1
Women in a Bind:
The Decline of Marriage, Markets and the
State
Mimi Abramovitz
Silberman School of Social Work at Hunte...
2
The Three Pillars of Women’s
Economic Security
1. Marriage
2. The Market (Labor Market)
3. The State (The Welfare State)
3
Decline of Marriage
Adults Married (18 yrs. +)
1960: 72% 2010: 51%
Proportion of Age 18-29: Married
1960: 59% 2010: 20%
...
Fewer Marriages
4
5
Households Headed by Married Couples
2010: 48%
2005: 51%
2000: 53%
1995: 54%
1990: 56%
1980: 60%
1970: 70%
1960: 74%
195...
6
More and More Men and Women
Postpone Marriage
Median Age At First Marriage:
Year Men Women
1950 24.8 22.5
1960 22.8 20.3...
7
MARITAL STATUS of Women by Race
1960 2012
Black Women 60% 26%
White Women 67% 51%
SOURCE: US Census, American Families a...
Men in the Labor Force (20 years +)
1948: 88.2%
1960: 85.6%
1965: 84.1%
1970: 82.9%
1975: 80.4%
1980: 79.4%
1985: 78.1%
19...
9
10
Declining Male Wages and
Purchasing Power
Median Weekly Wage
(Male 16 yrs. +)
Year ( Current 2012) (Inflation adjusted ...
11
Dual Earner Couples
1970 2011
Percent of Dual Earner Couples
46% 60%
Wives % of Family Income
27% 40%
Wives Earned More...
12
Women in the Labor Force
(1948-2013)
1948: 31.1%
1960: 36.3.%
1970: 43.4%
1975: 45.9 %
1980: 51.2%
1985: 54.8%
1990: 58...
Job Loss Among Women
During the Economic Recovery
2009- 2013
5.8 million jobs
added to the private sector
Gains by Gender
...
Declining Values of Women’s Wages and
Purchasing Power
Median Weekly Wage
(Female 16 yrs. +)
Year (Current) (Inflation adj...
15
June 10, 1963 -President John F. Kennedy
Signs the Equal Pay Act Into Law
Source: Brunner, Borgna, The Wage Gap :A hist...
16
Gender Wage Gap:
Female to Male Wage Ratio (Full time workers)
Year F/M Earnings Ratio
1960 60.7
1965 59.9
1970 59.4
19...
Causes of Gender Wage Gap
• Wage Discrimination
•
Women’s Near Exclusive Responsibit
for Care Work in the Home
•
Concentra...
18
Wages vs Productivity 1950-2010
19
Source: Economic Policy Institute ,2012
Poverty Rate for Women
1966-2011
1966: 16.3%
1970: 14.0%
1973: 12.5% ( low)
1980: 14.7%
1985: 15.6%
1990: 15.2%
1995: 15.4...
21
1970s: Slowed Economic Growth
Blamed On
“Big Government”: especially the welfare state
spending viewed as undercutting ...
The U- Turn in Public Pollcy
Beginning in the mid -1970s
the main or overriding goal goal of U.S social
welfare policy has...
23
Main Cutback Tactics
-Tax Cuts
-Reduced Social Spending
-Privatization of Public Services
-Shift Federal Responsibility...
Spending Cuts : #1
Entitlement Spending ( % of GDP)
1983: 9.5% of GDP ( high)
2012: 8.4% of GDP
24
25
Spending Cuts: #2
Discretionary Spending ( Non Defense)
Share of all Federal Spending
1962: 68%
2012: 36%
Share of GDP 196...
Discretionary( non Defense) Spending Levels
as a Share of GDP. 1962-2022
27
Wider Impact of Shrinking the
State Strategy
• Higher Poverty Rates
• Relationship Between wages & profits
• Increased Ine...
Higher Poverty Rates for Women
1966-2011
1966: 16.3%
1970: 14.0%
1973: 12.5% ( low)
1980: 14.7%
1985: 15.6%
1990: 15.2%
19...
