Earthsoft Foundation of GuidanceEdge-Aggressive-Reliable-Trust-Honesty-Soft-Obedient-Fun-Transparent                      ...
About usEarthsoft Foundation of Guidance (EFG) has uploaded followingpresentations at http://myefg.in/downloads.aspxAlso h...
Index• Project              • Communication• Project Management   • Closure• Project Manager      • Quality• Scope        ...
What is a Project?• A temporary and one-time endeavor undertaken  to create a unique product or service, which  brings ben...
Project Management• Project Management is the application of skills,  experience, knowledge, tools and techniques to  meet...
Not aboutProject management is not about• Organization & its culture• Saying…I am the boss!• Decision making• Changing peo...
Observations• No major project is ever installed on time,  within budget, or with the same staff that  started it.• Projec...
Project Failure  Efforts over-run   Schedule prolonged Requirements not     Deliverables not        met                use...
Why Projects Fail• Weak business case• Lack of senior management commitment,  Failure to align project with organizational...
Why Projects Fail• Scope creep• Wrong estimation• Unrealistic plan and schedule• Unrealistic expectations• Lack of project...
Undesirable• Too many changes, weak requirement gathering• Too often resources are not available when  needed (even when p...
Successful Project• Successful project management is delivering a quality solution meeting the customer‟s requirements wit...
Why Projects Succeed!• Strong project management• Domain knowledge• Good project charter• Good decision making structure• ...
Why Projects Succeed!• Sound project management processes• Project aligned to organization‟s business goals• Senior manage...
Stakeholders                   Individuals                       and                  Organizations     Interests         ...
Relationship        Employees                    Management                            Making earth little softer
Commitment to customers                      Minimum                     defects per                     mm efforts   Supp...
Project Technique• A set of techniques used for   • Planning   • Organising   • Scheduling   • Controlling   • Measuring• ...
Phases and Life Cycle• Divide Project into Phases   • Conceptual Design   • Detailed Design   • Coding and Testing (Build)...
Triple Constraint                    Time                    Quality        Cost                  Scope                   ...
FocusOrganizing and managing resources so theproject is completed within defined scope, timeand cost constraints achieving...
Triple Constraint• Increased Scope = increased time + increased  cost + increased efforts• Tight Time = increased costs + ...
Characteristics of Project• Objectives• Life span• Life cycle• Uniqueness• Successive principle• Potential to change      ...
ManagementProfessional and conscientious project management is critical to a success!             Remember              Re...
Right factors                       Facilities/                     Infrastructure                                        ...
Project Management                                            SMC or                                 Scope     FP or LOC M...
Project Management            Plan   Track   Control      MeasureEffortsScheduleQualityCostRisksResources                 ...
Project Management                        Client             Sign-off End to End           Management         from client ...
Key steps                     Estimation Measurement                           Planning &  & Matrices        Project      ...
Activities in sequence Scope                 ActivityPlanning             Sequencing              Activity           Sched...
Activities in sequence             Quality        Communications            Planning           Planning    Risk           ...
Management activities• Initialising• Proposal writing• Project planning and scheduling• Project monitoring and reviews• Co...
Project Charter• Project Goal & Objective• Sponsor• Stakeholders• Timeline• Resources required, role & responsibilities• D...
Project Charter• What must be done?• What are the required resources?• What are the constraints?• What are the short and l...
Stages• Project Management is divided as -• Project charter development• RFP Development and Process   • Project kick-off ...
LimitationsPM works efficiently when there is buy-inhowever It does not work when• Client / Users do not cooperate• Busine...
Project Manager• You used to be good friends with your co-  workers• Project manager gets sandwiched, pressure  between co...
Leadership Skills• Vision and Strategy• Establishing Direction• Aligning People• Motivating and Inspiring• Communicating• ...
Key Strength• Be the eye of the hurricane                                Making earth little softer
PM makes things happen!A good, solid professional project manager!                             Making earth little softer
Different hats                 Making earth little softer
Project manager• A good project manager needs to be a juggler• At times   • a magician   • a teacher   • a policeman   • a...
Various roles                Making earth little softer
Making earth little softer
Making earth little softer
Empowerment• Have a spine• Take a stand• Act to achieve• Be assertive                   Making earth little softer
Control• Stop on first instance• Stop nuisance• Stop non-sense• Stop breaking guidelines                             Makin...
Lead• Ensure strong, committed management support• Connect the business goals to the project• Assign an experienced projec...
Project Manager’s Role                   Lead             Communicate  Define    Plan      Monitor     Complete           ...
Project Manager’s Role• Leadership• Organising• Managing• Communication• Finance• Technical savvy• Team building• Praising...
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Know your PM            Energy                     EnergiseAmbition, Dreams,            Team Player, Stability,Commitment,...
Know your PM          Energy                        EnergiseDeep willingness to excel     Respect in a teamFun & Pressure ...
Scope Management               Initiation   Processes               Scope Definition               Scope Planning         ...
Scope Management• Primarily it is the definition and control of what  IS and IS NOT included in the project.              ...
Scope management• Gradual, progressive increase in the project‟s  scope that is not noticed immediately• Occurs when addit...
Discuss & document• Is it a must?• Can customer/user do the job without project?• Does it contribute to the viability of t...
Develop Project Scope• Scope Statement - agreement of what is & is notIncludes• Primary objectives (products/deliverables)...
Scope        Making earth little softer
Change Control ManagementDefine how scope changes will be executed Scope      Schedule Technical Specs        CostCollabor...
Change Procedures/Requests• Assess using baseline document• Establish process early , from day one for  managing change re...
Change Management• Access management of changes with respective  to the primary objectives and major deliverables  milesto...
Estimation numbers       Description           Alt 1       Alt 2LoC per FP (historical data)  53          40No of FP per m...
Estimation  #     Description         #     Description  1 Executive Summary 8 Assumptions  2 Cost Estimation         9 Ri...
Execution Models• Waterfall• SDLC – V, Customised, Incremental Model• Rapid application development• Extreme programming -...
SDLC Phases                    Requirement                      Analysis    Users                                      Hig...
V Model RFP document                   Acceptance TestsBusiness Requirement       Application Test cases    High Level Des...
Output#   Phase                      Output1 Requirement Proto type, Functional document  Analysis    Application Overview...
Output #    Phase                      Output 2   High      Design document     Level     Class listing, Class diagram, Se...
Output#    Phase                    Output3 Build      Code             Test results of Unit testing4 Testing    Integrati...
Phase wise effort distribution #           Phase               % Type Type Type                               efforts 1  2...
HL ScheduleDuration = k * SQRT((efforts in mm)), k=0.8 - 1.2Average no of resources = efforts/duration                    ...
Requirement Analysis                    Gather &                    Document  Estimation                           Think  ...
Milestones             Making earth little softer
High & Low level Design                    Technology &                     Framework                      decision       ...
Development                    Guidelines                   (Do it FIRST                  time RIGHT),                    ...
Testing                    Absolute                    matching                  environments                             ...
UAT & Deployment                  Absolute                  matching                environmentsUAT & closure             ...
Types of plan• Project Plan• Monitoring and reporting mechanisms• Quality Plan• Validation / Testing Plan• Configuration m...
Plan• Identify all stakeholders for each plan• Develop the project plan before starting the  project• Establish communicat...
Project planning• Probably the most time-consuming however  critical project management activity.• Continuous activity fro...
Coding “plan”•   Establish the project constraints•   Make initial assessments of the project parameters•   Define project...
Scheduling               Activity Definition (Microsoft Project)   Processes               Activity Sequencing (Microsoft ...
Scheduling• Where are we now?• Where we plan to be?• How can we get there?                          Making earth little so...
SchedulingThe project schedule sets out as Module wise• Split project into modules & tasks• All activities for each module...
Scheduling• To review & analyse if any task is delayed,  support to get it completed without delay• Incorporate appropriat...
Scheduling• Estimate likely efforts & duration for activity• For each activity  • Determine skills and resources  • Determ...
Scheduling Tools• Microsoft Project• ExcelMost important• Monitoring the tasks• Gantt views of project• One page views for...
Scheduling             Making earth little softer
Scheduling process                     Making earth little softer
Scheduling problems• Estimating the difficulty of problems• Productivity is not proportional to the number of  people work...
Team       Making earth little softer
Team   A good team delivers successfully!                          Making earth little softer
Human Resource Management               Organizational Planning   Processes               Profile defination              ...
Project staffing• Try to get   • Right resources, is the key & can make   • Phase wise right number of resource• Define ap...
