Group led extension


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Group led extension

  1. 1. Dr R P SinghAssociate Director Extension EducationGroup LedExtension :An Effective MeansFor Promotion OfINM, IPM And IDMTechnologies
  2. 2. A way of disseminatinginformation andtechnologies onAgricultural and Ruraldevelopment throughgroup of farmersIt aims to develop localskills and empowerlocal people to solvetheir own problemsWhat is Group Led Extension?
  3. 3. Reasons for Group Led ExtensionReasons for Group Led ExtensionEfficiencyEfficiencyEffectivenessEffectivenessCollective actionCollective actionEquityEquity
  4. 4. Personalized or Group led extension ?Personalized or Group led extension ? Does the problem……….Does the problem……….Require many steps to solveRequire many steps to solveHave many partsHave many partsRequire much technical informationRequire much technical informationNeed wide range of ideasNeed wide range of ideasRequire much timeRequire much timeInvolve many solutionsInvolve many solutionsInvolve considerable difficultiesInvolve considerable difficultiesTake into account the attitudes ofTake into account the attitudes ofindividual / groupindividual / groupCarry a risk factorCarry a risk factor If YES… Go for Group led extensionIf YES… Go for Group led extension
  5. 5. Why the People Join a group?Why the People Join a group?Group synergySupport and CommitmentInterpersonal needsDistributes the responsibility for agiven taskEffective communicationRegulate the interactionsGroup work provides for trustfulenvironment
  6. 6. Why Farmers Groups / Organizations ?Why Farmers Groups / Organizations ? Build interactions between extension andBuild interactions between extension andfarming communityfarming community Extension from farmer to farmer is possibleExtension from farmer to farmer is possible Enable farmers to organize themselves forEnable farmers to organize themselves foraction or to share resourcesaction or to share resources Analyze farmers problems with extensionAnalyze farmers problems with extensionsupportsupport More services can be made available toMore services can be made available tofarmers through a single pointfarmers through a single point Provide more effective learningProvide more effective learningenvironmentenvironment
  7. 7. Benefits of Farmer groupsBenefits of Farmer groupsShare the farm implements, machinery, plantingShare the farm implements, machinery, plantingmaterial and other resourcesmaterial and other resourcesOrganize different servicesOrganize different servicesShare ideas, experiences and problemsShare ideas, experiences and problemsMake extension services more client drivenMake extension services more client drivenStrengthen bargaining power with tradersStrengthen bargaining power with tradersProvide a forum for extension agents to introduceProvide a forum for extension agents to introducetechnologiestechnologiesReduce public extension costReduce public extension costSeek advices from different organizationsSeek advices from different organizationsDisseminate information to wide spectrum ofDisseminate information to wide spectrum ofusersusersGroup efforts usually have social approvalGroup efforts usually have social approval
  8. 8. Types of GroupsTypes of Groups• Self Help GroupsSelf Help Groups• Farmer Interest Groups /Farmer Interest Groups /Commodity InterestCommodity InterestGroupsGroups• Rythu Mitra groups /Rythu Mitra groups /Farmers clubsFarmers clubs• Water User AssociationsWater User Associations• Vana SamrakshanaVana SamrakshanaSamithisSamithis• Livestock BreedersLivestock BreedersAssociationAssociation• Dairy cooperativesDairy cooperatives
  9. 9.  Area / Resource development GroupsArea / Resource development Groups• Watershed committees / AssociationsWatershed committees / Associations• Water User AssociationsWater User Associations• Vana Samraksshana SamithisVana Samraksshana Samithis Groups with a purpose of service deliveryGroups with a purpose of service delivery• Mothers committeeMothers committee• School education committees / Village educationSchool education committees / Village educationcommitteescommittees Groups with focus on individual growthGroups with focus on individual growth• Women SHGs / DWCRA groupsWomen SHGs / DWCRA groups• Youth groupsYouth groups Commodity Interest GroupsCommodity Interest Groups• Rythu Mithra Groups ( RMGs) /Rythu Mithra Groups ( RMGs) / Farmers clubsFarmers clubs• Livestock Breeders Association / Dairy cooperativesLivestock Breeders Association / Dairy cooperatives
