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  1. 1. Foundations of Information Systems in Business Chapter 1
  2. 2. Learning Objectives <ul><li>Understand the concept of a system and how it relates to information systems </li></ul><ul><li>Explain why knowledge of information systems is important for business professionals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify five areas of information systems knowledge they need </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Learning Objectives <ul><li>Give examples to illustrate how information systems can support a firm’s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Business processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Managerial decision making </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategies for competitive advantage </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Provide examples of information systems from your experiences with business organizations in the real world </li></ul>
  4. 4. Learning Objectives <ul><li>Identify challenges that managers might face in managing successful, ethical development and use of information technology </li></ul><ul><li>Provide examples of the components of real world information systems </li></ul><ul><li>Become familiar with the myriad of career opportunities in information systems </li></ul>
  5. 5. Foundation Concepts Improves efficiency and effectiveness of business processes Facilitates managerial decision making & workgroup collaboration Strengthens competitive position in rapidly changing marketplaces Vital component of successful businesses Why study information systems and information technology?
  6. 6. Case 1: Value Through Business Intelligence <ul><li>eCourier </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tracks customer satisfaction in real time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Immediate attention to complaints, problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows GPS tracking of couriers and orders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Books 95% of deliveries online </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses SeeWhy software to spot trends and anomalies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Optimizes system on an ongoing basis </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Case 1: Value Through Business Intelligence <ul><li>Cablecom </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses online surveys to retain customers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Responds to complaints and problems within 24 hours </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bryan Cave </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Optimizes resources while delivering highest customer value </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows lawyers to track budgets in real time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides diversity dashboard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enables firm to monitor client needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows quick response to demands </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Case Study Questions <ul><li>How do information technologies contribute to the business success of the companies depicted in the case? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide an example from each company, explaining how the technology implemented led to improved performance </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Case Study Questions <ul><li>The Bryan Cave law firm used BI technology to improve the availability, access, and presentation of existing information; this allowed them to provide tailored, innovative services to customers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What other professions could benefit from a similar use of these technologies, and how? </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Case Study Questions <ul><li>Cablecom developed a prediction model to better identify customers at risk of switching to another company </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In addition to those noted in the case, what other actions could be taken if that information were available? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Would you consider letting some customers leave anyway? </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. What is an Information System? Any organized combination of… Policies and procedures Data resources Communication networks Hardware and software <ul><ul><li>Stores, retrieves, transforms, and disseminates information in an organization </li></ul></ul>People
  12. 12. Early Information Systems <ul><li>They weren’t computerized </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Smoke signals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Library card catalogs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Book bag, day planner, and notebooks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cash registers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accounting ledger </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. What Should Business Professionals Know?
  14. 14. Fundamental Roles of IS in Business
  15. 15. Trends in Information Systems
  16. 16. What is E-Business? Using Internet technologies to empower… Business processes <ul><ul><li>Electronic commerce </li></ul></ul>Collaboration within a company Collaboration with customers, suppliers, other business stakeholders In essence, an online exchange of value
  17. 17. How E-Business is Being Used
  18. 18. E-Business Use Internal business processes Reengineering Support communication, coordination, coordination among teams and work groups Enterprise collaboration Buying, selling, marketing, and servicing of products and services over networks Electronic commerce
  19. 19. Types of Information Systems Operations Transaction processing Process control Enterprise collaboration Updating of corporate databases Management Decision support systems Executive information systems
  20. 20. Purposes of Information Systems
  21. 21. Types of Operations Support Systems Transaction Processing Systems Record and process business transactions Sales, inventory, and accounting Process Control Systems Monitor and control physical processes Using sensors to monitor refinery processes Enterprise Collaboration Systems Enhance team/workgroup communication Email, video conferencing
  22. 22. Two Ways to Process Transactions Batch Processing Online Processing Accumulate transactions over time and then process periodically Ex: Banks process all checks in a batch at night Process all transactions immediately Ex: A bank processes ATM withdrawals immediately
  23. 23. Management Support Systems What do they do? Provide information and support for effective decision making by managers Management information systems Decision support systems Executive information systems
  24. 24. Types of Management Support Systems <ul><li>Management Information Systems (MIS) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reports and displays </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: daily sales analysis reports </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Decision Support Systems (DSS) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interactive and ad hoc support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: a what-if analysis to determine where to spend advertising dollars </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Executive Information Systems (EIS) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Critical information for executives and managers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: easy access to actions of competitors </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Other Information Systems Provides expert advice Credit application advisor Expert Systems Creation, organization, dissemination of knowledge throughout company Intranet access to best business practices Knowledge Management Systems
  26. 26. Other Information Systems Helps get strategic advantage Shipment tracking, e-commerce Strategic Information Systems Focus on operational and managerial application of basic business functions Accounting, finance, marketing Functional Business Systems
  27. 27. IT Challenges and Opportunities
