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20. Principi e linee guida (I)

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Slides dalle lezioni del corso di Interazione Uomo Macchina per il corso di laurea in Informatica - Università di Milano Bicocca - Prof.R.Polillo (a.a.2014-15) - Lezione del 6 maggio 2015

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20. Principi e linee guida (I)

  1. 1. Corso di Interazione Uomo Macchina AA 2014-2015 Roberto Polillo Corso di laurea in Informatica Università di Milano Bicocca Dipartimento di Informatica, Sistemistica e Comunicazione PRINCIPI E LINEE GUIDA (I) Edizione 2014-15 1
  2. 2. Queste slides… … si basano sul libro “Facile da usare”, dell’autore, dove si trovano tutte le necessarie spiegazioni. Vedi www.rpolillo.it Queste slide sono disponibili con licenza Creative Commons (attribuzione, non commerciale, condividi allo stesso modo) a chiunque desiderasse utilizzarle, per esempio a scopo didattico, senza necessità di preventiva autorizzazione: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/it/deed.it La licenza non si estende alle immagini fotografiche e alle screen shots, i cui diritti restano in capo ai rispettivi proprietari, che sono stati indicati, ove possibile, nelle didascalie del libro. L’autore si scusa per eventuali omissioni, e resta a disposizione per correggerle. Ρ.Πολιλλο − Μαρζο 2015 2
  3. 3. Scopo di questa lezione 3 Discutere, con esempi, le indicazioni che possono essere fornite al progettista per guidarlo nella progettazione di sistemi usabili. R.Polillo - Marzo 2015
  4. 4. Quali indicazioni per il design dell’interfaccia utente? R.Polillo - Marzo 2015 4 coercitività generalità principi bassa bassa alta alta
  5. 5. Quali indicazioni per il design dell’interfaccia utente? R.Polillo - Marzo 2015 5 coercitività generalità Linee guida principi bassa bassa alta alta
  6. 6. Quali indicazioni per il design dell’interfaccia utente? R.Polillo - Marzo 2015 6 coercitività generalità Linee guida principi Design patterns bassa bassa alta alta
  7. 7. Quali indicazioni per il design dell’interfaccia utente? R.Polillo - Marzo 2015 7 coercitività generalità regole di progetto Linee guida principi Design patterns bassa bassa alta alta
  8. 8. Quali indicazioni per il design dell’interfaccia utente? R.Polillo - Marzo 2015 8 coercitività generalità standard regole di progetto Linee guida principi Design patterns bassa bassa alta alta
  9. 9. Terminologia  Principi Principi generali per la progettazione di interfacce utente usabili, basati su evidenza scientifica o sul generale consenso. Derivano dalla conoscenza degli aspetti psicologici, computazionali e sociali e sono indipendenti dalla tecnologia. Sono espressi spesso in forma molto generale.  Linee guida Insieme di raccomandazioni per il progetto dell’interfaccia utente per una particolare classe di sistemi, espresse in modo generale ma meno astratte degli standard, con esempi e motivazioni. Non sono vincolanti, sta al progettista decidere sulla opportunità di applicarle caso per caso  Standards Insieme di regole da applicare nel progetto di una classe di sistemi. Sono vincolanti: i progettisti devono applicarli. Sono di norma emesse da un Ente di standardizzazione. La conformità allo standard deve essere valutabile in modo preciso.  Regole di progetto Insieme di regole da applicare nel progetto di un particolare sistema. Sono vincolanti R.Polillo - Marzo 2015 9
  10. 10. Indicazioni per il design: autorevolezza Diversi livelli di autorevolezza: A: Completamente supportate da risultati di ricerca e dati empirici B: Basate su pratica generalmente accettata (in modo documentato) C:Non ben documentate, ma supportate dall’opinione di professionisti D: Opinione individuale Standard: solo livelli A e B R.Polillo - Marzo 2015 10
