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Chapt11 Lecture


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Chapt11 Lecture

  1. 1. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Chapter 11 Lecture Outline
  2. 2. Learning Outcomes After studying this chapter, you should be able to answer the following questions: <ul><li>• What is coal-bed methane? Why is it both important and controversial? </li></ul><ul><li>• How do continental and oceanic crust differ? </li></ul><ul><li>• Why do volcanoes occur? </li></ul><ul><li>• What are some of the environmental and social costs of mining and oil- and gasdrilling? </li></ul><ul><li>• What are some solutions to those costs? </li></ul><ul><li>• How can we reduce our consumption of geologic resources? </li></ul><ul><li>• Why is mass wasting a problem? </li></ul>11-
  3. 3. When we heal the earth, we heal ourselves. –David Orr 11-
  4. 4. 11.1 Earth Processes Shape Our Resources <ul><li>Every one of us shares the benefits of geologic resources. </li></ul><ul><li>Right now you are probably wearing several geologic products: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>plastics, including glasses and synthetic fabric, are made from oil; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>iron, copper, and aluminum mines produced your snaps, zippers, and the screws in your glasses; silver, gold, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>diamond mines may have produced your jewelry. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>All of us also share responsibility for the environmental and social devastation that often results from mining and drilling. </li></ul>11-
  5. 5. Earth is a dynamic planet <ul><li>The core is composed of a dense, intensely hot mass of metal—mostly iron. </li></ul><ul><li>Mantle surrounds the molten outer core, is a hot, pliable layer of rock. </li></ul><ul><li>Crust is the outermost layer of the earth. </li></ul>11-
  6. 6. 11-
  7. 7. Map of tectonic plates 11-
  8. 8. Plate tectonic movement 11-
  9. 9. 11.2 Minerals and Rocks <ul><li>A mineral is a naturally occurring, inorganic solid with a specific chemical composition and a specific internal crystal structure. </li></ul><ul><li>A rock is a solid, cohesive aggregate of one or more minerals. </li></ul>11-
  10. 10. The rock cycle 11-
  11. 11. The rock cycle creates and recycles rocks <ul><li>Igneous rocks (from igni, the Latin word for fire) are solidified from hot, molten magma or lava. </li></ul><ul><li>Metamorphic rocks form from the melting, contorting, and recrystallizing of other rocks. </li></ul><ul><li>Sedimentary rocks are formed when loose grains of other rocks are consolidated by time and pressure. </li></ul>11-
  12. 12. Weathering and sedimentation 11-
  13. 13. 11.3 Economic Geology and Mineralogy 11-
  14. 14. 11.4 Environmental Effects of Resource Extraction <ul><li>Half the coal used in the United States comes from strip mines. </li></ul>11-
  15. 15. 11.5 Conserving Geologic Resources <ul><li>Conservation offers great potential for extending our supplies of economic minerals and reducing the effects of mining and processing. </li></ul>11-
  16. 16. 11-
  17. 17. 11.6 Geologic Hazards <ul><li>Earthquakes, volcanoes, floods, and landslides are normal earth processes, events that have made our earth what it is today. </li></ul>11-
  18. 18. Earthquakes are frequent and deadly hazards <ul><li>The 2004 earthquake and tsunami in Banda Aceh, Indonesia, stunned the world, killed over 230,000 people, and caused damage as far away as Africa. </li></ul><ul><li>Less than a year later, an earthquake in Pakistan killed 80,000 people. </li></ul><ul><li>Earthquakes are sudden movements in the earth’s crust that occur along faults (planes of weakness), where one rock mass slides past another one. </li></ul>11-
  19. 19. Volcanoes eject deadly gases and ash <ul><li>Volcanoes and undersea magma vents are the sources of most of the earth’s crust. </li></ul>11-
  20. 20. Floods are part of a river’s land-shaping processes <ul><li>Like earthquakes and volcanoes, floods are normal events that cause damage when people get in the way. </li></ul><ul><li>As rivers carve and shape the landscape, they build broad floodplains, level expanses that are periodically inundated. </li></ul>11-
  21. 21. Mass wasting includes slides and slumps <ul><li>Landslides are sudden collapses of hillsides. In the United States alone, landslides and related mass wasting cause over $1 billion in property damage every year. </li></ul>11-
  22. 22. Erosion destroys fields and undermines buildings 11-
  23. 23. Groins have mixed results 11-
  24. 24. Practice Quiz <ul><li>1. How does tectonic plate movement create ocean basins, midocean ridges, and volcanoes? </li></ul><ul><li>2. What is the “ring of fire”? </li></ul><ul><li>3. Describe the processes and components of the rock cycle (fig. 11.7). </li></ul><ul><li>4. What is the difference between metals and nonmetal mineral resources? </li></ul><ul><li>5. What is a mineral and a rock? Why are pure metals not minerals? </li></ul><ul><li>6. Which countries are the single greatest producers of our major metals? (See fig. 11.10.) </li></ul><ul><li>7. Describe some of the mining, processing, and drilling methods that can degrade water or air quality. </li></ul>11-
  25. 25. Practice Quiz <ul><li>8. Compare the different mining methods of underground, openpit, strip, and placer mining, as well as mountaintop removal. </li></ul><ul><li>9. What resources, aside from minerals themselves, can be saved by recycling? </li></ul><ul><li>10. Give an example of resource substitution. </li></ul><ul><li>11. Describe the most deadly risks of volcanoes. </li></ul><ul><li>12. What is mass wasting? Give three examples and explain why they are a problem. </li></ul><ul><li>13. Why is building on barrier islands risky? </li></ul><ul><li>14. What is a floodplain? Why is building on floodplains controversial? </li></ul><ul><li>15. Describe the processes of chemical weathering and mechanical weathering. </li></ul>11-
  26. 26. Practice Quiz <ul><li>16. The Mesozoic period begins and ends with the appearance and disappearance of dinosaurs. What fossils mark the other geologic eras? (See fig. 11.6.) </li></ul><ul><li>17. Describe how seismic exploration works in finding oil and gas deposits. What are its costs and benefits? </li></ul>11-