
  27. 27. Making earth little softerSolution• The much-awaited seawater desalination plant,the largest in the country with a capacity of 100MLD (million litres per day), coming up nearMinjur about 35 km north of Chennai .• Under the technology, developed by theNational Institute of Ocean Technology (NIOT),warm water is pumped into a vacuum flashchamber and the resultant vapour is condensedusing cold water to get crystal clear potablewater.• Desalinated water is of a better quality and thecost is only 6 paise per litre.
  28. 28. Making earth little softerSolution-Water foot print• To manage the water consumption better.• A water footprint measures the total amount ofwater it takes for a company to manufacture andtransport a product, or for a city, country, orbusiness to operate.• Calculating water footprints can help businessesand communities better understand and preparefor the impacts of global water scarcity,according to experts.• Such data allows companies to identify potentialwater savings and plan for future shortages
  29. 29. Making earth little softerSolution• Rain Water Harvesting• Irrigation Water Management• Hydrological projects - Construction of Dams• Artificial Recharge to Ground Water throughDug well
  30. 30. Making earth little softerRiver linking project
  31. 31. Making earth little softerSolution• Try to do things each day that will save water• Dont worry if the saving is minimal, every dropcounts! You can make a difference.• To use only the amount you actually need• Form a group of water-conscious people andencourage friends & neighbors to be in group• Promote water conservation in communitynewsletters and on bulletin boards.• Encourage your friends, neighbors and co-workers to also contribute.• Encourage family to keep looking for new waysto conserve water in and around your home.
  32. 32. Making earth little softerSolution• Make sure that your home is leak-free.• Many homes have leaking pipes that gounnoticed.• Do not leave the tap running while you arebrushing your teeth or soaping your face.
  33. 33. Making earth little softerSolution• Avoid flushing the toilet unnecessarily.• When washing the car, use water from a bucketand not a hosepipe.• Do not throw away water that has been used forwashing vegetables, rice or dals.• Use it to water plants or to clean the floors, etc.• You can store water in a variety of ways.• To place a drum on a raised platform directlyunder the rainwater collection source.• You can also collect water in a bucket duringthe rainy season.• Donate fund for ongoing projects.
  34. 34. Making earth little softerSolution• Water awareness groups among social medianetworking sites like Twitter, Facebook arecreating new trend among the social awarenessgroups.• Web 2.0 concept helps to bridge gap betweenthe people – more interactive• By doing this water project, I have learned moreabout saving a drop of water rather usingwordpress• Its not a solution to be found, it should be aRESOLUTION everyone should take.
  35. 35. Making earth little softerSolutionsAvE wAtErSaVe WoRlD
  36. 36. Making earth little softer• Of all the water in the world, only 3% is fresh.• < 1/3rdof 1% fresh water is available for us• The rest is frozen in glaciers or polar ice caps,or is deep within the earth, beyond our reach.• If 100 liters represents the worlds water, abouthalf a tablespoon of it is fresh water available• Increase in worlds population as more peoplelive cities and big towns• Increase in farming because farmers startgrowing more crops• Increase in money earned results people use alot more water in dishwashers & lawn sprinklersWhy save water?
  37. 37. Making earth little softer• Few ideas for educating the importance of water• Paint pictures, view or present performances orsing songs that convey conservation message• Read, circulate, debate water related articles• Write stories about the role that water plays• Discuss how water quality and quantity canimpact the health of the people• Investigate the role that water plays globally• Understand the amount of water used in• Study the water cycle, understand theimportance of water for life and how plants andanimals adapt to different water conditionsIdeas to save water
  38. 38. Making earth little softer• Understand the role of water in geologicalformations or atmospheric conditions.• Investigate the development of water supplyand water treatment• Understand how these technologies considerthe environment and society in order to supporteconomic growthIdeas to save water
  39. 39. Making earth little softerSaving water in home• Running water is required for an endless list ofuses in and around the home.• Imagine living in a house without runningwater...For some this might be a nightmare• Be careful while using water in our homes!• Understand easy & effective ways to reduce theuse of precious drinking water in our gardens.• Water the plants as per real need• We cant afford gardens that require excessiveamounts of water.
