ANGIOSPERMS The flowering plants Spring crocus  Crocus vernus © 2008 Paul Billiet  ODWS
Flower  structure <ul><li>Flowers are reproductive structures </li></ul><ul><li>The have evolved to send and receive polle...
Types of pollination <ul><li>Wind </li></ul><ul><li>Animal </li></ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul>© 2008 Paul Billiet  ODWS Bum...
Animal  pollination <ul><li>Usually insects </li></ul><ul><li>Also other flying animals  </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. hummingbir...
Flower structure Dog rose  Rosa canina © 2008 Paul Billiet  ODWS
Flower structure © 2008 Paul Billiet  ODWS Stigma Style Ovary Petal Sepal Filament Anther
Pollination <ul><li>Pollen grains contain the male gametes of the plant </li></ul><ul><li>They are picked up by a pollinat...
Pollination © 2008 Paul Billiet  ODWS Small skipper  Thymelicus flavus  on marsh thistle  Cirsium palustris
Pollination © 2008 Paul Billiet  ODWS The honey bee  Apis melifera  on marsh thistle  Cirsium palustris
Pollination <ul><li>Some flowers are highly specialised to encourage only one type of insect </li></ul>© 2008 Paul Billiet...
Pollination <ul><li>Most species of flowering plants are hermaphroditic </li></ul><ul><li>Pollen from a flower could land ...
Fertilisation <ul><li>Pollination ≠ Fertilisation </li></ul><ul><li>The male gamete (the  male nucleus ) has to get to the...
Fertilisation © 2008 Paul Billiet  ODWS Style Stigma Pollen grain Ovule Embryo sac Pollen tube Ovary
Fertilisation © 2008 Paul Billiet  ODWS Egg cell Polar nuclei Embryo sac Micropyle
Fertilisation © 2008 Paul Billiet  ODWS Pollen grains of the daisy  Bellis perennis
Fertilisation © 2008 Paul Billiet  ODWS Germinating pollen grains of blue bell,  Hyacinthoides non-scripta
The double fertilisation © 2008 Paul Billiet  ODWS Pollen tube Pollen tube entering micropyle Male nucleus + egg cell  = z...
From flower to fruit Marsh marigold  Caltha palustris © 2008 Paul Billiet  ODWS
Fruits and seed dispersal © 2008 Paul Billiet  ODWS Animal dispersal Strawberry  Fragaria vesca Wind dispersal  Ragwort  S...
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Flowerstructure

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Flowerstructure

  1. 1. ANGIOSPERMS The flowering plants Spring crocus Crocus vernus © 2008 Paul Billiet ODWS
  2. 2. Flower structure <ul><li>Flowers are reproductive structures </li></ul><ul><li>The have evolved to send and receive pollen from one flower to another </li></ul><ul><li>This is process of pollination </li></ul><ul><li>Flowers are developed from a series of modified leaves </li></ul><ul><li>These leaves are arranged in a rings (whorls) </li></ul>© 2008 Paul Billiet ODWS
  3. 3. Types of pollination <ul><li>Wind </li></ul><ul><li>Animal </li></ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul>© 2008 Paul Billiet ODWS Bumble bee Bombus hortorum on red clover Trifolium pratense Yorkshire fog grass Holcus lanatus
  4. 4. Animal pollination <ul><li>Usually insects </li></ul><ul><li>Also other flying animals </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. hummingbirds or fruit bats </li></ul>© 2008 Paul Billiet ODWS Cerambycid beetle pollinating bramble Rubus fruticosus
  5. 5. Flower structure Dog rose Rosa canina © 2008 Paul Billiet ODWS
  6. 6. Flower structure © 2008 Paul Billiet ODWS Stigma Style Ovary Petal Sepal Filament Anther
  7. 7. Pollination <ul><li>Pollen grains contain the male gametes of the plant </li></ul><ul><li>They are picked up by a pollinator and transferred to another flower </li></ul><ul><li>Plants tend to specialise in pollinators </li></ul><ul><li>This ensures the pollen is delivered to same species of plant </li></ul>© 2008 Paul Billiet ODWS Yellow archangel Lamiastrum galobdolon being pollinated by a bumble bee Bombus hortorum
  8. 8. Pollination © 2008 Paul Billiet ODWS Small skipper Thymelicus flavus on marsh thistle Cirsium palustris
  9. 9. Pollination © 2008 Paul Billiet ODWS The honey bee Apis melifera on marsh thistle Cirsium palustris
  10. 10. Pollination <ul><li>Some flowers are highly specialised to encourage only one type of insect </li></ul>© 2008 Paul Billiet ODWS Fox glove flowers Digitalis purpurea
  11. 11. Pollination <ul><li>Most species of flowering plants are hermaphroditic </li></ul><ul><li>Pollen from a flower could land on the stigma of the same flower or another flower on the same plant = self pollination </li></ul><ul><li>Pollen transferred from the anther on one flower to the stigma of another flower on a different plant = cross pollination </li></ul>© 2008 Paul Billiet ODWS
  12. 12. Fertilisation <ul><li>Pollination ≠ Fertilisation </li></ul><ul><li>The male gamete (the male nucleus ) has to get to the egg cell </li></ul><ul><li>The egg cell lies in an ovule in an ovary at the centre of the plant </li></ul><ul><li>The pollen grain germinates on the stigma </li></ul><ul><li>It grows a pollen tube down the style </li></ul><ul><li>It male nuclei travel down the pollen tube to the ovule </li></ul>© 2008 Paul Billiet ODWS
  13. 13. Fertilisation © 2008 Paul Billiet ODWS Style Stigma Pollen grain Ovule Embryo sac Pollen tube Ovary
  14. 14. Fertilisation © 2008 Paul Billiet ODWS Egg cell Polar nuclei Embryo sac Micropyle
  15. 15. Fertilisation © 2008 Paul Billiet ODWS Pollen grains of the daisy Bellis perennis
  16. 16. Fertilisation © 2008 Paul Billiet ODWS Germinating pollen grains of blue bell, Hyacinthoides non-scripta
  17. 17. The double fertilisation © 2008 Paul Billiet ODWS Pollen tube Pollen tube entering micropyle Male nucleus + egg cell = zygote (2n) Male nucleus + 2 polar nuclei = endosperm nucleus (3n) Ovule Nucellus
  18. 18. From flower to fruit Marsh marigold Caltha palustris © 2008 Paul Billiet ODWS
  19. 19. Fruits and seed dispersal © 2008 Paul Billiet ODWS Animal dispersal Strawberry Fragaria vesca Wind dispersal Ragwort Senecio Explosive dispersal Bird’s foot trefoil Lotus corniculatus Animal dispersal Wood avens Geum urbanum

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