Project staffingMay not be possible to appoint the ideal people towork on a project• Project budget may not allow for the ...
Team       Making earth little softer
Resource chart                 Making earth little softer
Staff allocation        4/7        1 1/7   18/7        2 5/7    1/8   8/8   15/8   2 2/8    2 9/8   5/9          1 2/9   1...
Organize and acquire staff• Identifying, documenting, and assigning project  roles and responsibilities as they relate to ...
Team DevelopmentSelect the right players• Complementary skillsets• Blend of technical and business• Align with WBSStages o...
Consultants              Making earth little softer
Consultants• Objective, skilled consultants can provide a  team foundation• Consultants can address dicey organizational  ...
Destructive team members                           Making earth little softer
Destructive team members• Understand the profile & strategise to deal!                        Tank          End Arounder  ...
Decision Making StructureDefine Layers• Executive• Project Manager• Project Team• Sub TeamsDocumentation• Roles & Levels o...
Decision Making• Avoid consensus abuse• Consensus may be desired, but is not required• Lack of consensus does not mean no ...
Integration Management               Project Plan Development   Processes               Project Plan Execution            ...
Budget & Cost Management               Resource Planning   Processes               Cost Estimating               Cost Budg...
Controlling the Budget                         Making earth little softer
Prior Approval• Do not assign the resources unless funds are  committed & documented• Not obtaining prior approval is the ...
Budget/Cost Management• To spend only against budget• Monitor project spending weekly• When a variance occurs, determine t...
Cost Management• Effort is the important element of the total cost• Ensure the project is completed within the  approved e...
Budgeting & Spending• Prepare budget, review & get it approved• Include various direct & indirect cost items   • Resources...
Think Fast & AheadRisk… POTENTIAL negative impact to project                            Making earth little softer
Risk Management               Risk Identification   Processes               Risk Quantification               Risk Respons...
Risk management#     Risk Date Description Probability Impact Exposure Mitigation Owner Closure    / Issue                ...
Risk management• A risk is a probability that some adverse  circumstance /problem will occur impacting  negatively    • Pr...
Sources of the risks• Poor estimates or unsupported estimates• Requirements risks• Estimation risks• Impossible timeframes...
Sources of the risksResource risks• Roles and responsibilities misunderstood• Insufficiently skilled staff, People risks• ...
Risk management processRisk identification• Identify project, product and business risks;Risk analysis• Assess the likelih...
Risk management process                          Making earth little softer
Risk analysis• Assess probability and seriousness of each risk.• Probability may be very low, low, moderate, high  or very...
Risk planning• Identify risks with probability, impact & exposure• Planning for risk mitigation or contingency• Develop a ...
Risk monitoring• Assess each identified risks regularly to decide  whether or not it is becoming less or more  probable• A...
Communications Skills• Writing• Listening• Speaking• Presenting• Updates & reporting• Meeting Management• Media Relations ...
Communications Management:               Communications Planning   Processes               Information Distribution       ...
Communication Management• This process is necessary to ensure timely and  appropriate        generation,       collection,...
Communication Plan• Define stakeholders• Define hierarchy• Develop communication planTo Identify• Talents for communicatio...
Communication• Communication is everything we do in business• It is essential to know and follow good practices  of commun...
Communication NeedsThe plan to determine:• Team structure• Role & responsibilities and Names• Who needs what information• ...
ClosureTo conduct a meeting with all stake holdersTo share following information estimated & actual• Efforts• Schedule• De...
Project completion                 Figure 1-3                              Making earth little softer
CMM 5                                               5 - Optimizing                                              Continuous...
CMM 5Level 3 – Defined  -- peer reviews, intergroup coordination  -- software product engineering  -- integrated software ...
CMM 5Level 5 – Optimizing  -- process change management  -- technology change management  -- defect preventionLevel 4 – Ma...
Quality Management               Quality Planning   Processes               Quality Assurance               Quality Contro...
What is Quality• Functionality related gap between expectations  of client and actual delivery• Defects are injected durin...
Make a statementTo aim your organisation to be the best in theindustry in terms “Defects Delivered Ratio” andthus be able ...
Reviews & testing• Removing defects by reviewing & testing   • From each deliverable   • At each phase  Defects in system ...
Quality measurement No. of defects                                1 effort in manmonths                           3 Loc pe...
Quality ManagementQuality Management is the process that insurethe project will meet the needs• Conformance to requirement...
Quality ManagementHow will quality assurance and control beconducted?            • Identify Quality Standards            •...
Issue Management• Issues are restraints to accomplishing the  deliverables of the project.• Typically identified throughou...
Client• Client is God!• It‟s a source of profit for management & salary  for employees• Good to keep balance educating to ...
Procurement Management               Procurement Planning   Processes               Solicitation Planning               So...
Procurement managementProcurement planning determines:• Selection of partner• Budget, Cost and negotiations• Whether, what...
Manage the ContractorTo develop a framework of outsourcingTo enforce the terms of the contract and meet therequirements of...
Manage the Contractor• Trust but question• Support contractor to build & grow• Their bottom line is the bottom line• Your ...
Reporting• Establish reporting requirements upfront• Include only the good, be diplomatic for the bad,  and the ugly• Be b...
Meeting Management• Develop guidelines/ rules early• Assign facilitator• Assign reporter and reporting structure• Start an...
Guidelines for meeting• Start/end times are real• Agree to debate issues, not people• Civility required• Confidentiality?•...
Feedback• Praise in public• Feedback/ Punish in private• Build performance reviews into the contract• Be clear and specifi...
Making earth little softer
Multi tasking• Bad multi-tasking inflates lead times!• Try to limit multi tasking only for rare expertise &  capable resou...
People Problems• 2/3 of project problems are people related• Many operational leaders demonstrate a “just  do-it” mentalit...
Navigating the Politics• Know the environment  • What are the overarching issues of your    organization?  • What are the ...
CRT - Current Reality Tree    Budget over-   Due dates are       runs          not met      Early completions are         ...
CRT - Current Reality Tree  There are too            fights over priorities  many changes               between projects  ...
Potholes• Giving the contractor or any team member too  much control, responsibility, or authority• Not managing scope cre...
Common Traps                                Courtesy                         Karl E. Wiegers                  www.processi...
Not clear Requirements• Stakeholders discuss “requirements” with  no adjectives in front.• Project    sponsor      present...
Not clear Requirements• Adopt templates for three levels of requirements• Business requirements (Vision & Scope)• User req...
Inadequate Involvement• Some user classes are overlooked.• Some user classes don‟t have a voice.• User surrogates attempt ...
Inadequate Involvement• Identify various user classes.• Identify    product      champions   as  user  representatives• Co...
Ambiguous Requirements• Readers interpret a requirement in several  different ways.• Requirements are missing information ...
Ambiguous Requirements• Formally inspect requirement documents.• Write      conceptual      test    cases      against  re...
Unprioritized Requirements• All requirements are critical!• Different      stakeholders      interpret “high”  priority di...
Unprioritized Requirements• Align functional requirements with business  requirements.• Align functional requirements with...
Analysis Paralysis• Requirements development seems to go on  forever.• New versions of the SRS are continually  released.•...
Analysis Paralysis• Remember: Product is software, not an SRS• Select an appropriate development life cycle.• Staged relea...
Scope Creep• New requirements are continually added.• Schedule doesn‟t change• No more resources provided• Product scope i...
Scope Creep• Determine root causes of the scope creep• Document the product‟s vision and scope• Define system boundaries a...
Inadequate Change Process• No change process is defined.• Some people bypass the change process.• Implement rejected chang...
Inadequate Change Process• Define a practical change control process• Set up a Change Control Board• Diverse group includi...
Inadequate Version Control• Accepted changes aren‟t incorporated into SRS• You can‟t distinguish different SRS versions.• ...
Inadequate Version Control• Assign a member as a owner for version control• Implement right configuration tool from start•...
Success Tips Risk management reviews &                             Right Project                             Management   ...
Reviews• Every deliverable must be reviewed by senior• Sharing experience & education from senior  management till project...
Ask for• Have you planned entire project?• Do you have appropriate duration?• Would you have enough appropriate resources?...
Ask for• Anyone getting overloaded? Is this acceptable?• Multi tasking? Need of a day? Is it sustainable?  Do you have cho...
Vision             Minimum Defects             Timely Delivery             Minimum TCC              EXECUTION          ...
References• Experience of author having worked at Vertex, now NTTData• Wiegers, Karl E. Creating a Software Engineering Cu...
