Need of Market LedNeed of Market LedExtension for LinkingExtension for LinkingFarmers to MarketsFarmers to MarketsDr. R. P. SinghDr. R. P. SinghAssociate Director ExtensionAssociate Director ExtensionDirectorate of Extension EducationDirectorate of Extension Education
Changing paradigm ofChanging paradigm of IndianIndianAgricultureAgriculture Transformation from Subsistence to marketTransformation from Subsistence to marketdriven-LPG.driven-LPG. Technology, institution, policy and markets.Technology, institution, policy and markets. Linking producers to markets is a majorLinking producers to markets is a majorchallenge.challenge. Access to information, capital and effectiveAccess to information, capital and effectivetransfer of technology is crucial.transfer of technology is crucial. Farmers quite often loose due to lack ofFarmers quite often loose due to lack ofmarket information and access to marketmarket information and access to market
Questions confronting the farmersQuestions confronting the farmers Globalization of market –How to adjust?Globalization of market –How to adjust? Farmers need answers to questions like:Farmers need answers to questions like:- What to produce?- What to produce?- When to produce?- When to produce?- How much to produce?- How much to produce?- When and where to sell?- When and where to sell?- Where to sell?- Where to sell?- In what form to sell?- In what form to sell?- What channels to sell his produce?- What channels to sell his produce? Key answer to the above Empower farmers in bothKey answer to the above Empower farmers in bothProduction Market Oriented knowledgeProduction Market Oriented knowledge..
Access to Extension InformationAccess to Extension Information Needs of farmers are diverse and complex.Needs of farmers are diverse and complex. NSSO 2005-Over 50% of farmers do not haveNSSO 2005-Over 50% of farmers do not haveaccess to extension information.access to extension information. 44% have some access. Of this, 22% has44% have some access. Of this, 22% hasaccess through media (Radio 13% and TV 9%).access through media (Radio 13% and TV 9%). Lack of information hinders transfer ofLack of information hinders transfer oftechnology.technology. Efforts are on to organize Marketing InformationEfforts are on to organize Marketing InformationServices.Services.
Need for Market Led ExtensionNeed for Market Led Extension Globalization / Economic liberalization-Globalization / Economic liberalization-Expansion of Market-more of agribusiness andExpansion of Market-more of agribusiness andtrade.trade. Changing consumers preference-move towardsChanging consumers preference-move towardsHVCs.HVCs. Revolution in Information CommunicationRevolution in Information CommunicationTechnology (ICT).Technology (ICT). New trade opportunities within and outside theNew trade opportunities within and outside thecountry.country. Under exploited export opportunities-WTO.Under exploited export opportunities-WTO. Multiple players in agricultural trade.Multiple players in agricultural trade.
Challenges to Market-LedChallenges to Market-LedExtensionExtension Gigantic size of Extension System.Gigantic size of Extension System. Adoptions of Information Technology.Adoptions of Information Technology. Market Intelligence.Market Intelligence. Extension Cadre Development.Extension Cadre Development. Reorganization of Extension System.Reorganization of Extension System.
Conventional Extension and MarketConventional Extension and MarketLed Extension-ComparisonLed Extension-Comparison Concentrate on productionConcentrate on productionoriented activities.oriented activities. Supply driven.Supply driven. Confines to domestic andConfines to domestic andhousehold needs.household needs. Technological support to theTechnological support to thefarmers.farmers. Use of conventionalUse of conventionalcommunication tools forcommunication tools forTOT.TOT. Guides what is to beGuides what is to beproduced.produced. Services through publicServices through publicsector and co-operatives.sector and co-operatives. Concentrate on productionConcentrate on productionand Market / trade orientedand Market / trade orientedactivities.activities. Demand driven-profitDemand driven-profitorientation.orientation. Market forces extendsMarket forces extendstowards international trade.towards international trade. Technological supportTechnological supportfollowed by trade support.followed by trade support. Use of ICT for TOT.Use of ICT for TOT. Guides what and how muchGuides what and how muchmarket needs when tomarket needs when toproduce.produce. Moving towards publicMoving towards publicprivate partnership.private partnership.
