Tropical Anticancerous plants


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this is the seminar presented by me as a part of my M.Sc. (horticulture) graduation

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Tropical Anticancerous plants

  1. 1. University of Horticultural Sciences, BagalkotK. R. C. College of Horticulture, Arabhavi By, Rahul S. Phatak UHS11PGM140 Dept. of PMA
  2. 2. «dAiÀĪÁtÂ, 12. ¸É¥ÀÖA§gï. 201
  3. 3. Cancer is generally considered to comprise morethan 100 diseases, each characterized by uncontrolledgrowth and spread of abnormal cells. (Watson, 2006)
  4. 4. Causes Internal factors Inherited mutation, hormones, immune condition and mutation that occur from metabolism. External factors Tobacco, Chemicals, Radiation and Infectious organisms (Baudino, 2004)
  5. 5. Genes Cancer
  6. 6. Types of cancerThere are Four types according to body tissue from which they arise1. Carcinoma : epithelial cells lining lung, liver, breast, prostate and pancreas2. Sarcoma: muscles, nerves and bones3. Lymphoma: cells in lymph glands4. Leukemia: blood forming tissue (Bagchi and Preuss, 2005)
  7. 7. Cancer globally…• Every year, diagnosed in 10 million people and account for 7.1 million deaths (12.5 % of global total)• Second to cardiovascular diseases• Global cancer rates could increase by 50% to 15 million by 2020• Due to smoking and adoption of unhealthy lifestyles• Brest cancer, colon cancer, prostate cancer, lung cancer and blood cancer are found major. (WHO, 2009)
  8. 8. How to cure..?SurgeryOldest known treatmentOnly if cancer has not metastasized
  9. 9. Radiation• Radiotherapy• By focusing high-energy rays on cancer cells• May cause side effects
  10. 10. ChemotherapyToxic drugs are neededFocus is to trigger the apoptotic programmeInhibition, blocking effect, anti progressionNatural, synthetic or both
  11. 11. Table 1: Some anti-cancerous plants used in cancer therapy Plant species Experiments on various Mechanism of cancer cells actionCatharanthus roseus Leukemias, lyphomas Mitotic block and lung cancerBerberineeris sp. Breast, prostrate and Apoptosis lung cancerGloriosa superba Leukemia Anti-mitoticCurcuma longa Colon and pancreatic Unknown cancerZingiber officinalis Breast and lung cancer Un knownAndrographis Colon cancer Apoptosispaniculata (Nirmala et al., 2011)
  12. 12. Table 1Contd.Palargonium Breast cancer Un knowngraveolensBoesenbergia Breast and colon cancer Apoptosis andpandurata cell cycle arrestRuta graveolens Colon & prostate cancer Cell cycle arrestOcimum sanctum Lung cancer Inhibition of invasionMagnolia Prostate cancer Not knownofficinalisAchyranthes Pancreatic cancer ApoptosisasperaSolanum nigrum colon and breast cancer ApoptosisArtemisia vulgaris Prostate & colon cancer Apoptosis (Nirmala et al., 2011)
  13. 13.  Solanum nigrum Black nightshade Solanaceae Berries Antipyretic and Diuretic Artemisia vulgaris Asteraceae Whole herb Intestinal worms, Asthma, Sterility
  14. 14. *p < 0.05, and **p < 0.01Figure 1: Effect of aqueous extracts of Artemisia vulgaris on clonoginicity of cancer cells (Nawab et al., 2011)
  15. 15. **p < 0.01 Figure 2: Effect of aqueous extracts of Solanum nigrum on clonoginicity of cancer cells (Nawab et al., 2011)
  16. 16. Plate 1: Effect of aqueous extracts on induction of apoptosis in various cancer cells (DNA fragmentation assay). (Nawab et al., 2011)
  17. 17. Boesenbergia pandurata (Kaempferia pandurata) Zingiberaceae Panduratin A Traditionally used as general tonic
  18. 18. Figure 3: Influence of plant extracts on HT-29 colon cancer cellsFraction A - with 1:1 methanol/waterFraction B -with 100% methanol (Kirana et al., 2007)
  19. 19. Figure 3: different cell cycle check points by plant constituents