For More Information• Wiegers, Karl E. Software Requirements. Redmond,  Wash.: Microsoft Press, 1999.• Search Group, Incor...
Project Management Resources• Project Management Institute – home of the Project  Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK)• ht...
Thank You   Making earth little softer
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10 c-draft-earthsoft-project management-detailed-experience based

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Project management is a special skill or a common sense? most imp is to track,b alert, reviews & mitigate risks
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"Earthsoft Foundation of Guidance (EFG) is working as an NGO/NPO for students - Education & Career
guidance and for Professionals for soft skills enhancements. I am working on speading , sharing
knowledge; experience globally.It has uploaded important presentations at http://myefg.in/downloads.aspx.
Also https://dl.dropbox.com/u/83265908/Links-events.xls has links for all ppt files.

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Be mentor using your education, knowledge & experience to contribute for a social cause & do conduct
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Kindly spread to your friends.Thank you!
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  • The application of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to project objectives to meet stakeholder needs and expectations.
  • When things are going well, something will go wrong. A carelessly planned project will take three times longer to complete than expectedA carefully planned project will take only twice as long. Project teams detest progress reporting because it vividly manifests their lack of progress. Inevitably it introduces new bugs that are even harder to find
  • Triple ConstraintFive StagesProject Manager RoleDecision Making StructureCommunication PlanMeeting ManagementTeam DevelopmentNavigating Organizational Politics
  • Single entityTeamworkMade to order
  • It’s a balancing act – you’ve got a lot of things to keep going - and going well – all at once!
  • (CLICK) (CLICK) (CLICK)(READ SLIDE)KEY POINT: The Project Manager is responsible for ensuring the work gets done – not DOING all the work!Give IT and program a seat at the table
  • This component is used to communicateHow the scope was definedHow the project scope will be managedWho will manage the scope (e.g., PM, QA)Change Control
  • Formal change control is required for all of the followingScope ChangeSchedule changesTechnical Specification ChangesTraining ChangesAll changes require collaboration and buy in via the project sponsor’s signature prior to implementation of the changes
  • (CLICK)Define requirements in detail(CLICK)Establish a speedy conflict resolution process! WRITTEN and part of the SOW or Contract(CLICK)Make contingency Plans – if things didn’t go wrong you wouldn’t need a PM!A risk management plan is NOT a contingency plan. Risk is something you anticipate! Contingency is something you must be ready to react to!(CLICK)Plan a reasonable roll-out schedule. You are not just putting in a new system – you are also changing the way your do business and this has a huge impact. Allow time to deal with it.
  • Think twice before giving away the farm!
  • Resource Planning - Full Time Employees, Professional Services, Cost, and ContingencyResource Planning - The physical resources required (people, equipment, materials) and what quantities are necessary for the projectBudget Budget estimatesBaseline estimatesProject Actuals
  • Communications planning: Determining the needs (who needs what information, when they need it, and how it will be delivered)Information Distribution: Defining who and how information will flow to the project stakeholders and the frequencyPerformance Reporting: Providing project performance updates via status reporting.Communications planningInformation DistributionPerformance ReportingDefine the schedule for the Project Meetings (Team, OSC, ESC), Status Meetings and Issues Meetings to be implemented
  • What is Quality - conformance to requirements’ - Crosby ‘fitness for use’ - Juran ‘the totality of characteristics of an entity that bear on its ability to satisfy stated and implied need’ - ISO 8402:1994 Customer-Based -> Fitness for use, meeting customer expectations. Manufacturing-Based -> Conforming to design, specifications, or requirements. Having no defects. Product-Based -> The product has something that other similar products do not that adds value. Value-Based -> The product is the best combination of price and features. 5. Transcendent It is not clear what it is, but it is something good...via:Quality Planning, Quality Assurance, and Quality ControlClearly Defined Quality Performance StandardsHow those Quality and Performance Standards are measured and satisfiedHow Testing and Quality Assurance Processes will ensure standards are satisfiedContinuous ongoing quality control
  • Issues not easily resolved are escalated for resolution. Issues are typically identified throughout the project and logged and tracked through resolution.In this section of the plan the following processes are depicted:Where issues will be maintained and trackedThe process for updating issues regularlyThe escalation processThe vehicle by which team members can access documented issuesIssue… already impacting the cost, time or quality Risk… POTENTIAL negative impact to project
  • Here are some quick tips on how to manage the contractor!(READ LIST)
  • The end product is only as good as your requirementsHere are some quick tips on how to manage the contractor!(READ LIST)
  • The State is ultimately accountable for the project
  • We’ve provided some resources for you. These are also on the web site and in HB 901.PMINY State has created a PM guidebook that has been received as a model for others to useOur own 901 chapter.
  • 10 c-draft-earthsoft-project management-detailed-experience based

    1. 1. Earthsoft Foundation of GuidanceEdge-Aggressive-Reliable-Trust-Honesty-Soft-Obedient-Fun-Transparent Making earth little softer
    2. 2. About usEarthsoft Foundation of Guidance (EFG) has uploaded followingpresentations at http://myefg.in/downloads.aspxAlso https://dl.dropbox.com/u/83265908/Links-events.xls has linksBe mentor using your education, knowledge & experience tocontribute for a social cause & do conduct free training seekinghelp of existing platforms. Kindly share with your friends•Motivation for higher study, Planning for study, Educationguidance, Career guidance, Career available after SSC & HSC•Personality development – 3 files•How to prepare resume, Tips to attend interview successfully•Religion related –To understand basic religion, Do &Don‟t tips•Health related - Be vegetarian, Be healthy•Corporate - Project management, Assertiveness, Ownership•Finance - To avoid speculation in stock market•Social - Women empowerment, Choosing life partner Making earth little softer
    3. 3. Index• Project • Communication• Project Management • Closure• Project Manager • Quality• Scope • Client• Estimation • Procurement• Process • Reporting• Plan • Feedback• Schedule • Common Issues• Team • Common Traps• Integration • Tips• Budget & Cost• Risk Making earth little softer
    4. 4. What is a Project?• A temporary and one-time endeavor undertaken to create a unique product or service, which brings beneficial change or added valueIt implies• Specific requirements• Specific timeframe• Specific budget• Working across organizational boundaries• Delivering what client wants Making earth little softer
    5. 5. Project Management• Project Management is the application of skills, experience, knowledge, tools and techniques to meet the needs and expectations of stakeholders for a project• The purpose of project management is prediction and prevention, NOT recognition and reaction! Making earth little softer
    6. 6. Not aboutProject management is not about• Organization & its culture• Saying…I am the boss!• Decision making• Changing people‟s behavior• Educating clients• Proving other is wrong! Making earth little softer
    7. 7. Observations• No major project is ever installed on time, within budget, or with the same staff that started it.• Projects progress quickly until 90% complete, remaining completion consumes huge resources• When things appear to be going better, PM may likely overlook something• PM mostly does not understand role clearly• PM - Supervisor of many, but manager of none• No system is ever completely debugged• Clients pretend not understanding commercials• Everyone thinks project can be executed better Making earth little softer
    8. 8. Project Failure Efforts over-run Schedule prolonged Requirements not Deliverables not met used Budget over spent Loss making Making earth little softer
    9. 9. Why Projects Fail• Weak business case• Lack of senior management commitment, Failure to align project with organizational objectives• Absence of user/client involvement• Lack of executive sponsorship• New or unfamiliar technology• Poor scope management - Lack of defined, clear, and concise requirements, poor requirements gathering Making earth little softer
    10. 10. Why Projects Fail• Scope creep• Wrong estimation• Unrealistic plan and schedule• Unrealistic expectations• Lack of project management, Inadequate project planning• Lack of resources & their planning• Inability to move beyond individual and personality conflicts• Ineffective communication• Political environment Making earth little softer
    11. 11. Undesirable• Too many changes, weak requirement gathering• Too often resources are not available when needed (even when promised).• Scope creep• Usually original due dates are not met• Too many change request• Extended or too tight schedule• Discontinuity of the resources• Different priorities between projects• Budget over-runs and/or its non-availability• Too many defects & requirements gap• Less cooperation from client/users Making earth little softer
    12. 12. Successful Project• Successful project management is delivering a quality solution meeting the customer‟s requirements within efforts, time, scope & budget making profit for the organisation. Requirements Completed within satisfied/exceeded effort & time frame Completed within Accepted by the allocated budget customer Making earth little softer