  11. 11. Indicazioni per il design: tipologia R.Polillo - Marzo 2015 11 coercitività generalità standa rd regole di progetto Linee guida principi Design patterns bassa bassa alta alta
  12. 12. Gli standard per la usabilità 12  Situazione complessa: gli standard sono in continua evoluzione (www.iso.org; www.uninfo.it)  Il processo è molto lento, e passa attraverso diverse fasi  Ci sono standard di prodotto e standard di processo R.Polillo - Marzo 2015
  13. 13. ISO 9241: Ergonomics of human System interaction E’ uno standard composto dalle seguenti serie, ciascuna delle quali composta di diversi documenti), in diverso stadio di evoluzione (attualmente, una ventina di documenti) appartenenti alle seguenti serie: 100 series: Software ergonomics 200 series: Human system interaction processes 300 series: Displays and display related hardware 400 series: Physical input devices – ergonomics principles 500 series: Workplace ergonomics 600 series: Environment ergonomics 700 series: Application domains - Control rooms 900 series: Tactile and haptic interactions R.Polillo - Marzo 2015 13
  14. 14. Indicazioni per il design: tipologia R.Polillo - Marzo 2015 14 coercitività generalità standard regole di progetto Linee guida principi Design patterns bassa bassa alta alta
  15. 15. User Interface Design Guidelines  Android: http://developer.android.com/guide/topics/ui/index.html  iOS: https://developer.apple.com/library/ios/documentation/us erexperience/conceptual/MobileHIG/index.html R.Polillo - Marzo 2015 15
  16. 16. Design patterns  Soluzioni generali a problemi di progettazione che si ripropongono in molte situazioni  Non una soluzione “finita”, ma un modello da adattare alla specifica situazione  Il concetto è nato in architettura alla fine degli anni ’70 (Christopher Alexander), e applicato all’ingegneria del software dalla fine degli anni ‘80 R.Polillo - Marzo 2015 16
  17. 17. R.Polillo - Marzo 2015 17
  18. 18. Design pattern in architettura R.Polillo - Marzo 2015 18 “Colloca la scala principale in una posizione chiave, centrale e visibile. Tratta l’intera scala come una stanza (o, se all’esterno, come un cortile). Disponila in modo che la scala e la stanza siano una cosa sola, con la scala che scende attorno a una o due pareti della stanza. Allarga il fondo della scala con finestre aperte o balaustre, e con ampi gradini, in modo che le persone che scendono lungo la scala diventino parte dell’azione della stanza mentre sono ancora sulla scala, e che le persone in basso usino naturalmente i gradini per sedersi”. Da C.Alexander, A Pattern Language
  19. 19. I pattern di interazione uomo macchina: esempio Design pattern per le funzioni di ricerca in un sito web (van Welie) Advanced search Search Tips Autocomplete Site Index FAQ Site Map Help Wizard Footer Sitemap Search Box Tag Cloud Search Area Topic Pages Search Results R.Polillo - Marzo 2015 19
  20. 20. Mobile design patterns: esempi  http://www.mobile-patterns.com  http://http://pttrns.com  http://inspired-ui.com (iPhone)  http://www.sitepoint.com/examples-mobile- design-patterns/  Un libro: http://www.mobiledesignpatterngallery.com R.Polillo - Marzo 2015 20
  21. 21. Pattern language per l’interazione 21 I formalismi di descrizione sono diversi, ma normalmente ogni pattern è descritto in una scheda che fornisce  Il problema di cui si tratta  Il pattern che lo risolve  Le motivazioni  L’ambito/limitazioni di applicazione  Esempi di uso R.Polillo - Marzo 2015
  22. 22. Design pattern: vantaggi  Raccolgono lo stato della pratica  Suggeriscono soluzioni ai progettisti  Formazione di un linguaggio comune  Diffondono gli “standard di fatto”  Evitano di “reinventare la ruota” R.Polillo - Marzo 2015 22
