R P SINGH Associate Director ExtensionG B Pant University of Agri. & Tech. Pantnagar
BACKGROUND• Project on ‘ Wood and Stone Houses’ under Mission Mode of ITK Validation.• Several old structures found earthquake resistant.• The grain storage structures were also centre of attraction in Wood and Stone Houses the houses.
Why it has attraction? Special security and attention
ScenarioThere has been bumper production of wheat andrice for the last two years consecutively. Thegovernment godowns are overflowing with wheatand rice stocks and the Food Corporation of India(FCI) is facing a storage crunch. The countryproduced 86 million tonne wheat and 95 milliontonne rice in the 2010-11 crop year.As per the second estimate, there is recordproduction of wheat at 88 million tonne andunprecedented production of rice at 102 milliontonne this year. The government expects further risein the production in the final estimates. - Union agriculture secretary Prabeer Kumar Basu. Feb. 13, 2012, Economic Times
Conti.. Post-harvest losses in India amount to 12 to16 million metric tons of food grains each year,an amount that the World Bank stipulates couldfeed one-third of Indias poor. The monetaryvalue of these losses amounts to more than Rs50,000 crores per year (Singh, 2010). Natural contamination of food grains isgreatly influenced by environmental factorssuch as type of storage structure, temperature,pH, moisture, etc (Sashidhar et al, 1992).
Grains are precious • Food security is most important in remote. • Theft of grains was common in lean period. • Wooden structures with carving shows their importance. • Wooden structure provides strength to security and bad conduction for temperature.
Wooden Storage Structure Used in hilly and cold areas called ‘Bakharas’ Size 8’x 6’ Small outlets to avoid moisture exposure in the store while, drawing grains. Provision for Locking.
Double Layer Storage Technique•Wooden planksfor makingplate form.• Entry point forground floor.• Door size 2.5’ x2’• Shutting knob.
Mud & Straw based structure Used for out door storage. Prepared by mud and straw. Plastered and painted by by clay and cow dung. Plate form raised for 1’ Covered by striped biomass
Bamboo and Mud based Structure• Known as Gummi in Asam.• Prepared by Bamboo andmud.• Plastered and painted by byclay and cow dung..• Wheat straw is used forsealing the grain bags in theGummi.• Covered with stripedbiomass of sugar cane.
Indoor Punjab, Haryana, U. P. Used in Uttarakhand, Rajasthan and Himachal Pradesh Made with clay, wheat straw and cow dung. Plastered and painted by clay and cow dung. Wall thickness about 2-4 inches An opening at upper side of Kothi for filling the grains. The opening is covered with a disc made of same materials. An opening is made at front at lower side to draw the grains. It has also covered with a socket made up of same materials. After filling the grains it is plastered and painted with pest made of clay and Kothi cow dung.
Earthen pot Used in Haryana, U P, Punjab, M P, Jharkhand and Bihar. Made up of sandy clay and burnt in fire to make harden. Painted by water colour. Walls are 1-2 cm. thick. Mataka Capacity varies about 5- 10 lts. Single opening with cover.
Wooden box Used in Karnataka, A P, MP, Chattishgarh. Size varies W 2-3’ L 4-6’ and H 2-4’ Wooden plank 0.5- 1.0 inch Some time inside partition. Capacity varies 60- 100 kg. Sanduk
Rigal/Bamboo Basket Used in Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Jharkhand and Asam. Weaved by twigs/ strips. Plastered by cow dung. Single opening at upper side. Capacity varies 5-10 kg. Peru
TechnologyThe technology is complex and complete, involving many factorsand many new practices, it can be adopted piecemeal, althoughnone of the pieces bring the advantages that the entire technologydoes. The end result for the recipient must be the ability to use,replicate, improve and, possibly re-sell the technology. Technology recipients should be able to identify and selecttechnologies that are appropriate to their actual needs,circumstances and capacities. ESTs protect the environment, are less polluting, use resourcesin a sustainable manner, recycle more of their wastes andproducts, and handle all residual wastes in a more environmentallyacceptable way that the technologies for which they aresubstitutes. Preferably a technology recipient will go even further, and selecta “sustainable technology” – i.e. a technology that is not onlyenvironmentally sound but also economically viable and sociallyacceptable.
Highlights of indigenous storage methods • Wooden/ Mud structures provide bad conduction to out side temperature and inside temperature. •Bamboo structures made on a raised timber or stone platform protect grain from rat damage and prevent moisture absorption from the ground. • Regular mud plastering is required for a variety of indoor and outdoor storage containers and structures for increasing their life span and ensuring safe storage of grains. • The structures made of indigenous material like bamboo, straw and other locally available materials. • Indigenous storage structures are not suitable for storing grains for very long periods.
Need of the hour FCI can keep the stocks with the farmers instead of purchasingthe grain from them. As per the present categorization in voguethat if a farmer stores the grain without infestation then heshould be given some incentive apart from normal governmentprice. This would encourage the farmers to store the grainsproperly and ultimately it would lead to zero loss level and thepressure on storage space with FCI can also be reduced. Bisht B S. and G. Singh, 2011Develop bins or storage structures with the qualities availablein indigenous technical knowhow. Design small storage structures for region specific conditions.It will help in reducing storage losses. Materials of storage structures may be used forenvironmentally suitable, economically viable and sociallyacceptable. Storage technology may be evolved scientifically improved andreplicable at regional level.
ConclusionNatural contamination of food grains is greatlyinfluenced by environmental factors such as type ofstorage structure, temperature, pH, moisture, etc. Atany given time 60-70% of grains is stored on the farmin traditional structures like Bakhara,Kanaja, Kothi,Sanduka, earthern pots, and Gummi . Howeverindigenous storage structures are suitable for storinggrains in their region specific conditions. Here in liesthe significance of improved storage structures forspecific region and scientific storage of grains in formof warehouses. These provide safe and economicalmeans of grain storage for long durations. Need of thehour is to strengthen traditional means of storagewith modern inputs and to provide cheaper storage tofarmers so as prevent enormous storage losses.