    13. 13. Why Projects Succeed!• Strong project management• Domain knowledge• Good project charter• Good decision making structure• Effective communication• Effective risk management• Continuous reviews of output & deliverables by every senior level• Detailed requirements & its traceability• Empowered project manager• Project sponsorship at executive level• Availability of funding & motivation for profits Making earth little softer
    14. 14. Why Projects Succeed!• Sound project management processes• Project aligned to organization‟s business goals• Senior management commitment• Right estimation, Realistic schedule• Effective change management• The right mix of team players• Team members are working toward common goals, high motivation• Good stakeholder relationships• Skilled and appropriate team members with defined roles and responsibilities Making earth little softer
    15. 15. Stakeholders Individuals and Organizations Interests Actively Affected by Involved in Project Project Making earth little softer
    16. 16. Relationship Employees Management Making earth little softer
    17. 17. Commitment to customers Minimum defects per mm efforts Support & Timely comfort levels Commitment delivery to Customers Periodic Minimum Reporting total cost No surprises Making earth little softer
    18. 18. Project Technique• A set of techniques used for • Planning • Organising • Scheduling • Controlling • Measuring• Work activities• To reach a desired result • Within estimated efforts • On-time • Within budget and • According to specification Making earth little softer
    19. 19. Phases and Life Cycle• Divide Project into Phases • Conceptual Design • Detailed Design • Coding and Testing (Build) • Training and Documentation • Deployment• Better Management Control for all parameters• Review Deliverables and Performance• Effective communication, tracking & reporting Making earth little softer
    20. 20. Triple Constraint Time Quality Cost Scope Making earth little softer
    21. 21. FocusOrganizing and managing resources so theproject is completed within defined scope, timeand cost constraints achieving excellent qualityManage these or they will manage you! Making earth little softer
    22. 22. Triple Constraint• Increased Scope = increased time + increased cost + increased efforts• Tight Time = increased costs + reduced scope + increased efforts• Tight Budget = increased time + reduced scope• For the reduced duration, effort increases exponentially (multiple times exponent (square) of ratio of normal to reduced duration) Making earth little softer
    23. 23. Characteristics of Project• Objectives• Life span• Life cycle• Uniqueness• Successive principle• Potential to change Making earth little softer
    24. 24. ManagementProfessional and conscientious project management is critical to a success! Remember Remember Making earth little softer
    25. 25. Right factors Facilities/ Infrastructure Management Processes & Plan Executeimplementation Project Measure Execution Control Team – Skill, experience, Communication & Motivation Making earth little softer
    26. 26. Project Management SMC or Scope FP or LOC Mitigation Man- & owner Risk & Issues Effort & Cost month Plan Track Control Measure Defect per Milestones mm Quality Schedule & Dates Infra, People Technology Team Making earth little softer
    27. 27. Project Management Plan Track Control MeasureEffortsScheduleQualityCostRisksResources Making earth little softer
    28. 28. Project Management Client Sign-off End to End Management from client testing Integration & Proposal deployment Management All aspect & If -then Templates Remain alert! & Audits Process Communication Management Management Escalation Metrics Impact & Change control Agreement Management Making earth little softer
    29. 29. Key steps Estimation Measurement Planning & & Matrices Project Scheduling Execution Cycle Integration & Costing & Deployment Budgeting Making earth little softer
    30. 30. Activities in sequence Scope ActivityPlanning Sequencing Activity Schedule Definition Development Scope EstimatingDefinition Effort, Duration Cost Resource Budgeting Planning Cost Plan Estimating Development Making earth little softer
    31. 31. Activities in sequence Quality Communications Planning Planning Risk Risk ResponseIdentification Quantification Development Organizational Staff Planning Acquisition Procurement Solicitation Planning Planning Making earth little softer
    32. 32. Management activities• Initialising• Proposal writing• Project planning and scheduling• Project monitoring and reviews• Controlling• Costing & profitability• Team building-Personnel selection, evaluation• Report writing and presentations• Efficient risk management• Seeking support by seniors• Measurement & Efficient PMO management• Closure Making earth little softer
    33. 33. Project Charter• Project Goal & Objective• Sponsor• Stakeholders• Timeline• Resources required, role & responsibilities• Deliverables• Decision making structure• Assumptions• Risks• Business process changes• Project manager & Project team• Budget• Signatures Making earth little softer
    34. 34. Project Charter• What must be done?• What are the required resources?• What are the constraints?• What are the short and long term implications?• Why do it?• When must it be done?• Where must it be done?• Who does what?• Who is behind the project?• Who is funding the project?• Who is performing the work of the project? Making earth little softer
    35. 35. Stages• Project Management is divided as -• Project charter development• RFP Development and Process • Project kick-off • Planning & Design • Project team creation • Planning (WBS, schedule) • Budget• Implementation / construction• Going live, Project closure, handing over to operations management Making earth little softer
    36. 36. LimitationsPM works efficiently when there is buy-inhowever It does not work when• Client / Users do not cooperate• Business understanding gap with client• buy-in is lacking or there is no support for the methods or decisions by executives• decisions made are not supported• „end arounds‟ are tolerated• influential players operate outside the project• charters, schedules and other work products of the team are not supported Making earth little softer
    37. 37. Project Manager• You used to be good friends with your co- workers• Project manager gets sandwiched, pressure between co-workers and stakeholders• The skills that brought you to this role are no longer as vital; now new skills are needed• You used to be & need to be really the best & smart at your work• Have effective, transparent & trustworthy communication• Be assertive Making earth little softer
    38. 38. Leadership Skills• Vision and Strategy• Establishing Direction• Aligning People• Motivating and Inspiring• Communicating• Negotiating• Influencing people & organizations• Overcoming Barriers to Change• Delivering quality solution• Assertiveness Making earth little softer
    39. 39. Key Strength• Be the eye of the hurricane Making earth little softer
    40. 40. PM makes things happen!A good, solid professional project manager! Making earth little softer
    41. 41. Different hats Making earth little softer
    42. 42. Project manager• A good project manager needs to be a juggler• At times • a magician • a teacher • a policeman • a parent• A Project Manager has to manage the triple constraints!• An under-qualified project manager can destroy a contract, business relationship and client! Making earth little softer
    43. 43. Various roles Making earth little softer
    44. 44. Making earth little softer
    45. 45. Making earth little softer
    46. 46. Empowerment• Have a spine• Take a stand• Act to achieve• Be assertive Making earth little softer
    47. 47. Control• Stop on first instance• Stop nuisance• Stop non-sense• Stop breaking guidelines Making earth little softer
    48. 48. Lead• Ensure strong, committed management support• Connect the business goals to the project• Assign an experienced project manager• Establish clearly defined directions• Be proactive• Set clear performance expectations• Ask for technical assistance• Do not start roll-out until pilot is complete! Making earth little softer
    49. 49. Project Manager’s Role Lead Communicate Define Plan Monitor Complete Communicate Re-Plan Making earth little softer
    50. 50. Project Manager’s Role• Leadership• Organising• Managing• Communication• Finance• Technical savvy• Team building• Praising• Feedback (Punishing) (?)• Politicking Making earth little softer
    51. 51. Making earth little softer
    52. 52. Know your PM Energy EnergiseAmbition, Dreams, Team Player, Stability,Commitment, Flexibility Delegation, MotivationSelf Motivation, Interpersonal skills,Consistency, Initiative, Communication, TeamBuild Organization Building, Managing Conflict Execution EdgeSuccessful closure, Aptitude, Technology,Reliability, Planning, Skills, Guiding, Ability,Scheduling, Controlling, Expert, ManagementTracking, Problems SolvingFinancial & Accounting Making earth little softer
    53. 53. Know your PM Energy EnergiseDeep willingness to excel Respect in a teamFun & Pressure Making a differenceNeed & availability, Travel Recognition Connecting with people Edge ExecutionTo gain knowledge, Closing the threads,expertise, Algorithmic & Controlling, Cost & ProfitsLogical Sharpness Contribute, Problem solving Etiquettes EthicsOrganised, Disciplined Value, Principle, CharacterWell planned, Organising Believes, Trustworthy Making earth little softer
    54. 54. Scope Management Initiation Processes Scope Definition Scope Planning Scope Verification Scope Change Control Product / Project DescriptionTechnologies Project Charter Tools & Scope Statement Microsoft Project Formal Acceptance Scope Management Plan Making earth little softer
    55. 55. Scope Management• Primarily it is the definition and control of what IS and IS NOT included in the project. Making earth little softer