  40. 40. Making earth little softerSave water - BusinessesOpportunities to reduce water used in businesseslike factory, office, restrooms or canteenHOSPITALITYGood watermanagement inhospitality willhelp protectenvironment.FOODPROCESSINGSaving water canresult in betterhygiene andreduction in costs.NURSERIESWater efficiency alsoencourages goodbusiness practices.CONSTRUCTIONGood watermanagement inhospitality will helpprotect environment.TEXTILESSaving water canresult in betterhygiene andreduction in costs.MANUFACTURINGWater efficiency alsoencourages goodbusiness practices.
  41. 41. Making earth little softerSave water - AgricultureWhile agriculture is one of our countrys mostsignificant water users, some innovative solutionshave been developed to improve water useefficiency and maintain or even increase yields.COTTONEfficient watermanagement is vitalfor cotton growers toachieve high yieldsRICERice is the main cropof India and itrequires a lot of waterfor sowing, growing,cleaning, etc.DAIRYThe dairy industry useswater for irrigation ofpastures, wateringstock and cleaningdairy sheds.
  42. 42. Making earth little softerSaving water in horticulture• Horticulture industry includes production of fruit,vegetables, wine and ornamental plants.• Horticulture production is intensive in water use.• To improve water use efficiency, farmers shoulduse irrigation methods that are appropriate tothe crop• They must monitor and maintain irrigationsystem performance and manage water usagein terms of needs of the crop and local weatherconditions.
  43. 43. Making earth little softerSaving water in home A to Z• A dripping tap could waste as much as 90 litersa week.• Brushing your teeth with the tap running wastesalmost 9 liters a minute. Rinse out from atumbler instead.• Cool water kept in the fridge means you wonthave to run the tap for ages to get a cold drink.• Dont use washing machine until youve got afull load. A full load uses less than 2 half loads.• Every time you boil an egg save the cooledwater for your houseplants. Theyll benefit fromthe nutrients released from the shell.
  44. 44. Making earth little softerSaving water in home A to Z• Fit a water saving device in your cistern andsave up to three liters a flush.• Grow grass a little longer. It will stay greenerthan a close mown lawn and need lesswatering.• Hoeing stimulates the growth of plants, reduceswater loss from the soil surface and removesweeds that take up valuable water andnutrients.• Installing a water meter can save you water andmoney by monitoring how much you use.• Just taking a five minute shower very day,
  45. 45. Making earth little softerSaving water in home A to Z• Kettles should be filled with enough water foryour needs but not to the brim. This will reduceyour fuel bills too.• Lag your pipes to avoid bursts and leave yourheating on a low setting while you are out incold weather to prevent pipes freezing.• Mulch for moisture in the garden. Adding a layerof tree bark, compost, coconut husks or evennewspaper keeps the sun off the soil andretains precious moisture.• No further watering is usually required forestablished trees and shrubs.
  46. 46. Making earth little softerSaving water in home A to Z• Once a week is all the watering your lawn needseven in the hottest weather.• Purchasing a water butt will help you to collectrain water for use on the garden.• Question your local garden centre about thewater requirements of different plants. Somethrive in drier conditions.• Replacing a toilet cistern can save water.• Sprinklers can be wasteful. It can use water inan hour as a family of four will use in a day!• Trigger nozzles can save water by using it onlywhen needed.
  47. 47. Making earth little softerSaving water in home A to Z• Use the dirty water when cleaning a fish tank onhouseplants. Its rich in nitrogen & phosphorus,which provides an excellent fertilizer.• Very water efficient washing machines anddishwashers to be used.• Youll find that they save on energy too.• Water garden at the coolest part of the day toreduce evaporation.• Xeriscape , a plants that require less water.• You turn the hot tap down, rather than the coldtap up, if you require cooler water.• Z The end of the alphabet but not the end ofwater saving ideas – pl convey us as many!
  48. 48. Making earth little softerSaving waterDo you leave the tapon when you cleanyour teeth?You waste 5 litres ofwater.You only need ¼ litre!Do you leave the tapon when you cleanyour teeth?You waste 5 litres ofwater.You only need ¼ litre!