  20. 20. Figure 4: Effect of Panduratin A on cell cycle (Kirana et al., 2007)
  21. 21. Figure 5: Total apoptosis in HT-29 cancer cells after 48 htreatment with different concentrations of Panduratin A. (Kirana et al., 2007)
  22. 22. Figure 6: Effect of diets on body weight of rats (Kirana et al., 2007)
  23. 23.  Ruta graveolens (Garden rue) Rutaceae used as an abortifacient, insect repellant, treatment for arthritis and ulcers
  24. 24. Figure 7: Effect of varying concentrations of R. graveolens extract on clonogenicity of HCT116 , RKO and DU-145 cancer cells (Fadlalla, 2011)
  25. 25. p53 Tubulin Merge Control 50µg/ml 100µg/mlPlate 2: Effect of R. graveolens extract treatment on induction of p53 protein in cancer cells (Fadlalla, 2011)
  26. 26. Plate 3: Effect of R. graveolens extract treatment on membrane bleb formation. (Phase-contrast micrography of treated cells) (Fadlalla, 2011)
  27. 27. Figure 8: Caspase-3 activation assay(Caspase activity kinetics was recorded as absorbance at 405 nm.) (Fadlalla, 2011)
  28. 28. • Achyranthes aspera Amaranthaceae
  29. 29. (Subbarayan et al., 2012)
  30. 30. Plate 4: Luciferase expressing tumoursA. day 4 (baseline) of treatment demonstrate the tumour establishment B. day 33 captures the effect of treatment. (Subbarayan et al., 2012)
  31. 31. Figure 9: Effect of Achyranthes aspera leaf extract treatment on weight of tumour (Subbarayan et al., 2012)
  32. 32. Figure 10: Expression profile of selected genes in tumour tissues from control and treated mice. (Subbarayan et al., 2012)
  33. 33. Plate 5: IHC results of cleaved caspase-3 and pAkt in human pancreatic tumour grown subcutaneously in athymic mice. (Subbarayan et al., 2012)
  34. 34. • Curcuma longa Zingiberaceae Curcumin
  35. 35. Figure 11: Dose response of docetaxel and curcumin against A549 lung cancer cells. (Yin et al., 2011)
  36. 36. Table 2: Effect of Docetaxel and Curcumin against tumour growth of A549 xenografts* P < 0.05 vs, the group of docetaxel (Yin et al., 2011)
  37. 37. Plate 6: Excised tumours of subcutaneous A549 lung cancer xenograft bearing nude mice after 15 days of single dose therapy (Yin et al., 2011)
  38. 38. • Ocimum sanctum Holy basil Lamiaceae anti-inflammatory anti-ulcer anti-carcinogenic
  39. 39. ** P < 0.01 Figure 12: Effect of EEOS on the formation of tumour nodules in LLC-inoculated mice. (Kim et al., 2010)
  40. 40. Plate 7: Effect of EEOS on the formation of tumour nodules in LLC-inoculated mice. (Kim et al., 2010)
  41. 41. Plate 8: Effect of EEOS on activation of MMP-2 and -9 (Zymographic assay) (Kim et al., 2010)
  42. 42. • Withania somnifera Solanaceae Withanin, Withaferin General tonic, sexual disorders
  43. 43. Table 3: Effect of withaferin A on mice bearing Ehrlich ascites carcinomaWA, 10-60 indicate drug doses in mg/kga determined at one week of treatmentb, c significant compared to control (b P < 0.05,c P < 0.01) (Devi et al., 1995)
  44. 44. • Magnolia officinalis Magnoliaceae Magnolol used to treat acute pain, cough and gastrointestinal disorders
  45. 45. Figure 13: Effect of Magnolol on PC-3 Human Prostate Carcinoma cell proliferation (MTT assay) (Hwang and Park, 2010)
  46. 46. * P < 0.05, ** P < 0.01Figure 14: Effect of Magnolol on PC-3 Human Prostate Carcinoma cell invasion (Hwang and Park, 2010)
  47. 47. * P < 0.05, ** P < 0.01Figure 15: Effect of Magnolol on MMP expression (Hwang and Park, 2010)
  48. 48. Conclusion Anticancer compounds from many plants havebeen found significantly active against various cancercells in animal models. Further research on precise molecularmechanisms and targets for cell growth inhibition maylead to better treatment of cancer
  49. 49. T