    56. 56. Scope management• Gradual, progressive increase in the project‟s scope that is not noticed immediately• Occurs when additional requirements result in scope change causing cost & schedule overruns• Take a judgment on clarity of requirements being received from users• Raise as many doubts & ask as many questions during requirement gathering to users• Document using question-answer format• Make responsibility clear Making earth little softer
    57. 57. Discuss & document• Is it a must?• Can customer/user do the job without project?• Does it contribute to the viability of the system?• Does it add value as a feature/function to the system?• Is it worth the additional cost?• Take initiative• Focus entire project• Decide unit screen/ feature/ function• Offer simple alternatives & decide• Document entire discussions• Get sign-off on daily basis Making earth little softer
    58. 58. Develop Project Scope• Scope Statement - agreement of what is & is notIncludes• Primary objectives (products/deliverables)• Major deliverable milestones• Assumptions• Constraints• Interfaces • Inputs to be received • Output to be shared• Completion criteria• Baseline documents• Maintain question-answer format file Making earth little softer
    59. 59. Scope Making earth little softer
    60. 60. Change Control ManagementDefine how scope changes will be executed Scope Schedule Technical Specs CostCollaboration & agreement by the project sponsoris must for all changes prior to implementation,for above parameters! Making earth little softer
    61. 61. Change Procedures/Requests• Assess using baseline document• Establish process early , from day one for managing change requests• Original scoping should be thorough as possible• Any subsequent changes must be thoroughly vetted, a form should be completed and members and executives must sign off• Change request has impact on efforts, schedule, cost & probably quality so needs to be communicated and sign-off from client is must• It is critical at which phase, CR is received, cost is multifold at later phase for the same request Making earth little softer
    62. 62. Change Management• Access management of changes with respective to the primary objectives and major deliverables milestonesThe plan should include agreements of:• Change acceptance/expectations• How changes will be evaluated• How change will be managed Making earth little softer
    63. 63. Estimation numbers Description Alt 1 Alt 2LoC per FP (historical data) 53 40No of FP per month 10 8No. of days per month 20 20No. of FP per day (data) 0.5 0.4Loc per day (without 27 16blank & comments)- JavaLOC per hour 3.3 2.0 Screen based estimation Days Loc1 Simple screen 9 2391 Medium screen 18 4771 Complex screen 27 716 Making earth little softer
    64. 64. Estimation # Description # Description 1 Executive Summary 8 Assumptions 2 Cost Estimation 9 Risks & Mitigation 3 Phase breakup 10 Deliverables 4 Estimation 11 Pending list 5 Schedule 12 Out of scope 6 Team Structure 13 Prerequisites 7 Approach 14 Terms & Conditions• Av. base or resource wise Rate per manmonth• Type of project (Fixed, T & M, Hybrid)• Project execution methodology Making earth little softer
    65. 65. Execution Models• Waterfall• SDLC – V, Customised, Incremental Model• Rapid application development• Extreme programming - XP• Agile and Feature driven design• Dynamic systems development model Making earth little softer
    66. 66. SDLC Phases Requirement Analysis Users High & Low Testing & Project level design Deployment Execution Cycle Integration & Development & Application Unit Testing Testing Making earth little softer
    67. 67. V Model RFP document Acceptance TestsBusiness Requirement Application Test cases High Level Design Integration Test cases Low Level Design Unit Test cases Coding & White box testing Making earth little softer
    68. 68. Output# Phase Output1 Requirement Proto type, Functional document Analysis Application Overview and diagram Breakdown of application in Modules, Sub Modules, Screen layout & Screens functionalities, common validations & rules, business rules Screen transition diagram ER design/ External files External communication Software/Hardware requirement Deployment Diagram Out of scope Making earth little softer
    69. 69. Output # Phase Output 2 High Design document Level Class listing, Class diagram, Sequence Design diagram, Common design rules Detailed Screen specifications Physical Database design; E-R Database design, Integration Test cases, Test data Low level Program specifications, Unit test cases design Screen specifications (Field level validation) & business rules, Unit Test case, Test data Making earth little softer
    70. 70. Output# Phase Output3 Build Code Test results of Unit testing4 Testing Integration Test results Application Test results Bug posting & Tracking till closure5 UAT & Test results Deployment System Manual & User‟s Manuals Training6 Going Live Program document Monitor the progress, feedback, defects, H/w, S/w, Users,etc Making earth little softer
    71. 71. Phase wise effort distribution # Phase % Type Type Type efforts 1 2 3 T& 1 Requirement Analysis 10-15 M 2 High & Low level Design 15-20 T&M Fixed Fixed 3 Build 35-45 4 Testing 15-20 5 UAT & Deployment 5-10Duration = k * SQRT((efforts in mm)), k=0.8 - 1.2Save as much efforts right from the beginning Making earth little softer
    72. 72. HL ScheduleDuration = k * SQRT((efforts in mm)), k=0.8 - 1.2Average no of resources = efforts/duration Making earth little softer
    73. 73. Requirement Analysis Gather & Document Estimation Think Review Discuss & Conclude Requirement Brainstorm Analysis Feasibility Flow Diagram Screen Design Conserve Documents Making earth little softer
    74. 74. Milestones Making earth little softer
    75. 75. High & Low level Design Technology & Framework decision Technical Validations & Architect, reviews High & Low level Framework design development Interfaces Design Document (Use cases, Class Dia, DB Design design, Sequence Dia, Test cases Common Design, Screen specifications) Making earth little softer
    76. 76. Development Guidelines (Do it FIRST time RIGHT), check list Interfaces Look & Feel, Integration Traceability, Testing Development Coding & review Unit test cases, test data, Strong Code testing, test reviews result Making earth little softer
    77. 77. Testing Absolute matching environments Reviewed test Plan at least cases, IT & 2-3 round of AT, daily testing Testing measurement Detect maximum Test data, right defects & Track tool, till closure, Test Performance, results Load, regression Making earth little softer
    78. 78. UAT & Deployment Absolute matching environmentsUAT & closure Staging & Document- Live server System & UAT & managementUsers Manuals Deployment Configuration of System manual, servers Users manual, Installation of Training software Making earth little softer
    79. 79. Types of plan• Project Plan• Monitoring and reporting mechanisms• Quality Plan• Validation / Testing Plan• Configuration management plan• Deployment Plan• Maintenance Plan• Risk analysis & mitigation plan• Hardware and software Resource plan• Budget & costing plan• Staff development Plan• Communication Plan Making earth little softer
    80. 80. Plan• Identify all stakeholders for each plan• Develop the project plan before starting the project• Establish communications protocols• Define requirements in detail• Establish a speedy conflict resolution process• Make contingency plans• Plan a reasonable roll-out schedule• Get it reviewed critically• Get is accepted by all stake holders• Project documentation to determine - How the project will be managed Making earth little softer
    81. 81. Project planning• Probably the most time-consuming however critical project management activity.• Continuous activity from initial concept through to system delivery.• Plans must be regularly revised as new information becomes available, almost daily• Additional plan may be developed to support the main software project plan• Always determine the critical path Making earth little softer
    82. 82. Coding “plan”• Establish the project constraints• Make initial assessments of the project parameters• Define project milestones and deliverables• while project has not been completed or cancelled loop• Draw up project schedule• Initiate activities according to schedule• Wait ( for a while )• Review project progress• Revise estimates of project parameters• Update the project schedule• Re-negotiate project constraints and deliverables• if ( problems arise ) then• Initiate technical review and possible revision• end if• end loop Making earth little softer
    83. 83. Scheduling Activity Definition (Microsoft Project) Processes Activity Sequencing (Microsoft Project) Activity Duration Estimating Schedule Development Schedule Control Activity ListTechnologies Network Diagram Tools & Project Schedule Schedule Management Plan Identifying Critical Path Making earth little softer
    84. 84. Scheduling• Where are we now?• Where we plan to be?• How can we get there? Making earth little softer
    85. 85. SchedulingThe project schedule sets out as Module wise• Split project into modules & tasks• All activities for each module to be captured• Estimate time and resources required to complete each task• Include all possible activities, smallest to big• The resources available / needed to the project• A schedule - start & end time & total duration• All dependencies to be identified, check to keep waiting time as minimum• It is essential to complete the project on time so complete each task in time Making earth little softer
    86. 86. Scheduling• To review & analyse if any task is delayed, support to get it completed without delay• Incorporate appropriate buffer• Understand critical path & track it closely• Organize tasks concurrently to make optimal use of workforce• Identify all dependencies• Minimize task dependencies to avoid delays caused by one task waiting for another to complete• Depends on project managers intuition and experience Making earth little softer
    87. 87. Scheduling• Estimate likely efforts & duration for activity• For each activity • Determine skills and resources • Determine start and finish dates for tasks • Assign the resources May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Making earth little softer