  23. 23. Indicazioni per il design: tipologia R.Polillo - Marzo 2015 23 coercitività generalità standard regole di progetto Linee guida princip i Design patterns bassa bassa alta alta
  24. 24. Principi  I “principi morali” sono principi che guidano il “buon” comportamento umano  Nella progettazione, possiamo definire quei “principi morali” che dovrebbero guidarci, in particolare, quando dobbiamo scegliere fra soluzioni alternative  Sono tanto più validi quanto più la pratica mostri che derogare da questi principi genera, prima o poi, delle difficoltà R.Polillo - Marzo 2015 24
  25. 25. ISO 9241-110: I 7 principi del dialogo uomo macchina 25 1. Adeguatezza al compito 2. Autodescrizione 3. Conformità alle aspettative dell’utente 4. Adeguatezza all’apprendimento 5. Controllabilità 6. Tolleranza verso gli errori 7. Adeguatezza alla personalizzazione R.Polillo - Marzo 2015
  26. 26. 26 1. Adeguatezza al compito 2. Autodescrizione 3. Conformità alle aspettative dell’utente 4. Adeguatezza all’apprendimento 5. Controllabilità 6. Tolleranza verso gli errori 7. Adeguatezza alla individualizzazione R.Polillo - Marzo 2015 La funzionalità del sistema e il dialogo sono basati sulle caratteristiche del compito, piuttosto che sulla tecnologia scelta per effettuarlo ISO 9241-110: I 7 principi del dialogo uomo macchina
  27. 27. Adeguatezza al compito: esempio 27 R.Polillo - Marzo 2015
  28. 28. Adeguatezza al compito, in pratica Nel nostro progetto, abbiamo applicato in pratica questo principio… … nell’attenzione “spasmodica” alla corretta individuazione dei casi d’uso, e alla stesura del diagramma dei casi d’uso, come base di partenza per orientare la progettazione; inoltre… … la definizione di scenari d’uso tipici ci ha aiutato a perfezionare l’analisi R.Polillo - Marzo 2015 28
  29. 29. Adeguatezza al compito: aspetti chiave 29  Fasi dell’interazione e “navigazione” adeguate al compito  Informazioni e formati adeguati al compito  Tecniche di interazione adeguate al compito  Dialogo essenziale (no ridondanze non necessarie per il compito)  Default tipici R.Polillo - Marzo 2015 Nel nostro caso, tutto pensato per mobiles Nel nostro caso, tutto pensato per mobiles
  30. 30. Dialogo essenziale Analizzare accuratamente le ridondanze: servono? a che cosa servono? a chi servono? ci sono degli svantaggi nella loro eliminazione? R.Polillo - Marzo 2015 30
  31. 31. Dialogo essenziale R.Polillo - Marzo 2015 31
  32. 32. I 7 principi del dialogo secondo la ISO 9241-110:2006 32 1. Adeguatezza al compito 2. Autodescrizione 3. Conformità alle aspettative dell’utente 4. Adeguatezza all’apprendimento 5. Controllabilità 6. Tolleranza verso gli errori 7. Adeguatezza alla individualizzazione R.Polillo - Marzo 2015 Agli utenti risulta evidente, in ogni momento, in che contesto e fase del dialogo si trovano, quali azioni possono compiere e come queste possono essere effettuate
  33. 33. Autodescrizione, in pratica Nel nostro progetto, abbiamo applicato questo principio nell’attenzione “spasmodica” alla segnalazione del contesto corrente, fin dal primo prototipo (POP) Esempi: Il nome dell’app I titoli delle varie schermate Il nome dell’utente loggato L’oggetto selezionato Lo stato del sistema (!) Feedback evidente Descrizione dell’input atteso R.Polillo - Marzo 2015 33 Se non indispensabile, no ricorso alla memoria a breve termine Se non indispensabile, no ricorso alla memoria a breve termine
  34. 34. Esempio: guida all’utente 34 R.Polillo - Marzo 2015
  35. 35. Guida all’utente: che cosa non fare R.Polillo - Marzo 2015 35 Pagina web con menu le cui scritte appaiono come roll-over: da evitare!
  36. 36. R.Polillo - Marzo 2015
  37. 37. R.Polillo - Marzo 2015 www.brigaderia.com.br

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