My research at three different companies, Cap Gemini, Icon Medialab, and Ericsson. What do you think used most?
See that increasingly through informal networks that info is found and work gets done. Considerable research done on communities of practice, networks of practice. Temporary structures – cps Why do you think this way? Easier than following the traditional chains, don’t know the person, prestige, speak same language, identify with individual, trust. Result is that informal structure better at promoting flexibility, innovation, efficiency Yet unfortunately, mgt in many orgs do not pay attention or provide these networks with resources. Often know little about our own networks outside the closest 5-6 people. And in fact we often treat as invisible enemy, can’t see it, can’t manage it, and one that keeps decisions from being made and work from getting done. But today hope to deepen your understanding of these networks. Company’s intelligence is in its social systems, not in its computer systems – this is data. Tools for developing mutual knowledge
Communities of Practice: Boundary spanning A channel for knowledge to flow Means to strengthen the social fabric The locus of knowledge creation and use Solve the problem of getting knowledge to those who need it. COPs, more than any other organization, develop strong feelings of social capital Communication and Ke exchange a regular part of COPs Development of special codes and routines (overlapping knowledge) Training new members - mix of experts/novices New ideas easily flow War stories and gossip critical for exchanging knowledge
End this session with our definition of KM
Alliances - In addition, they found that successful collaboration between university and industry was often the result of emergent personal relationships. Kreiner & Schulz RD - 40% of potential solutions and opportunities derived from personal external contacts powell et al - interorganizational networks in biotech industry provide knowledge critical to innovation mgt unaware of what going on - 10 vs 57 ongoing efforts at partnering in multinational telecom company.
It is important to understand that social networking groups are different from traditional groups found in government departments. Describe what they are not. Describe what they are.
This chart places a department in the context of various types external organizations that it might interact with. Discuss the six types of organizations. Note that governments refer to other departments or governments. Interactions with the parent government is through the departmental mandate and budget. Each of these is situated in a different region of the service delivery spectrum, meaning that each type of interaction will be different. Note that these organizations interact with each other as well as a department. The arrows represent two-way agreements between our department and other organizations, the flow of outputs (services) from us to external organizations, and the flow of inputs (services) from external organizations to us. This is a simplified view.
A network really looks something like this, with every department connected to every other department. Each connection in a network is called a “node.” Reflect, for a moment on everything that each of the simple connecting lines represents: agreements, content, services, and delivery strategy.
Informal agreements can be grouped into three categories. Groups consist of 5-10 people; any larger and synergy is lost in the logistics of participation. Eliciting knowledge means finding out what people might know but haven’t or can’t express. Unstructured means going wherever the dialogue leads and taking whatever time is needed to understand things. Aggregating means considering everything that is known by all members of the groupThe best answers will probably be found in the outliers, not in what everyone already knows. Communities comprise 20-30 people with a common interest; an adequate sample but allows personal trust. More about finding existing expertise and experience; avoiding duplication, reinvention. Self-directed means that the community itself sets the rules of participation, not the organization. Passive mechanisms are needed to “harvest” community outputs to benefit an organization Networks normally comprise more than 100 people; most problems can be solved with enough “eyeballs.” Peer production means that all participants and all knowledge are equal. Emergent processes (complexity theory) means that with enough “agents” outcomes emerge that could not have been predicted.
There are a number of challenges to implementing social networks in government departments. A department’s legal mandate may not be suited to SN The policy framework may not permit SN Regulatory activities may be incompatible with SN Financing external activities may be problematic for SN The departmental infrastructure may not support SN HR capacity may be inadequate to implement SN Creating a sharing culture remains a key barrier to SN Protecting departmental IP may be difficult with SN
Fortunately, there is a path that leads to social networking success. Describe the five steps.
The key question is: if a department participates in a social network, how does it “capture value” from commonly held external intellectual property? The answer, in a few words, is to bring it inside the organization. The common property has to be stabilized. A report, policy, or regulation cannot change once it is formalized. Internal value has to be added by ensuring that it works. For example, in policy, all stakeholder concerns must be addressed; in business, an innovation must be producible and marketable. A key implication is that a department must retain enough internal core capacity to be able to add value to commonly-held IP.
In summary, there are a few important things to consider about social networking. Describe the three analyses Describe the two questions
I’ll conclude with a few words from THE management guru of the 20 th century. Meanwhile, I’ll be happy to answer any questions that you might have.
Networking with farmers & farmergroups
R P Singh
Associate Director Extension
Directorate of Extension
How will we allocate the world’s biomass to meet
our food, feed, fuel, and fiber needs?
How do we keep market forces from
squeezing out small producers?
How do we make public food service
a driver of sustainability and health?
Where do individuals go for
help in solving problems?
through communities of
practice Connecting people
so that they
ideas, and create
What are communities of
• Groups of people who come
together to share and to learn from
one another face-to-face and/or
• They are held together by a
common interest in a body of
knowledge and are driven by a
desire and need to share problems,
experiences, insights, templates,
tools, and best practices.
Communities are the grease in the
Two extreme communities
Encourage an open
Not all the smart people
work for us. We need to
work with smart people
inside and outside the
The smart people in
our field work for us.
If you create the most
and the best ideas in
the industry, you will
If you make the best
use of internal and
external ideas, you
Closed attitude Open attitude
• Dialogue is NOT:
• Discussion, deliberation,
• Committee, team, task or
• Majority wins, minority
• Dialogue IS:
• Free-flowing exchange of ideas
• All ideas are solicited and are
( Sunstein, 2006)
• Versus agro-industrial
• Family has control over
• Family takes decisions in
relation to the
management of the farm
The contribution of agriculture to livelihoods is
evident from the fact that 70 percent of the world’s
poor people, including the poorest of the poor, and 75
percent of the world’s malnourished live in rural
areas, where most of them are involved in agriculture.
So what’s wrong?
All of them are interlinked…
•Ecological: deforestation, genetic resources disappear,
toxic wastes, climate change,Hunger and Poverty:
• Food Production: 175 % increase between 1975 and 2005
16 % more food per person
• 15 % world population undernourished
Financial crisis interlinked
Solution for one; more problems for others?
Technology and science
•Green revolution did NOT improve access to food for
poor people; wonder seeds are not pro-poor, don’t
take into account the complexity of farming systems
•India: poorest 30 % of population (285 million!) no
increase in food and nutrient intake during the last 25
•Environmental problems: erosion, soil intoxification,
increase in pests and diseases…
Can family farming feed the world?
•‘You don’t have another choice than promote small-scale
agriculture. Those small farmers don’t have another option, there
are no jobs in industry or services for them. In the short term you
can only strive for more means for small farmers, if not, you will
create a massive emigraton from rural areas.‘
• ‘There’s more, small-scale agriculture has 3 big advantages.
Firstly there’s more respect for the environment, just because
there’s no money for pesticides and chemical fertilizers. That
kind of agriculture is more in harmony with the environment and
•Secondly, it is a labour-intensive production, creating a lot of
•And thirdly, it can be a very productive agriculture, on the
condition that those farmers have access to the know-how that is
Definition of a Group
A collection of
members accept a
and interact with
one another to
Various Types of Groups
Formal groups Informal Groups Small groups
Success• Support from
statement of what
you want to do and
• Good working
• Willingness to
issues that are not
• Perseverance and
Bring it inside the organization
Stabilize it; make it work
• Social networks have both promise
• Consider both strengths and
• Analyze both opportunities and
• Is it a tool in search of a problem,
or does it solve a recognized
• What will it do (or do better) that
Thanks for your attention…
Can I shed
more light on