    88. 88. Scheduling Tools• Microsoft Project• ExcelMost important• Monitoring the tasks• Gantt views of project• One page views for executives• Rollout and more complex views for work teams• Critical Paths• Inputs from multiple teams that roll up to project manager• Dependencies• Resources assigned to tasks Making earth little softer
    89. 89. Scheduling Making earth little softer
    90. 90. Scheduling process Making earth little softer
    91. 91. Scheduling problems• Estimating the difficulty of problems• Productivity is not proportional to the number of people working on a task.• Adding people to a late project makes it costlier & complex because of communication overheads• The unexpected always happens. Always allow contingency in planning Making earth little softer
    92. 92. Team Making earth little softer
    93. 93. Team A good team delivers successfully! Making earth little softer
    94. 94. Human Resource Management Organizational Planning Processes Profile defination Staff Acquisition Team Development Role Assignment Matrix (Microsoft Word)Technologies Staffing Management Plan Tools & Organizational Chart Project Team Directory Making earth little softer
    95. 95. Project staffing• Try to get • Right resources, is the key & can make • Phase wise right number of resource• Define appropriately profile of the resources needed• Intimate minimum 4-6 weeks prior to the need• Share the resource chart with resource management group• Check the availability• Analyse what if not available situation• Raise alert & possible impact and risk due to non availability of the resource Making earth little softer
    96. 96. Project staffingMay not be possible to appoint the ideal people towork on a project• Project budget may not allow for the use of highly-paid staff• Try to determine profitability from start• Staff with the appropriate experience may not be available• An organisation may wish to develop employee skills on a project• Managers have to work within these constraints especially when there are shortages of trained staff Making earth little softer
    97. 97. Team Making earth little softer
    98. 98. Resource chart Making earth little softer
    99. 99. Staff allocation 4/7 1 1/7 18/7 2 5/7 1/8 8/8 15/8 2 2/8 2 9/8 5/9 1 2/9 19/9Fr ed T4 T8 T 11 T 12Jane T1 T3 T9Anne T2 T6 T 10Jim T7Mary T5 Making earth little softer
    100. 100. Organize and acquire staff• Identifying, documenting, and assigning project roles and responsibilities as they relate to the work defined, acquiring the staff• Staff acquisition - negotiations, position announcement, procurement, or assignment. Making earth little softer
    101. 101. Team DevelopmentSelect the right players• Complementary skillsets• Blend of technical and business• Align with WBSStages of Team Development• Forming• Storming• Norming• Performing Making earth little softer
    102. 102. Consultants Making earth little softer
    103. 103. Consultants• Objective, skilled consultants can provide a team foundation• Consultants can address dicey organizational issues• For large projects, this approach is vital.• May want to hire contractors from outsourcing partner or• May want to outsource partial or complete project to outsourcing partner Making earth little softer
    104. 104. Destructive team members Making earth little softer
    105. 105. Destructive team members• Understand the profile & strategise to deal! Tank End Arounder Grenade Traitor Think Profiles Sniper May Be Yes Sir No Sir Making earth little softer
    106. 106. Decision Making StructureDefine Layers• Executive• Project Manager• Project Team• Sub TeamsDocumentation• Roles & Levels of responsibilities to be defined, conveyed, understood and agreed clearly for each member Making earth little softer
    107. 107. Decision Making• Avoid consensus abuse• Consensus may be desired, but is not required• Lack of consensus does not mean no decision• Projects force decisions by leaders• Clarify who makes what decisions• Establish structure for rapid decision making• Communicate decisions• Log/track decisions for future reference• It is important that team members agree to support the decisions even if not in agreement• Agree to disagree• Get buy-in from sponsor and administrators Making earth little softer
    108. 108. Integration Management Project Plan Development Processes Project Plan Execution Overall Change Control Boundary conditions Inputs to be received Output to be deliveredTechnologies Project Plan Lessons Learned Tools & Making earth little softer
    109. 109. Budget & Cost Management Resource Planning Processes Cost Estimating Cost Budgeting Cost Control Resource RequirementsTechnologies Cost Estimate Tools & Cost Baseline or Spending Plan (Microsoft Excel Documents) Cost Management Plan Indirect Cost structure Making earth little softer
    110. 110. Controlling the Budget Making earth little softer
    111. 111. Prior Approval• Do not assign the resources unless funds are committed & documented• Not obtaining prior approval is the biggest blunder PM would ever make• Always fix the responsibility if someone wants to start project without approval Disapproved Making earth little softer
    112. 112. Budget/Cost Management• To spend only against budget• Monitor project spending weekly• When a variance occurs, determine the cause• Seek approval depending on slab of variance• Change the execution of the project, reduce scope if needed• Prevent unapproved changes to the project• Save as much efforts from the beginning Making earth little softer
    113. 113. Cost Management• Effort is the important element of the total cost• Ensure the project is completed within the approved efforts and budget.It includes•Resources • People • Equipment • Materials•Quantities•Budget Making earth little softer
    114. 114. Budgeting & Spending• Prepare budget, review & get it approved• Include various direct & indirect cost items • Resources – Actual • Training, Management • Hardware & Software • Logistics • Conveyance • Infrastructure • Outsourcing• Revisit the budgets periodically• Check the balance budget and pending project activities in % & absolute terms Making earth little softer
    115. 115. Think Fast & AheadRisk… POTENTIAL negative impact to project Making earth little softer
    116. 116. Risk Management Risk Identification Processes Risk Quantification Risk Response Development Risk Response Control Risk registerTechnologies Risk Management Plan Tools & Checklists Contingency Plans Reserves Contractual Terms Making earth little softer
    117. 117. Risk management# Risk Date Description Probability Impact Exposure Mitigation Owner Closure / Issue % plan date• It‟s a skill & intuitive mindset to envisage the risk• Efficient project manager smells the risk & act fast to mitigate / transfer / close the risk• Tracking the risks till closure is key task of PM• Risk either to be mitigated or transferred in agreement Making earth little softer
    118. 118. Risk management• A risk is a probability that some adverse circumstance /problem will occur impacting negatively • Project risks impact • Schedule or resources • Quality or performance of the software• Issue – Live problem• To identify the risks and plan to minimise their impact on a project• Risk update and tracking• Business risks affect the organisation developing or procuring the software Making earth little softer
    119. 119. Sources of the risks• Poor estimates or unsupported estimates• Requirements risks• Estimation risks• Impossible timeframes• Unrealistic schedule• Changes in requirements• Design errors and omissions• Political scenarios• Technology risks• Organisational risks• Client side non-cooperation• Non-availability of budgets Making earth little softer
    120. 120. Sources of the risksResource risks• Roles and responsibilities misunderstood• Insufficiently skilled staff, People risks• Not adequate• Not skilled• Not experienced• Not motivated Making earth little softer
    121. 121. Risk management processRisk identification• Identify project, product and business risks;Risk analysis• Assess the likelihood, probability, impact, exposure and consequences of these risks;Risk planning• Draw up plans to avoid or minimise the effects of the risk;Risk monitoring• Monitor the risks throughout the project• Good to use issue tracking system Making earth little softer
    122. 122. Risk management process Making earth little softer
    123. 123. Risk analysis• Assess probability and seriousness of each risk.• Probability may be very low, low, moderate, high or very high.• Risk effects might be catastrophic, serious, tolerable or insignificant• The best practice is to keep risk register and choose as applicable Making earth little softer
    124. 124. Risk planning• Identify risks with probability, impact & exposure• Planning for risk mitigation or contingency• Develop a strategy to manage each risk• Avoidance strategies• The probability that the risk will arise is reduced;• Minimisation strategies• The impact of the risk on the project to be reduced• If the risk arises, it becomes an issue, prepare a contingency plan to deal with that risk• Assign a owner to mitigate the risk Making earth little softer
    125. 125. Risk monitoring• Assess each identified risks regularly to decide whether or not it is becoming less or more probable• Also assess whether the effects of the risk have changed.• Each key risk should be discussed at management progress meetings. Making earth little softer
    126. 126. Communications Skills• Writing• Listening• Speaking• Presenting• Updates & reporting• Meeting Management• Media Relations Making earth little softer
    127. 127. Communications Management: Communications Planning Processes Information Distribution Performance Reporting Administrative Closure Decision making structure Project RecordsTechnologies Performance Reports Tools & Change Requests Project Archives Formal Acceptance Lessons Learned Making earth little softer
    128. 128. Communication Management• This process is necessary to ensure timely and appropriate generation, collection, dissemination, and storage of project information• Communicate objectives frequently• Recognize different perspectives• Check assumptions frequently• Manage expectations• Share success and broadcast achievements• Invite feedback Making earth little softer