Paradigm shift from Production-Led ExtensionParadigm shift from Production-Led Extensionto Market-Led Extensionto Market-Led ExtensionAspectsAspects Production-LedProduction-LedExtensionExtensionMarket-LedMarket-LedExtensionExtensionPurpose /Purpose /ObjectiveObjectiveTransfer of productionTransfer of productiontechnologiestechnologiesEnabling farmers toEnabling farmers toget optimum returnsget optimum returnsout of the enterprise.out of the enterprise.Expected endExpected endresultsresultsAdoption of package ofAdoption of package ofpractices by most of thepractices by most of thefarmers.farmers.Adoption of GAP toAdoption of GAP tosecure High returns.secure High returns.Farmers seen asFarmers seen as Progressive farmer.Progressive farmer. Farmer as an “AgriFarmer as an “AgriEntrepreneur”Entrepreneur”FocusFocus Production / yieldsProduction / yields“Seed to Seed”“Seed to Seed”Whole process as anWhole process as anenterprise End to Endenterprise End to End
AspectsAspects Production-Led ExtensionProduction-Led Extension Market-Led ExtensionMarket-Led ExtensionTechnologyTechnology Fixed package recommendedFixed package recommendedfor an agro-climatic zonefor an agro-climatic zonecovering very huge areacovering very huge areairrespective of differentirrespective of differentfarming situations.farming situations.Diverse baskets ofDiverse baskets ofpackage of practicespackage of practicessuitable to localsuitable to localsituations / farmingsituations / farmingsystems.systems.Extensionists’Extensionists’interactionsinteractionsMessagesMessagesTrainingTrainingMotivatingMotivatingRecommendationsRecommendationsJoint analysis of theJoint analysis of theissuesissuesVaried choices forVaried choices foradoptionadoptionConsultancyConsultancyLinkages / liaisonLinkages / liaison Research-Extension-FarmerResearch-Extension-Farmer Research-Extension-Research-Extension-Farmer-MarketFarmer-MarketExtensionists’ roleExtensionists’ role Limited to delivery mode andLimited to delivery mode andfeedback to research system.feedback to research system.Enriched with marketEnriched with marketintelligence besides theintelligence besides theTOT functionTOT functionEstablishment ofEstablishment ofmarketing and agro-marketing and agro-processing linkagesprocessing linkagesbetween farmer groups,between farmer groups,markets, and processors.markets, and processors.
ICT In AgricultureICT In Agriculture National commission on farmers-Establishment ofNational commission on farmers-Establishment ofRural Knowledge Centres.Rural Knowledge Centres. National Informatics Centre GOI-AgriculturalNational Informatics Centre GOI-AgriculturalInformation Division-ARISNET.Information Division-ARISNET. VISTARNET-Agril. Extension Information SystemVISTARNET-Agril. Extension Information SystemNetwork.Network. Private initiatives-ITCe choupal, Mahindra Sulabh,Private initiatives-ITCe choupal, Mahindra Sulabh,Parry Corners, Rallis-Kisan Kendra, TATA KisanParry Corners, Rallis-Kisan Kendra, TATA KisanSansar, Hariali Bazar, etc.Sansar, Hariali Bazar, etc. Agriwatch-Information and Analysis on commodities.Agriwatch-Information and Analysis on commodities. AGRIMARKETNET of DMI,AGRIMARKETNET of DMI,KRISHIMARATAVAHINI of Karnataka state deptt.KRISHIMARATAVAHINI of Karnataka state deptt.of Agri Marketing .of Agri Marketing .
Required InformationRequired Information Market network of the local area and the priceMarket network of the local area and the pricedifference in various markets.difference in various markets. Network of storage and warehouse facilitiesNetwork of storage and warehouse facilitiesavailable.available. Transport facilities.Transport facilities. Regular updating of market intelligence.Regular updating of market intelligence. Production technologies like improved varieties,Production technologies like improved varieties,organic farming, usage of bio-fertilizers and bio-organic farming, usage of bio-fertilizers and bio-pesticides, IPM, INH and right methods ofpesticides, IPM, INH and right methods ofharvesting etc.harvesting etc. Post-harvest management like processing, grading,Post-harvest management like processing, grading,standardization of produce, value addition, packaging,standardization of produce, value addition, packaging,storage, certification, etc. with reference to foodstorage, certification, etc. with reference to foodgrains, fruits and vegetables, eggs, poultry, fish etc.grains, fruits and vegetables, eggs, poultry, fish etc.