  49. 49. Making earth little softerAn average bath uses80 litres of water.An average shower onlyuses 35 litres.An average bath uses80 litres of water.An average shower onlyuses 35 litres.Saving water
  50. 50. Making earth little softerPrevent pollution
  51. 51. Making earth little softer• 1. Conserve water by turning off the tap whenrunning water is not necessary. This helpsprevent water shortages and reduces theamount of contaminated water that needstreatment.• 2. Be careful about what you throw down yoursink or toilet. Don’t throw paints, oils or otherforms of litter down the drain.• 3. Use environmentally household products,such as washing powder, household cleaningagents and toiletries.Ways to conserve water
  52. 52. Making earth little softer• 4. Take great care not to overuse pesticides andfertilisers. This will prevent runoffs of thematerial into nearby water sources.• 5. By having more plants in your garden you arepreventing fertiliser, pesticides andcontaminated water from running off into nearbywater sources.• 6. Don’t throw litter into rivers, lakes or oceans.Help clean up any litter you see on beaches orin rivers and lakes, make sure it is safe tocollect the litter and put it in a nearby dustbin.• 7. Segregate the cotton, paper & plastic wasteWays to conserve water
  53. 53. Making earth little softerPreventive measures• New techniques that need no water are highlybeneficial. Some of the wet processes shouldbe replaced by the dry processes. For example,metal pickling once carried out by acids isreplaced by sand blasting in which no liquideffluent is generated.• To minimize the volume of effluents, the wastewater that is less polluted may be used inrinsing. For instance, in the mercerizing of yarn,the final rinse water containing little alkali isused for the first and second rinsing of yarncontaining excess alkali.
  54. 54. Making earth little softerPreventing water pollution• Rivers should not be used for washing clothesor bathing animal• Dams and embankments must be created• The rivers must not be contaminated
  55. 55. Making earth little softerRemedial measures• Locate the point sources of pollution.• Work against acid rain.• Educate your community.• Ensure sustainable sewage treatment.• Watch out for toxins.• Be careful what you throw away & where• Use water efficiently.• Prevent pollution .• Think globally, act locally.
  56. 56. Making earth little softerRethink storage• Renewed interest in storageinfrastructure for irrigationparticularly in sub-Saharan Africa• Explore wide range of options:large scale reservoirs, smallvillage ponds, groundwater,water harvesting (i.e. soilmoisture storage), virtual storage(food)• Diversity of storage options withina basin• New hydropower schemes and
  57. 57. Making earth little softerReform water governance• By demonstrating that evidence based policyand management works best• By policies and institutional reform• By improved determination of water rights• By better valuation and pricing of water thatprotects the rights of the poor• By improved management systems that areequitable and gender friendly
  58. 58. Making earth little softerWater pollution control• Methods of controlling water pollution fall intothree general categories:• Primary• Secondary• Tertiary
  59. 59. Making earth little softerLevels of seperationPrimary• Removal of grit and large objects by physicalseparation.Secondary• Aerobic microbiological process• Lowers suspended solid contents into sludgeTertiary• Anaerobic microbiological process• Re-oxygenated
  60. 60. Making earth little softerWater pollution control
  61. 61. Making earth little softerGroundwater pollution prevention• Monitor aquifers• Find less hazardous substitutes• Leak detection systems• Strictly regulating hazardous waste disposal• Store hazardous materials above ground
  62. 62. Making earth little softerReducing water pollution• Non point source• Septic tanks and sewers
  63. 63. Making earth little softerPollution : Agriculture• 2002: feed lot ruling• Credit trading• Agricultural: soil erosion, reforestation, covercrops, reduced fertilizers and pesticides, bufferzones
  64. 64. Making earth little softerProtection of water• Protection of water resources is primarily on thetechnical solution, such as:• The application of technology withoutwastewater• Of aeration of stagnant water• By closing water circuits• For mine water recycling and re-injection ofwater into the ground• To secure the dumps and landfills• A wastewater treatment
  65. 65. Making earth little softerSolutions• Prevent groundwater contamination• Greatly reduce nonpoint runoff• Reuse treated wastewater for irrigation• Find substitutes for toxic pollutants• Work with nature to treat sewage• Practice four Rs of resource use (refuse,reduce, recycle, reuse)• Reduce resource waste• Reduce air pollution• Reduce poverty• Reduce birth rates
  66. 66. Making earth little softerSuggestions• Never dump anything into city street drains.• Check your vehicle for any leaks that couldpollute waterways when flushed down citydrains.• Dont let water run while you are washing orbrushing your teeth• Replace taps with water-saving models.• Dont dump unwanted prescriptions down thetoilet or the drain.
