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Ref: Tom Duncan Advanced
PHYSICS
About physics 1
Like other sciences Physics starts with
observations in the world around ...
10/10/13 by Dr. RDP 2008 ref. T. Duncan
Structure of physics – Week 1
• Like other sciences Physics starts with
observatio...
10/10/13 by Dr. RDP 2008 ref. T. Duncan
Observations in the world around us
• Optical microscope Electron microscope
10/10/13 by Dr. RDP 2008 ref. T. Duncan
About physics
• Concepts helps to explain facts of physics and explain the behavio...
10/10/13 by Dr. RDP 2008 ref. T. Duncan
About physics
• Laws or principles:- exists between concepts
• They summarize a la...
10/10/13 by Dr. RDP 2008 ref. T. Duncan
About physics
These so-called ‘laws of nature’ are formulated by scientists
by ext...
10/10/13 by Dr. RDP 2008 ref. T. Duncan
About physics
Theories:-
When we are dealing with things not directly accessible t...
10/10/13 by Dr. RDP 2008 ref. T. Duncan
About physics
Theories:-
Note: scientific theories are like geographical maps
that...
10/10/13 by Dr. RDP 2008 ref. T. Duncan
About physics
Branches of Physics:-
For study we often divide physics into differe...
10/10/13 by RDP 2013 ref. T. Duncan
About physics
Questions to do:-
(i) Explain the following terms in physics, giving exa...
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About physics – week 1

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About Physics

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About physics – week 1

  1. 1. Ref: Tom Duncan Advanced PHYSICS About physics 1 Like other sciences Physics starts with observations in the world around us or from laboratory experiments (often involving measurements) designed to obtain facts.
  2. 2. 10/10/13 by Dr. RDP 2008 ref. T. Duncan Structure of physics – Week 1 • Like other sciences Physics starts with observations in the world around us or from laboratory experiments (often involving measurements) designed to obtain facts. • For example the investigation of electricity - began when it was noticed that amber (a glass- like fossil) attracts small light objects when it is rubbed with cloth.
  3. 3. 10/10/13 by Dr. RDP 2008 ref. T. Duncan Observations in the world around us • Optical microscope Electron microscope
  4. 4. 10/10/13 by Dr. RDP 2008 ref. T. Duncan About physics • Concepts helps to explain facts of physics and explain the behaviour of the physical world. Physicists invent these terms called concepts. These concern quantities that can be measured. Some concepts like length are basic while others , like potential difference (p.d.) in electricity are less ‘concrete’ and require more sophisticated measuring instrument. • Four of the most useful concepts are:- • Atoms • energy • Fields • waves • They pervade the whole of physics, enables us to build an intellectual framework that help us to understand a wide range of phenomena.
  5. 5. 10/10/13 by Dr. RDP 2008 ref. T. Duncan About physics • Laws or principles:- exists between concepts • They summarize a large number of facts in an economical way, often as a mathematical equation. • Hooks’s law:- relates the concepts of force and length and tells us how a spring behaves when it is stretched. • Boyle’s law:- describes how gases respond when squeezed, using the concepts of pressure and volume. • Newton’s laws of motion:- deals with the action of forces and objects often called (‘bodies’) and the acceleration they may produce. • Ohm’s law in electricity:- connects the concepts of potential difference and current Isaac Newton (1643-1727)Robert Hooke (1635- 1703)
  6. 6. 10/10/13 by Dr. RDP 2008 ref. T. Duncan About physics These so-called ‘laws of nature’ are formulated by scientists by extracting from the facts and they do have limitations. Thus, Hook’s law is true only if the spring is not stretched too far. Newton’s laws of motion do not hold for bodies moving at speeds near that of light and Ohm’s law only applies to certain conductors. However introducing concepts and discovering laws, we are able to make the physical world seem reasonable and to obtain some control over it.
  7. 7. 10/10/13 by Dr. RDP 2008 ref. T. Duncan About physics Theories:- When we are dealing with things not directly accessible to our senses we sometimes use theories or ‘thought models’ to help us to explain things. e.g. Wave theory is used to make sense of some of the properties of light and sound, and draws on our knowledge of the behaviour of ‘real’ waves such as surface water waves. The field theory enables us to deal with the invisible, action-at-a-distance (non-contact) forces occurring in electricity, magnetism and gravitation. The kinetic theory gives us insight into the properties of matter in bulk, that it helps to relate macroscopic (large-scale) properties such as density and pressure, to the masses, speed, energies, etc. of the constituents atoms and molecules that cannot be seen directly.
  8. 8. 10/10/13 by Dr. RDP 2008 ref. T. Duncan About physics Theories:- Note: scientific theories are like geographical maps that aids to understand and are representation or analogies of reality and are not complete descriptions of it. They can be used as a means of abstraction of the real world objects – as in OOP.
  9. 9. 10/10/13 by Dr. RDP 2008 ref. T. Duncan About physics Branches of Physics:- For study we often divide physics into different branches such as mechanics, heat, light, sound, electricity, etc. Many concepts and laws are useful in more than one branch.
  10. 10. 10/10/13 by RDP 2013 ref. T. Duncan About physics Questions to do:- (i) Explain the following terms in physics, giving example of each terms (a) Concepts (b) Laws (c) Theories

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