  10. 10. AdjourningTaskPerformingFormingStormingNormingFARMERGROUPSFORMATION
  11. 11. Farmer Groups Performance depend on….Farmer Groups Performance depend on….Communication and Cooperation in the groupCommunication and Cooperation in the groupShared leadership and leadership emergenceShared leadership and leadership emergenceInterpersonal work group processInterpersonal work group processIntra group trustIntra group trustWorkload sharingWorkload sharingExternal conditions imposed on the groupExternal conditions imposed on the groupGroup member resourcesGroup member resourcesGroup structure –Group structure – leadership, roles, norms, status, sizeleadership, roles, norms, status, sizeGoal clarityGoal clarityOpennessOpennessFeedbackFeedbackGroup taskGroup task
  12. 12. Extension agency factors that influence…Extension agency factors that influence…Technical capabilities of extensionTechnical capabilities of extensionstaffstaffStaff’s people skills in managingStaff’s people skills in managinggroupsgroupsStaff attitudes and commitment toStaff attitudes and commitment togroupsgroupsApproaches usedApproaches usedMeans or Ends distinctionMeans or Ends distinctionSupport for field extension staffSupport for field extension staff
  13. 13. Three functions to satisfy group needsThree functions to satisfy group needsAchievingthe group taskDevelopingthe individualBuilding andMaintaining the group
  14. 14. Leadership DevelopmentLeadership DevelopmentSTYLE OF LEADERMATURITY OFFOLLOWER(S)(LOW) TASK BEHAVIOR (HIGH)RELATIONSHIPBEHAVIOR(HIGH)LowRelationship andLow TaskHigh Taskand LowRelationshipHighRelationshipandLow TaskHigh Taskand HighRelationshipHIGH MODERATE LOWMatureImmature
  15. 15. Success of Farmer Groups…Success of Farmer Groups…Recognition it gets from various bodiesRecognition it gets from various bodiesFocus on income generating activitiesFocus on income generating activitiesAbilities of membersAbilities of membersVisible benefits to its membersVisible benefits to its membersExtension officials supportExtension officials supportParticipatory approachesParticipatory approachesLinkages with people and organizationsLinkages with people and organizationsTie up with other developmentTie up with other developmentprogrammesprogrammesInter group linkagesInter group linkagesCapacity building of farmer groupsCapacity building of farmer groups
  17. 17. Types ofTypes ofFarmer OrganizationsFarmer OrganizationsCommunity based, resource orientedCommunity based, resource orientedfarmer organizationfarmer organizationCommodity based, market oriented farmerCommodity based, market oriented farmerorganizationorganization
  18. 18. Roles ofRoles ofFarmer organizationsFarmer organizationsRepresentational roleRepresentational roleTechnology roleTechnology roleService roleService role
  19. 19. Developing a Farmer organizationDeveloping a Farmer organization Study the village situation in detailStudy the village situation in detail Identify issues and problems to build a farmerIdentify issues and problems to build a farmerorganizationorganization Locate potential leaders in the communityLocate potential leaders in the community Seed the concept of farmer organization among themSeed the concept of farmer organization among them Sow the cooperation of various agencies working withSow the cooperation of various agencies working withsimilar objectivessimilar objectives Conduct community meetings through local leadersConduct community meetings through local leaders Make the purpose of the organization very clearMake the purpose of the organization very clear Nominate core group leaders to develop the farmerNominate core group leaders to develop the farmerorganizationorganization Develop an organizational structureDevelop an organizational structure Provide action learning situation to develop theProvide action learning situation to develop themanagement of farmer organizationmanagement of farmer organization Prepare plan of action using participatory actionPrepare plan of action using participatory actionmanagement cyclemanagement cycle Implement the plan of actionImplement the plan of action Monitor and evaluate the farmer organizations progressMonitor and evaluate the farmer organizations progress