  67. 67. Making earth little softerGreat TipsBelow are several great tips you can useto help prevent water pollution
  68. 68. Making earth little softerRecycle Your Motor Oil
  69. 69. Making earth little softerTake Care of Septic Tank• One way to make sure you have clean wateraround your home is to properly maintain yourseptic tank. If it is not taken care of, the waterfrom the tank can contaminate nearby watersources.• Septic tanks are especially susceptible tobreeding deadly bacteria. Make sure to haveyour tank inspected regularly and pumped whenneeded.
  70. 70. Making earth little softerBe Educated About YourCar Wash Options• Certain car washes do not dispose of the waterthey use properly. You should try to only use carwashes that make sure to dispose of their waterin a way that does not harm the environment.• Many car washes also recycle their water. Thispractice can both protect water supplies as wellas increase water conservation.
  71. 71. Making earth little softerUse Natural Pesticidesand Fertilizers• Fertilizers and pesticides are some of the mostcommon sources of water pollution in the world.If you have a garden, make sure to try to usemore natural alternatives that will leave less ofan impact on the environment.• Avoid pesticides that contain harmful chemicals.Instead, go for pesticides that includeingredients like pyrethrum and insecticide soap.
  72. 72. Making earth little softerChoices for fertilizer• More natural choices for fertilizer include thingssuch as animal dung, lawn clippings and ashfrom wood. In fact, many of these choices canenrich soil much better than most commercialfertilizers.
  73. 73. Making earth little softerUse EnvironmentallyFriendly Products• Consumers should also be mindful of thehousehold products they use that couldpotentially harm local water sources. E.g.certainkinds of soap are not actually biodegradable• Biodegradable soap is available in the marketand will not leave any kind of lasting imprint onwater sources once it goes down the drain.Vinegar can also be a great alternative tobleach and chemical based cleaners.
  74. 74. Making earth little softerTake Better Care of lawn• How you clean your lawn can also help affectwater quality near your home. One way to makesure a local water supply is not contaminated isto make sure grass clippings do not enter anearby drain.• More carefully sweeping and picking up yourgrass can help prevent this from happening.
  75. 75. Making earth little softer4 R’sRefuse, Reduce, Recycle, Reuse
  76. 76. Making earth little softerNo dumping
  77. 77. Making earth little softerSanitation lead better life• Using a large piece of paper decide howimproved sanitation can help well being
  78. 78. Making earth little softerSanitation
  79. 79. Making earth little softerPolitics• Often politics and war can play a role incontamination and mass movement of peopleincreasing the likelihood of water stress
  80. 80. Making earth little softerLegislation• Water Quality Improvement Act of 1970• --control of oil pollution; work to eliminate acidmine drainage, pollution of Great Lakes• CLEAN WATER ACT OF 1972• --billions of $ to clean up nation’s waters;modern sewage treatment plants—huge affect• Comprehensive Environmental Response,Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980• ---superfund!
  81. 81. Making earth little softer• The graph shows reported pollution incidentssince 1989-1994. If stronger legislations wouldhave avoided these occurrencesLegislation
  82. 82. Making earth little softerAssessment of pollution• The degree of pollution is determined by theindicators of pollution, i.e. concentration of thesubstance in milligrams per 1 dm ³ of water.• One of the most important indicators of surfacewater pollution is the concentration of dissolvedoxygen, maximum value of 8.9 mg/dm3.• Lower concentration of oxygen indicates thepollution of organic compounds, biochemicaldegradation, decrease in oxygen concentrationsbelow 4 mg/dm3 causes death of many aquaticorganisms
  83. 83. Making earth little softerAssessment of pollutionOther indicators of pollution of natural waters are:• Biochemical oxygen demand, which is ameasure of the content of biochemicaldegradable organic compounds• Chemical oxygen demand - a measure of thecontents of all organic compounds• The presence of suspended mineral andorganic• Inorganic and organic compounds of nitrogen,phosphorus.
  84. 84. Making earth little softerStatistics• One of every five people in the world lacksaccess to safe drinking water.• Ninety-five percent of people in developedcountries and 74% of people in developingcountries have access to clean drinking water.• In a warmer world, too much rain and too littlerain can increase water pollution.