    129. 129. Communication Plan• Define stakeholders• Define hierarchy• Develop communication planTo Identify• Talents for communication• Need to communicate• Means of communication• Frequency of communication Making earth little softer
    130. 130. Communication• Communication is everything we do in business• It is essential to know and follow good practices of communication to be successful• Prepare minutes of meeting, action items & owner, track action items till closure• Good communication builds stronger relationships & become more effective• Poor communication • results huge losses to business & individual • cause the stress to individual or to the team • create misunderstanding • expresses inconsistent message or feeling• Suggest to plan, training & practice skill Making earth little softer
    131. 131. Communication NeedsThe plan to determine:• Team structure• Role & responsibilities and Names• Who needs what information• When will they need it• How will it be given to them• By whomAnd determine how to:• Store, update, and disseminate information• Close, file and archive information• Update the communication plan Making earth little softer
    132. 132. ClosureTo conduct a meeting with all stake holdersTo share following information estimated & actual• Efforts• Schedule• Defect Matrices• Profitability• Client happiness Index RememberDetailing• Key learning• Best performance• What next? Making earth little softer
    133. 133. Project completion Figure 1-3 Making earth little softer
    134. 134. CMM 5 5 - Optimizing Continuously 4 - Managed Improving Predictable 3 - Defined Standard, Consistent 2 - Repeatable Disciplined Process 1 - Initial Ad-hoc Process Making earth little softer
    135. 135. CMM 5Level 3 – Defined -- peer reviews, intergroup coordination -- software product engineering -- integrated software management -- training program -- organization process definition & focusLevel 2 – Repeatable -- software configuration management -- software quality assurance -- software project planning, tracking and oversight -- requirements managementLevel 1 – Initial Making earth little softer
    136. 136. CMM 5Level 5 – Optimizing -- process change management -- technology change management -- defect preventionLevel 4 – Managed -- software quality management -- quantitative process management Making earth little softer
    137. 137. Quality Management Quality Planning Processes Quality Assurance Quality Control Quality Management PlanTechnologies Issue tracking system Tools & Risk tracking register Making earth little softer
    138. 138. What is Quality• Functionality related gap between expectations of client and actual delivery• Defects are injected during Requirement, High & Low level Design and coding phase• Continuous reviews help to prevent defect injection• Rigorous testing during Unit level, Integration and application level testing detect the defects.• Both of above processes remove the defects RA R Design R Coding R UT IT AT Making earth little softer
    139. 139. Make a statementTo aim your organisation to be the best in theindustry in terms “Defects Delivered Ratio” andthus be able to achieve the organization objectiveof being an extraordinarily reliable companyusing..• The best of the tools & technologies• Incorporating processes• Measurements & feedback• Continuous Improvements Making earth little softer
    140. 140. Reviews & testing• Removing defects by reviewing & testing • From each deliverable • At each phase Defects in system Various Phases of SDLCGet on Track at the end of each phase Making earth little softer
    141. 141. Quality measurement No. of defects 1 effort in manmonths 3 Loc per hr 10 Lines of code 4800 no. of defects 1 % of defects to LoC 1*100/4800=2.1% Achieved quality 97.9167%• 1 defect detected by customer for 3 man months of efforts is said to be fairly good quality• Count each type of defect (minor, normal, major, critical or blocker) ; Minor defect is worst! Making earth little softer
    142. 142. Quality ManagementQuality Management is the process that insurethe project will meet the needs• Conformance to requirements - Crosby• Fitness for use - Juran• The totality of characteristics of an entity that bear on its ability to satisfy stated and implied need - ISO 8402:1994 Making earth little softer
    143. 143. Quality ManagementHow will quality assurance and control beconducted? • Identify Quality Standards • Quality Assurance • Quality Control • Quality Matrices • Improve Sometimes performed by a 3rd Party Making earth little softer
    144. 144. Issue Management• Issues are restraints to accomplishing the deliverables of the project.• Typically identified throughout the project and logged and tracked through resolution. Issues impact cost, time, quality, most important is reputation and branding! Types of issue – Minor, Normal, Major, Critical, Blocker Minor issue is dangerous! Making earth little softer
    145. 145. Client• Client is God!• It‟s a source of profit for management & salary for employees• Good to keep balance educating to client• Never forget you are hired to serve client• Client always have choices so maintain those values & attributes for which you were chosen• Seek support & help as needed• Get client on your side of table so be a team Making earth little softer
    146. 146. Procurement Management Procurement Planning Processes Solicitation Planning Solicitation Source Selection Contract Administration Contract Close-outTechnologies Procurement Management Plan Tools & Procurement Documents & Framework Proposals Contract Formal Acceptance and Closure Making earth little softer
    147. 147. Procurement managementProcurement planning determines:• Selection of partner• Budget, Cost and negotiations• Whether, what, and how much• How and when• How to manage solicitations, selection, contract administration, and closeoutProcurement documents:• RFP - Request for Proposal• SOW - Statement of Work• Evaluation Criteria• Reward & penalty Making earth little softer
    148. 148. Manage the ContractorTo develop a framework of outsourcingTo enforce the terms of the contract and meet therequirements of the RFP Making earth little softer
    149. 149. Manage the Contractor• Trust but question• Support contractor to build & grow• Their bottom line is the bottom line• Your bottom line is a working system• Nothing is ever free• Do not crush contractor over pricing Making earth little softer
    150. 150. Reporting• Establish reporting requirements upfront• Include only the good, be diplomatic for the bad, and the ugly• Be brief but accurate• Management really does want to know!• Use the standard formats across organisation Making earth little softer
    151. 151. Meeting Management• Develop guidelines/ rules early• Assign facilitator• Assign reporter and reporting structure• Start and end times, frequency of meetings• Daily stand up meeting, max 2 minute for each • Did you finish task as planned • If not, what support is needed • When would you complete the task • Publish minutes of meeting & track action items• Frequency of meetings, Focus of meetings• Information sharing?• Agenda building Making earth little softer
    152. 152. Guidelines for meeting• Start/end times are real• Agree to debate issues, not people• Civility required• Confidentiality?• Reporting out• What is going to be reported• What isn‟t• Agree to bring all issues to the table• Avoid discussion related to absentee Making earth little softer
    153. 153. Feedback• Praise in public• Feedback/ Punish in private• Build performance reviews into the contract• Be clear and specific• Be timely• Follow up! Making earth little softer
    154. 154. Making earth little softer
    155. 155. Multi tasking• Bad multi-tasking inflates lead times!• Try to limit multi tasking only for rare expertise & capable resouce Making earth little softer
    156. 156. People Problems• 2/3 of project problems are people related• Many operational leaders demonstrate a “just do-it” mentality.• There will always be conflict over goals and scope, resources and between departments• Lack of understanding basic project management methods• Some people will never get along• Set the framework to resolve the conflict• Onsite coordinator behaves like a client & does not support development team• Push for unwanted tasks by OSC Making earth little softer
    157. 157. Navigating the Politics• Know the environment • What are the overarching issues of your organization? • What are the pressing issues of the hour? • What will be the pressing issues of tomorrow? • How do you help others satisfy their needs? • What is the stake of others in your project?• Identify a mentor• The best is to keep away from politics than trying to navigate!• Never underestimate those who play the game! Making earth little softer
    158. 158. CRT - Current Reality Tree Budget over- Due dates are runs not met Early completions are not transferred. Estimates turn into commitments Making earth little softer
    159. 159. CRT - Current Reality Tree There are too fights over priorities many changes between projects Budget Due dates Non availability over-runs are not met of resources Early completions are Bad multi- not transferred tasking Estimates turn into commitments Making earth little softer
    160. 160. Potholes• Giving the contractor or any team member too much control, responsibility, or authority• Not managing scope creep• Balancing client happiness & profitability• Balancing – Client, Management & Employees• Conflict not resolved till conclusion Making earth little softer
    161. 161. Common Traps Courtesy Karl E. Wiegers www.processimpact.com Process Impact Making earth little softer
    162. 162. Not clear Requirements• Stakeholders discuss “requirements” with no adjectives in front.• Project sponsor presents a high-level concept as “the requirements”.• User interface screens are viewed as “the requirements”.• User provides “requirements,” but developers still don‟t know what to build.• Requirements focus just on functionality. Making earth little softer