  20. 20. Farmers may be organized atFarmers may be organized atFour levelsFour levelsFarmers Interest Groups ( FIGs )Farmers Interest Groups ( FIGs )Sectoral Farmers Association ( SFA )Sectoral Farmers Association ( SFA )District Farmers Forum ( DFF )District Farmers Forum ( DFF )State Farmers Federation ( SFF )State Farmers Federation ( SFF )
  21. 21. Role ofRole ofExtension ProfessionalsExtension Professionals……Mobilization and organization roleMobilization and organization roleCapacity building roleCapacity building roleProblem solving and educating roleProblem solving and educating roleBusiness support provider roleBusiness support provider role
  22. 22. Examples of Group led extension in IndiaExamples of Group led extension in India KERALAKERALA initiated group approach toinitiated group approach toextension for RICE farming in 1989extension for RICE farming in 1989and subsequently extended to otherand subsequently extended to othercropscrops Formation of community groups toFormation of community groups toimprove productivity and reduce costimprove productivity and reduce costof cultivationof cultivation
  23. 23. Examples…Examples… RAJASTHANRAJASTHAN adopted the groupadopted the groupapproach to extension in 1992 andapproach to extension in 1992 andcurrently VEO visits village and impartcurrently VEO visits village and imparttraining totraining to kisan mandalkisan mandal farmers oncefarmers oncein a fortnightin a fortnight
  24. 24. Examples…Examples… InIn ANDHRA PRADESHANDHRA PRADESH, Farmers, FarmersClubs ( RMGs ) are formed toClubs ( RMGs ) are formed topropagate developmental Schemespropagate developmental Schemesand facilitate TOTand facilitate TOT Govt provides Rs 1500 to each clubGovt provides Rs 1500 to each clubfor its formationfor its formation Two lakh clubsTwo lakh clubs
  25. 25. RMGs in A.P – Main ObjectivesRMGs in A.P – Main Objectives To function as interface between extension systemTo function as interface between extension systemand farmers for TOT and sharing of marketand farmers for TOT and sharing of marketinformationinformation To become self reliant for carrying outTo become self reliant for carrying outdevelopmental activities through their owndevelopmental activities through their ownresources and efforts; and also for developingresources and efforts; and also for developinglinkages with credit institutions as well as otherlinkages with credit institutions as well as otherdevelopmental departmentsdevelopmental departments To interact and exchange ideas on scientificTo interact and exchange ideas on scientificagricultureagriculture To take up, in addition to social activities, variousTo take up, in addition to social activities, variousdev. activities like soil testing camps, animal healthdev. activities like soil testing camps, animal healthcamps etccamps etc To formulate an optimal resource based andTo formulate an optimal resource based andmarket driven farmer strategymarket driven farmer strategy
  26. 26. Functioning of RMGsFunctioning of RMGs A group of 15 farmers- Start with aA group of 15 farmers- Start with aunique nameunique name Only one member from a familyOnly one member from a family Thrift and credit on the lines of SHGsThrift and credit on the lines of SHGs Monthly thrift – Rs.50/- per month.Monthly thrift – Rs.50/- per month. Rs.2500/- from government to takeRs.2500/- from government to takecare of capacity building and matchingcare of capacity building and matchinggrant of Rs.15,000/- per group togrant of Rs.15,000/- per group tomature RMGsmature RMGs..