30
Wages & Profits: Percentage of National Income
• Year Wages Wages /Benefits Profits
• 1932 59.5% 60.6% -0.4%
• 1950 55....
31
Wages and Profits: Share of
National Income 1957-2009Source: Dept of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Affairs
Income Inequality: 1967-2012
Year
Lowest
Fifth
Second
Fifth
Third
Fifth
Fourth
Fifth
Highest
Fifth Top 5 %
2011 3.2 8.4 14...
Tripple Jeopardy
Women are the majority of those
1. who use government program
2. who work in government jobs
3. belong to...
Women as Public Sector
Workers: 2011
•
Women as a % Government Workers
All Government: 48%
• Federal: 43.0%
State: 51.7%
L...
Job Loss by Women in Public Sector
2009-2013
Jobs lost in public sector: 737,000
Jobs lost by women: 435,000*
Jobs lost by...
Union Membership(% of of all employed)
Public and Private Private Public
1954 :35% ( peak)
1983: 20.1% -- --
1985: 18.0% -...
37
“First they Ignore you.
Then they laugh at you.
Then they fight you
Then you win.”
….Mahatma Ghandi
1869-1948
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Women in a Bind: The Decline of Marriage, Markets and the State - Mimi Abramovitz

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Women in a Bind: The Decline of Marriage, Markets and the State - Mimi Abramovitz

  1. 1. 1 Women in a Bind: The Decline of Marriage, Markets and the State Mimi Abramovitz Silberman School of Social Work at Hunter, City University of New York &The Graduate Center, CUNY July 19. 2013 The Cabell Brand Center & the Shephard Program at Washington & Lee
  2. 2. 2 The Three Pillars of Women’s Economic Security 1. Marriage 2. The Market (Labor Market) 3. The State (The Welfare State)
  3. 3. 3 Decline of Marriage Adults Married (18 yrs. +) 1960: 72% 2010: 51% Proportion of Age 18-29: Married 1960: 59% 2010: 20% Proportion of Population: Married 1972: 10.8 per 1000 pop 2000: 8.3 per 1000 pop 2011: 6.8 per 1000 pop Source: U.S. Census (2010) America’s Families and Living Arrangements, Historical Tables Marital Status of the Population, 15 Years and Older by Sex and Race, 1950 to Present
  4. 4. Fewer Marriages 4
  5. 5. 5 Households Headed by Married Couples 2010: 48% 2005: 51% 2000: 53% 1995: 54% 1990: 56% 1980: 60% 1970: 70% 1960: 74% 1950: 78% Source: Census Bureau, CPS, Social & Economic Supplements
  6. 6. 6 More and More Men and Women Postpone Marriage Median Age At First Marriage: Year Men Women 1950 24.8 22.5 1960 22.8 20.3 1980 24.7 22.0 1990 26.1 23.9 2000 26.8 25.1 2010 29.0 26.0 Source: US Census,CPS, Annual Social and Economic Supplement, 2010 and earlier ; US Department of Health, Education and Welfare, Public Health Service, Vital Statistics of the United States, 1950
  7. 7. 7 MARITAL STATUS of Women by Race 1960 2012 Black Women 60% 26% White Women 67% 51% SOURCE: US Census, American Families and Living Arrangements, Detailed Tables for Current Population Report, P20-537 T.A1 2000, 2009
  8. 8. Men in the Labor Force (20 years +) 1948: 88.2% 1960: 85.6% 1965: 84.1% 1970: 82.9% 1975: 80.4% 1980: 79.4% 1985: 78.1% 1990: 78.4% 1995: 77.0% 2000: 76.9% 2005:75.6% 2010: 74.3% 2013: 72.7% 8
  9. 9. 9
  10. 10. 10 Declining Male Wages and Purchasing Power Median Weekly Wage (Male 16 yrs. +) Year ( Current 2012) (Inflation adjusted ) 1979 $ 299 $393 2012 $ 868 $376 Source: US Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistic
  11. 11. 11 Dual Earner Couples 1970 2011 Percent of Dual Earner Couples 46% 60% Wives % of Family Income 27% 40% Wives Earned More Than Husband 18% (1987) 29% Source: US Dept .of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Women’s Bureau,Women in the Labor Force: A Data Book 2012.