  85. 85. Making earth little softer85Septic Systems• Technological approach : Require suitable soiland maintenance
  86. 86. Making earth little softerSeptic Systems• Technological approach : Require suitable soiland maintenance
  87. 87. Making earth little softerSewage treatmentAdvanced (Tertiary) Sewage Treatment• Uses physical and chemical processes• Removes nitrate and phosphate• Expensive• Not widely used
  88. 88. Making earth little softerSewage treatment• Physical and biological treatment
  89. 89. Making earth little softerSewage treatment• Primary• Screens and settling tanks remove grit &suspended organic matter.• Secondary• Sewage aerated; aerobic bacteria consumeorganic matter• Leave dissolved inorganics, NO3, PO4, etc.• Tertiary• Filters most dissolved inorganics and remainingdissolved organic compounds
  90. 90. Making earth little softerPrimary Sewage treatment90• Screens and settling tanks remove grit &suspended organic matter.
  91. 91. Making earth little softerSecondary Sewage treatment• Sewage aerated; aerobic bacteria consumeorganic matter• Leave dissolved inorganics, NO3, PO4, etc.
  92. 92. Making earth little softerSewage treatment• Tertiary• Filters most dissolved inorganics and remainingdissolved organic compounds• Can be done biologically in wetlands• Natural• Artificial
  93. 93. Making earth little softerAdvanced Sewage treatment• Uses physical and chemical processes• Removes nitrate and phosphate• Expensive• Not widely used
  94. 94. Making earth little softerWetlands to treat sewageTechnological Approach
  95. 95. Making earth little softerWastewater Treatment TechWaste water treatment• Mechanical-consistingof the removal ofinsoluble impurities• Chemical-precipitationconsisting of certainsoluble compounds ortheir neutralization• In the biologicalwastewater treatmenttechnologies, involvingthe purification ofpollutants by the actionof microorganisms
  96. 96. Making earth little softerWaste water treatment• The primary objective of wastewater treatmentis to protect the natural environment, and aboveall to protect the purity of surface waters.
  97. 97. Making earth little softerWaste water treatment plants
  98. 98. Making earth little softerWaste water treatment plants
  99. 99. Making earth little softerWastewater Treatment
  100. 100. Making earth little softer
  101. 101. Making earth little softer
  102. 102. Making earth little softerBe the solution• You are the solution to the pollution
  103. 103. Making earth little softerPollution as a Bomb
  104. 104. Making earth little softerSave the earth
  105. 105. Making earth little softer
  106. 106. Making earth little softerReferences•;,• Gannon; Osmond, , Humenik, Gale, Spooner, Agricultural Water Quality Water resource• U.S.A. Environmental protection agency, washington, dc (usa)• MacKenzie, SH The Ecosystem ISLAND PRESS, CA (USA), 1996, 240• Water pollution and society ByDavid Krantz and Brad Kifferstein• Water pollution, By Mahesh & Ram, By Shohail Motahir Choudhury, Prasen Raptan,ExecutiveDirector,Jankalyana• Living in the Environment, By G. Tyler Miller’s• Authors Arnone Matteo,Belingheri Omar,Fasce Federico,Migliorino Lorenzo,Ernest Kyć,• Michał Stolarski,Adam Chłąd,Kamil Tratkiewicz• Water Pollution by Dr. B. Victor• Refresher course on sewage treatment plant design by PAUL• Trends and Scenarios in Agricultural Development by COLIN CHARTRES; International Water ManagementInstitute• Diamond Energy Water. The close relationship between Water & Our Body. 19 April 2008• <>.• We Rise. Water Facts. Allabout_facts. 15 May 2008 <>• “Olympic Science: The Hydration Rate.” Popular Mechanics. August 2008. 68.• Water Security: Leadership and Commitment by Shuichi Hirayama• Environmental Pollutants By Dr.Rathnakar U.P.MD.DIH.PGDHM (K.M.C. Mangalore)• Water Pollution By DiGiT• Water Pollution & Cleanup By Andrew J Penniman• Water Pollution by Home• Air, Water and Soil pollution - By B.Tungalagtuya• John Rodgers - Lecture 8: Water Pollution••