  27. 27. Abhyudaya Karshak Parishat,Abhyudaya Karshak Parishat,Mukkamala, EG, A.PMukkamala, EG, A.P Estd in 1989Estd in 1989 Trainings on Paddy and CoconutTrainings on Paddy and Coconut Emphasis on IPM and INMEmphasis on IPM and INM Farmer to farmer extensionFarmer to farmer extension ProductivityProductivity Field visitsField visits
  28. 28. Examples…Examples… HIMACHAL PRADESHHIMACHAL PRADESH is formingis formingFarmer Interest Groups (FIGs) toFarmer Interest Groups (FIGs) toimplement many schemesimplement many schemes The Central Sector Scheme onThe Central Sector Scheme onWomen in Agriculture (CSSWA) isWomen in Agriculture (CSSWA) isbeing implemented through womenbeing implemented through womenSHGs promoted through thisSHGs promoted through thisprogrammeprogramme
  29. 29. Examples…Examples… NABARD, UttarakhandNABARD, Uttarakhand formed SHGs offormed SHGs ofmicro-financing, access to credit andmicro-financing, access to credit andstrengthen their negotiation powerstrengthen their negotiation powerthrough collective marketingthrough collective marketing Emerged as Vegetable and FruitEmerged as Vegetable and FruitPromotion in uttarakhandPromotion in uttarakhand
  30. 30. Examples…Examples… Cashew Ratna inCashew Ratna in MAHARASHTRAMAHARASHTRA ::Cashew growers in Ratnagiri formedCashew growers in Ratnagiri formedinto groups and marketed cashewinto groups and marketed cashewunder the name ofunder the name of Cashew RatnaCashew Ratna andandreaped benefitsreaped benefits Commodity Based Groups – BlockCommodity Based Groups – BlockLevel Processors Group – DistrictLevel Processors Group – Districtlevellevel Grading, Packing, MarketingGrading, Packing, Marketing
  31. 31. ProcessorsGroup1 2 3 4Block Level ProcessorsGroupDistrict Level Cp& Farmer Orgn.CommonGodown•Grading•Packing•Further grading•Packing•MarketingState :MaharashtraDistrict :RatnagiriCASHEW RATNACommodity Based Groups
  32. 32. Efficiency of Group approachEfficiency of Group approachover Individual approachover Individual approachApproachApproach ParticipationParticipationin extensionin extensionactivities ofactivities ofKVK ( % )KVK ( % )ParticipationParticipationin decisionin decisionmakingmaking( % )( % )TechnologyTechnologyadoptionadoptionby theby thefarmersfarmersSpread ofSpread oftechnologytechnologyExtent ofExtent offeedbackfeedbackNetworkingNetworkingIndividualIndividual 15-2015-20 1-21-2 slowslow slowslow somesome poorpoorGroupGroup 100100 90-10090-100 fastfast fastfast 70-80%70-80% effectiveeffectiveDas P DDG ICAR Indian farming November 2002
  33. 33. Skills required for Farmer groupsSkills required for Farmer groupsS. NoS. No AreaArea Skill /Skill /CompetenciesCompetenciesto be developedto be developedWays andWays andMeans ofMeans ofdevelopingdevelopingskillskillInstitutionsInstitutionswho canwho canhelphelp11 TechnicalTechnical22 ManagerialManagerial33 Any otherAny other
  34. 34. Initiatives to be taken to organizeInitiatives to be taken to organizefarmers in groupsfarmers in groups Policy decision to contact farmers in groupsPolicy decision to contact farmers in groupsinstead of individual contactsinstead of individual contacts Groups should be demand drivenGroups should be demand driven Group formation could be taken up where someGroup formation could be taken up where someNGOs / societies are workingNGOs / societies are working Disseminate the message about the advantagesDisseminate the message about the advantagesof group formationof group formation Size of the group should be kept smallSize of the group should be kept small Demonstrate the process of group formation byDemonstrate the process of group formation byorganizing visits of group of farmers to alreadyorganizing visits of group of farmers to alreadydeveloped active farmers groups in nearby areasdeveloped active farmers groups in nearby areas
  35. 35. Conclusions…Conclusions… Sustainable groups and organizations are mustSustainable groups and organizations are mustfor over all development of farmersfor over all development of farmers Extension strategies should involve groupsExtension strategies should involve groups Public, Private extension agencies and NGOsPublic, Private extension agencies and NGOsshould involve farmer groupsshould involve farmer groups Govt departments should play a supporting roleGovt departments should play a supporting rolein formation and management of farmer groupsin formation and management of farmer groups Extension functionaries should have skills ofExtension functionaries should have skills offacilitationfacilitation