  28. 28. Measuring IT Success <ul><li>Efficiency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Minimizes cost, time, use of information resources </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Effectiveness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supports business strategies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enables business processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enhances organizational structure and culture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increases customer and business value </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Developing IS Solutions
  30. 30. Challenges and Ethics of IT Application of IT Business intelligence systems Customer relationship management Human resource management Potential Harm Collusion Privacy infringement Inaccurate information
  31. 31. Challenges and Ethics of IT Work stoppages Potential Risks Government intervention Consumer boycotts Incentives Possible Responses Certification Codes of ethics
  32. 32. Ethical Responsibilities <ul><li>What uses of IT might be considered improper or harmful to other individuals or society? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the proper business use of the Internet or a company’s IT resources? </li></ul><ul><li>How can you protect yourself from computer crime? </li></ul>
  33. 33. IT Careers Economic downturns affecting all job sectors, including IT Rising labor costs are pushing jobs to India, the Middle East, Asia-Pacific Negative IT employment opportunities strong, with new jobs emerging daily Frequent shortages of IT personnel Long-term job outlook is positive and exciting Positive
  34. 34. IT Careers
  35. 35. IT Careers The need to backfill positions Information sharing and client/server environments Rapid growth in computer system design and related services Need for those with problem-solving skills Falling hardware and software prices, which fuel expanded computerization of operations Job increases will be driven by…
  36. 36. The IS Function Major functional area of business Important contributor to operational efficiency, employee productivity, morale, customer service/satisfaction Vital ingredient in developing competitive products and services in global marketplace Major source of information and support for decision making Dynamic and challenging career opportunity Key component of today’s networked business
  37. 37. System Concepts: A Foundation Hardware, software, data management, telecommunications networks To support inter-connected information systems Finding ways to use information technology; includes designing basic information system components Emphasizes the quality, strategic business value, and security of an organization’s information systems Technology Applications Development Management
  38. 38. Case 2: JetBlue & the VA <ul><li>Good IT processes are as important as hardware and software when it comes to creating business value </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Even smaller, less-critical processes can have ramifications of a large magnitude in the interconnected world in which we live </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The IS developed by JetBlue in 24 hours, implemented during a crisis in 2007, is now a full-time system </li></ul><ul><li>An unscheduled system failure took down key applications in 17 VA medical facilities for a day </li></ul>
  39. 39. Case Study Questions <ul><li>Eric Brinker of JetBlue noted that the database developed during the crisis had not been needed before; the company had never experienced a meltdown </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What are the risks and benefits associated with this approach to IT planning? </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. Case Study Questions <ul><li>With hindsight, we know that the decision made by Eric Raffin of the VA to not fail over to the Denver site was the correct one. But, it involved ignoring established backup procedures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>With the information he had at the time, what other alternatives could he have considered? </li></ul></ul>
  41. 41. Case Study Questions <ul><li>A small, undocumented change resulted in the collapse of the VA system, largely due to the high interrelationship between its applications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the positive side of this high degree of interconnection, and how does this benefit patients? </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. What is a System? A system is… A set of interrelated components With a clearly defined boundary Working together To achieve a common set of objectives By accepting inputs and producing outputs In an organized transformation process
  43. 43. Basic Functions of a System Input Capturing and assembling elements that enter the system to be processed Processing Transforma-tion process converts input into output Output Transferring transformed elements to their ultimate destination
  44. 44. Cybernetic System <ul><li>All systems have input , processing , output </li></ul><ul><li>A cybernetic system , a self-monitoring, self-regulating system, adds … </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Feedback … system performance data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Control … monitoring and evaluating feedback to determine whether a system is moving toward the achievement of its goal </li></ul></ul>
  45. 45. A Cybernetic System
  46. 46. A Business as a System
  47. 47. Other System Characteristics <ul><li>A system that is a component of a larger system is a subsystem </li></ul><ul><li>The larger system is an environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Several systems may share one environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Connected via a shared boundary (interface) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Types of systems… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Open and Adaptive </li></ul></ul>
  48. 48. Components of an IS
  49. 49. Information System Resources Information System Resources People Information Hardware Networks Software Data
  50. 50. Data Versus Information <ul><li>Data are raw facts, typically about physical phenomena or business transactions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Specifically, objective measurements of the attributes of entities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Information is data that was converted into meaningful and useful context for end users </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aggregated, manipulated, and organized </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analyzed and evaluated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Placed in proper context for a human user </li></ul></ul>
  51. 51. Basic IS Activities Output Input Processing Storage Control
  52. 52. Recognizing Information Systems <ul><li>Business professionals should be able to look at an information system and identify… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The people, hardware, software, data, and network resources they use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The type of information products they produce </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The way they perform input, processing, output, storage, and control activities </li></ul></ul>
  53. 53. Case 3: Sew What? Inc. <ul><li>Provides custom theatrical draperies and fabrics for stages, concerts, fashion shows, and special events worldwide </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Launched web site and acquired clients from all over the world; revenue grew more than 45% per year </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Runs its business with Intuit’s Quick-Books Enterprise Solutions & Dell PowerEdge servers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Awarded “Small Business Excellence Award” for its innovative use of technology to improve customers’ experience </li></ul></ul>
  54. 54. Case Study Questions <ul><li>How do information technologies contribute to the business success of Sew What? Inc.? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Give examples from the case regarding the business value of information technology that demonstrate this conclusion </li></ul></ul>
  55. 55. Case Study Questions <ul><li>If you were a management consultant to Sew What? Inc., what would you advise Megan Duckett to do at this point to be even more successful in her business? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What role would information technology play in your proposals? Provide specific recommendations </li></ul></ul>
  56. 56. Case Study Questions <ul><li>How could the use of information technology help a small business you know be more successful? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide examples to support your answer </li></ul></ul>