  12. 12. 12 Women in the Labor Force (1948-2013) 1948: 31.1% 1960: 36.3.% 1970: 43.4% 1975: 45.9 % 1980: 51.2% 1985: 54.8% 1990: 58.0% 1995: 59.2 % 2000: 60.8% ( peak) 2005: 60.1% 2010: 60.5% 2013 58.7.3:
  13. 13. Job Loss Among Women During the Economic Recovery 2009- 2013 5.8 million jobs added to the private sector Gains by Gender Women gained 2.2 jobs Men gained 3.6 Jobs Source : National Women’s Law Center 13
  14. 14. Declining Values of Women’s Wages and Purchasing Power Median Weekly Wage (Female 16 yrs. +) Year (Current) (Inflation adjusted ) 1979 $ 185 $251 2012 $ 693 $301 Source: US Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistic 14
  15. 15. 15 June 10, 1963 -President John F. Kennedy Signs the Equal Pay Act Into Law Source: Brunner, Borgna, The Wage Gap :A history of Pay Inequity and the Equal pay Act. http://www.infoplease.com/spot/equalpayact1.html
  16. 16. 16 Gender Wage Gap: Female to Male Wage Ratio (Full time workers) Year F/M Earnings Ratio 1960 60.7 1965 59.9 1970 59.4 1975 58.8 1980 60.2 1985 64.6 1990 71.6 1995 71.4 2000 73.7 2005 77.0 2010 77.4 Source: Institute for Women’s Policy Research, #F350 (2012)
  17. 17. Causes of Gender Wage Gap • Wage Discrimination • Women’s Near Exclusive Responsibit for Care Work in the Home • Concentration of Women in Low-Paid Women’s Jobs 17
  18. 18. 18
  19. 19. Wages vs Productivity 1950-2010 19 Source: Economic Policy Institute ,2012
  20. 20. Poverty Rate for Women 1966-2011 1966: 16.3% 1970: 14.0% 1973: 12.5% ( low) 1980: 14.7% 1985: 15.6% 1990: 15.2% 1995: 15.4% 2000 :12.6% 2005: 14.1% 2011: 16.3% Source: US, Census Historical Poverty Tables 20
  21. 21. 21 1970s: Slowed Economic Growth Blamed On “Big Government”: especially the welfare state spending viewed as undercutting Private investment & increasing the debt, deficit and interest rates. Victories of Social Movements: Empowered workers, women and persons of color which led to increased labor costs. “Personal Irresponsibility”: Welfare State programs uncut the work ethic, heterosexual marriage and family formation. Source: Abramovitz, M. (2004)
  22. 22. The U- Turn in Public Pollcy Beginning in the mid -1970s the main or overriding goal goal of U.S social welfare policy has been to> Redistribute income upward from the have nots ( the 99%) to the haves ( the 1%) The era of cuts backs began with President Reagan in 1980 (Reaganomics) and has persisted in varying degrees furing every Presidential Administration since then/ 22
  23. 23. 23 Main Cutback Tactics -Tax Cuts -Reduced Social Spending -Privatization of Public Services -Shift Federal Responsibility for social Welfare to the State -Weaken Social Movements -Penalize “Personally Irresponsible Behavior” Source: Abramovitz, M (2004)
  24. 24. Spending Cuts : #1 Entitlement Spending ( % of GDP) 1983: 9.5% of GDP ( high) 2012: 8.4% of GDP 24