    163. 163. Not clear Requirements• Adopt templates for three levels of requirements• Business requirements (Vision & Scope)• User requirements (Use Case Document)• Functional requirements (Software Requirements Specification)• Distinguish functional from nonfunctional requirements• Quality attributes, constraints, external interface requirements, business rules• Classify customer input into the different categories.• Distinguish solution ideas from requirements Making earth little softer
    164. 164. Inadequate Involvement• Some user classes are overlooked.• Some user classes don‟t have a voice.• User surrogates attempt to speak for users. • User managers • Marketing • Developers• PM & Client have to make many requirements decisions Making earth little softer
    165. 165. Inadequate Involvement• Identify various user classes.• Identify product champions as user representatives• Convene focus groups• Identify decision-makers• Have users evaluate prototypes• Have user representatives review the SRS• Encourage participative management• Try to involve all stake holders • While decision making • While reporting Making earth little softer
    166. 166. Ambiguous Requirements• Readers interpret a requirement in several different ways.• Requirements are missing information the developer needs.• Requirements are not verifiable.• Developer has to ask many questions.• Developer has to guess a lot. Making earth little softer
    167. 167. Ambiguous Requirements• Formally inspect requirement documents.• Write conceptual test cases against requirements.• Model requirements to find knowledge gaps.• Use prototypes to make requirements more tangible.• Define terms in a glossary.• Avoid ambiguous words:• Minimize, maximize, optimize, rapid, user- friendly, simple, intuitive, robust, state-of-the-art, improved, efficient, flexible, several, and/or, etc., include, support Making earth little softer
    168. 168. Unprioritized Requirements• All requirements are critical!• Different stakeholders interpret “high” priority differently.• After prioritization, 95% are still high.• Developers don‟t want to admit they can‟t do it all• It‟s not clear which requirements to defer during the “rapid descoping phase.”• All requirements in the same budget Making earth little softer
    169. 169. Unprioritized Requirements• Align functional requirements with business requirements.• Align functional requirements with high-priority use cases. • frequency of use • favored user classes • core business processes • demanded for regulatory compliance• Define priority categories unambiguously.• Allocate requirements or features to releases.• Analytically prioritize discretionary requirements• Involve those approve the budgets Making earth little softer
    170. 170. Analysis Paralysis• Requirements development seems to go on forever.• New versions of the SRS are continually released.• Requirements are never baselined.• Design and coding can‟t start until the SRS is perfect• Third party interface is not clear Making earth little softer
    171. 171. Analysis Paralysis• Remember: Product is software, not an SRS• Select an appropriate development life cycle.• Staged release or evolutionary prototyping• Decide when requirements are good enough.• Acceptable risk of proceeding with construction• Reviewed by analyst, developers, testers, & customers, conduct knowledge transfer & sign- off sessions• Model just the complex or uncertain parts of the system• Seek complete details of interface design Making earth little softer
    172. 172. Scope Creep• New requirements are continually added.• Schedule doesn‟t change• No more resources provided• Product scope is never clearly defined.• Requirement changes sneak in through the back door.• Proposed requirements come, and go, and come back.• Scope issues are debated during SRS reviews.• Sign-off is just a game. Making earth little softer
    173. 173. Scope Creep• Determine root causes of the scope creep• Document the product‟s vision and scope• Define system boundaries and interfaces.• Follow the change control process for all changes.• Improve requirements elicitation methods• Involve seniors from client IT and users division & share the data periodically• Make a big bang sign-off event• Follow a meaningful baselining process• Renegotiate commitments when requirements change, particularly schedule and budget Making earth little softer
    174. 174. Inadequate Change Process• No change process is defined.• Some people bypass the change process.• Implement rejected changes• Work is done on proposed changes before they‟re approved• New functionality becomes evident during testing• Unclear change request status• Changes aren‟t communicated to all those affected• It‟s not clear who makes change decisions• Money is denied for the change request Making earth little softer
    175. 175. Inadequate Change Process• Define a practical change control process• Set up a Change Control Board• Diverse group including participation of client• Makes binding change decisions• Clear sign-off for each change request• Use a tool to collect, track, and communicate changes• Problem or issue tracking tools work well• A tool is not a process!• Establish and enforce change control policies.• Compare priorities against remaining requirements. Making earth little softer
    176. 176. Inadequate Version Control• Accepted changes aren‟t incorporated into SRS• You can‟t distinguish different SRS versions.• Different versions have the same date• Identical documents have different dates• People work from different SRS versions.• Implement canceled features• Test against the wrong requirements• Change history and earlier document versions are lost• Configuration server breakdown Making earth little softer
    177. 177. Inadequate Version Control• Assign a member as a owner for version control• Implement right configuration tool from start• Adopt a versioning scheme for all project assets• Merge changes into the requirement document• Record history of every requirement change• Restrict read/write access as appropriate• Make current versions available read-only to all including client except the authors• Communicate revisions to all who are affected• Set build release process (latest compiled code)• Always test on latest build• Always take backup at end of day Making earth little softer
    178. 178. Success Tips Risk management reviews & Right Project Management support from seniors management Project Success Right Team (Quality & Timely delivery) Right Processes Making earth little softer
    179. 179. Reviews• Every deliverable must be reviewed by senior• Sharing experience & education from senior management till project managers levels• Define Goal, Objectives, Mission for each group• Vibrant & visible enablers QMG RMG PMO TMG• QMG – Quality Management Group• TMG – Technology Management Group• RMG – Resource Management Group• SEPG – Software Engineering Process SEPG• PMO – Project Management Office Making earth little softer
    180. 180. Ask for• Have you planned entire project?• Do you have appropriate duration?• Would you have enough appropriate resources?• Do we track our assignments? & follow up till timely closure?• Are tasks completed as scheduled?• What is tracking methodology?• Do you have daily stand up update meetings?• Are assignments piling up? Why?• “First time right” Is it happening?• Single window system – task given & collected? Or huge overloading? Making earth little softer
    181. 181. Ask for• Anyone getting overloaded? Is this acceptable?• Multi tasking? Need of a day? Is it sustainable? Do you have choice not to assign multi-tasking?• Tracking & Closing threads? And tasks?• When do we decide to close a day?• Do we update the status before leaving?• Are risks being mitigated?• Are you maintaining measurement matrices?• Are we achieving Key result Area (KRA)?• Ownership? Does each of team member own?• Is quality being achieved?• Are we heading towards tough situation? Making earth little softer
    182. 182. Vision  Minimum Defects  Timely Delivery  Minimum TCC EXECUTION MARKETING ORGANISATION Making earth little softer
    183. 183. References• Experience of author having worked at Vertex, now NTTData• Wiegers, Karl E. Creating a Software Engineering Culture Gause, Donald C., and Gerald M. Weinberg. Exploring Requirements: Quality Before Design. NY: Dorset House Publishing, 1989.• Gottesdiener, Ellen. Requirements by Collaboration: Workshops for Defining Needs. Boston: Addison-Wesley, 2002.• IEEE Std. 830-1998, "Recommended Practice for Software Requirements Specifications." Los Alamitos, Ca.: IEEE Computer Society Press, 1998.• Leffingwell, Dean, and Don Widrig. Managing Software Requirements. Reading, Mass.: Addison Wesley Longman,2000• Robertson, Suzanne, and James Robertson. Mastering the Requirements Process. Harlow, England: Addison-Wesley, 1999• Sommerville, Ian, and Pete Sawyer. Requirements Engineering: A Good Practice Guide. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1997. Making earth little softer
    184. 184. For More Information• Wiegers, Karl E. Software Requirements. Redmond, Wash.: Microsoft Press, 1999.• Search Group, Incorporated• www.search.org• National Center for State Courts• www.ncsc.dni.us• Project Management Institute• www.pmi.org• International Standards Organization• www.iso.org• Software Engineering Institute• www.sei.cmu.edu• Center for Technology in Government• www.ctg.albany.edu Making earth little softer
    185. 185. Project Management Resources• Project Management Institute – home of the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK)• http://www.pmi.org/Pages/default.aspx• NYS Project Management Guidebook Release 2 http://www.oft.state.ny.us/pmmp/guidebook2/index.htm• FNS Handbook 901, Chapter 5 http://www.fns.usda.gov/apd/Handbook_901/V_1- 2/Chapter_5.pdf• ESI Horizons www.esi-horizons.com• Project Management Institute. www.pmi.org• On Becoming a Technical Leader. by Gerald Weinberg• On Becoming a Leader. by Warren Bennis• Getting Past No. by William Ury• Decision Traps. by Edward Russo Making earth little softer
    186. 186. Thank You Making earth little softer

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