Recent Extension MethodologiesRecent Extension Methodologies1.1. Use of farmers’ organization like Farmers Interest Groups,Use of farmers’ organization like Farmers Interest Groups,Commodity Groups and Self Help Groups.Commodity Groups and Self Help Groups.2.2. Use participatory mode of out reach activities which includes:Use participatory mode of out reach activities which includes:Farmers Participatory Research (FPR).Farmers Participatory Research (FPR).Participatory Technology Development (PTD).Participatory Technology Development (PTD).Participatory Technology Evaluation (PTE).Participatory Technology Evaluation (PTE).Farmer Field Schools (FFS).Farmer Field Schools (FFS).Rapid Rural Appraisal (RRA).Rapid Rural Appraisal (RRA).Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA).Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA).Participatory Learning Appraisal (PLA).Participatory Learning Appraisal (PLA).3.3. Establishment of satellite forms for large scaleEstablishment of satellite forms for large scaledemonstrations to showcase the utility of the technologies.demonstrations to showcase the utility of the technologies.4.4. Use of ICT tools.Use of ICT tools.
Audit of local resources and facilitiesAudit of local resources and facilities Investigation of the area to familiarize with problemsInvestigation of the area to familiarize with problemsas well as the opportunities.as well as the opportunities. The extension officer’s role is to listen and learn.The extension officer’s role is to listen and learn. He should try to understand how farmers might reactHe should try to understand how farmers might reactto new ideas and which farmers are likely to be mostto new ideas and which farmers are likely to be mostpositive.positive. He should have a clear idea of the crops, theHe should have a clear idea of the crops, themarketing system, the individuals and the problems ofmarketing system, the individuals and the problems ofthe area.the area. He should have some idea of the possible solutions,He should have some idea of the possible solutions,which are worth investigating at the end.which are worth investigating at the end.
Stages in Promoting marketing extensionStages in Promoting marketing extensionReview Stage:Review Stage: Implementation of the action.Implementation of the action. Decision making.Decision making. Audit of local Resources.Audit of local Resources. Determining.Determining. What market wants.What market wants. Marketing system.Marketing system.
Determining what the market wants inDetermining what the market wants interms of product at present and in futureterms of product at present and in future Finding out from the market, what product orFinding out from the market, what product orproducts and process are wanted and in what formproducts and process are wanted and in what formthe customer wants.the customer wants. Who are currently supplies to the market? At whatWho are currently supplies to the market? At whattimes? At what prices? What volumes are sold? Howtimes? At what prices? What volumes are sold? Howthe produce is packed & presented? What kind ofthe produce is packed & presented? What kind ofnetwork exists?network exists? Opinions of knowledgeable individuals, who areOpinions of knowledgeable individuals, who arecommercially involved with trading.commercially involved with trading. Market information-price data, volume of produceMarket information-price data, volume of producedelivered, major intermediaries.delivered, major intermediaries.
The Marketing SystemThe Marketing SystemInvolves determining what the customer wants in termsInvolves determining what the customer wants in termsof service.of service.One has to find out the best way to work within theOne has to find out the best way to work within theexisting marketing system as the evolution of viableexisting marketing system as the evolution of viablealternative takes time.alternative takes time.Needs to understand the following:Needs to understand the following:1.1. Produce distribution system.Produce distribution system.2.2. Actions and interactions among and between variousActions and interactions among and between variousparticipants.participants.3.3. Marketing channels and margins at various levels.Marketing channels and margins at various levels.4.4. Whole sales & middlemen selection as tradeWhole sales & middlemen selection as tradepartners.partners.5.5. Market Services Available.Market Services Available.
Decision making and agreeing on an actionDecision making and agreeing on an actionplanplanInvolves choosing the best course ofInvolves choosing the best course ofaction from among the alternativesaction from among the alternativesExtension workers has to decide.Extension workers has to decide.How the marketing problems of the areaHow the marketing problems of the areacan be solved.can be solved.The best way to transfer his plansThe best way to transfer his plansacross the maximum number of farmers.across the maximum number of farmers.
Implementation of action plansImplementation of action plansPre-production advice.Pre-production advice.Production planning.Production planning.Marketing of produce.Marketing of produce.
Review StageReview StageThe progress will be compared with theThe progress will be compared with theaction plan drawn.action plan drawn.The new action plan will be laid andThe new action plan will be laid andanalysed through SWOT analysis.analysed through SWOT analysis.Lesser the deviations from action planLesser the deviations from action planmore will be the rate of success.more will be the rate of success.
ConclusionConclusionParadigm shift from production (supply)Paradigm shift from production (supply)led to market (demand) led system ofled to market (demand) led system ofagricultural extension is inevitable dueagricultural extension is inevitable dueto changing production and marketingto changing production and marketingscenario.scenario.ICT application in agricultural extensionICT application in agricultural extensionand networking has just begun but itand networking has just begun but itmust ensure quality, timelinessmust ensure quality, timelinessreliability and adequacy.reliability and adequacy.