  25. 25. 25
  26. 26. Spending Cuts: #2 Discretionary Spending ( Non Defense) Share of all Federal Spending 1962: 68% 2012: 36% Share of GDP 1962-2012 Average: 3.9% Never Below 3.2% Projected for 2022: 2.8% ( 14% lower than lowest point in last 50 yrs) 26
  27. 27. Discretionary( non Defense) Spending Levels as a Share of GDP. 1962-2022 27
  28. 28. Wider Impact of Shrinking the State Strategy • Higher Poverty Rates • Relationship Between wages & profits • Increased Inequality 28
  29. 29. Higher Poverty Rates for Women 1966-2011 1966: 16.3% 1970: 14.0% 1973: 12.5% ( low) 1980: 14.7% 1985: 15.6% 1990: 15.2% 1995: 15.4% 2000 :12.6% 2005: 14.1% 2011: 16.3% ( same as in 1966) Source: US, Census Historical Poverty Tables 29
  30. 30. 30 Wages & Profits: Percentage of National Income • Year Wages Wages /Benefits Profits • 1932 59.5% 60.6% -0.4% • 1950 55.7% 58.7% 13.6% • 1965 55.7% 61.1% 13.4% • 1970 59.3% 66.3% 9.0% • 1975 56.4% 65. 6% 9.3% • 1980 56.5% 67.7% 8.2% • 1985 53.6% 65.2% 8.9% • 1990 54.1% 65.6% 8.6% • 1995 53.2% 65.0% 10.8% • 2000 54.9% 65.7% 9.3% • 2005 52.4% 65.0% 12.3% • 2010 49.8 % 62.2% 12.9% • Source: Center on Budget and Policy Priorities. & The Economist
  31. 31. 31 Wages and Profits: Share of National Income 1957-2009Source: Dept of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Affairs
  32. 32. Income Inequality: 1967-2012 Year Lowest Fifth Second Fifth Third Fifth Fourth Fifth Highest Fifth Top 5 % 2011 3.2 8.4 14.3 23 49.7 21.7 2005 3.4 8.6 14.6 23 50.5 22.2 2000 3.6 8.9 14.8 23 49.8 22.1 1995 3.7 9.1 15.2 23.3 48.7 21 1990 3.8 9.6 15.9 24 46.6 18.5 1985 3.9 9.8 16.2 24.4 45.6 17.6 1980 4.2 10.2 16.8 24.7 44.1 16.5 1975 4.3 10.4 17 24.7 43.6 16.5 1970 4.1 10.8 17.4 24.5 43.3 16.6 1967 4 10.8 17.3 24.2 43.6 17.2 32 Source : US Census
  33. 33. Tripple Jeopardy Women are the majority of those 1. who use government program 2. who work in government jobs 3. belong to public sector unins 33
  34. 34. Women as Public Sector Workers: 2011 • Women as a % Government Workers All Government: 48% • Federal: 43.0% State: 51.7% Local: 61.4% 34
  35. 35. Job Loss by Women in Public Sector 2009-2013 Jobs lost in public sector: 737,000 Jobs lost by women: 435,000* Jobs lost by men: 305, 000** * wiped out 20% of women’s private sector job gains ** wipes out 8.4% of men’s private sector job gains • Source: National Women’s Law Center 35
  36. 36. Union Membership(% of of all employed) Public and Private Private Public 1954 :35% ( peak) 1983: 20.1% -- -- 1985: 18.0% -- -- 1990: 16.0% -- -- 1995: 14.9% -- -- 2000: 13.4% 9.0% 36.9% 2005: 12.5% 7.8% 36.5% 2010: 11.9% 6.9% 36.2% 2012: 10.5% 6.6% 35.9% 36 Source : Bureau of Labor Statistics
  37. 37. 37 “First they Ignore you. Then they laugh at you. Then they fight you Then you win.” ….Mahatma Ghandi 1869-1948

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