Struggles● Invisibility● Racialized stereotypes● Genderized biases – Nadal, K. L., & Corpus, M. H. (2012)
Struggles● Asian and Pacific Islander gays, lesbians, and transgender individuals share problems of invisibility. Many of them are under-represented in the media or the literature.● To compound on this situation, racialized and gendered stereotypes in hetero-centric communities make representation of Asian/Pacific LGBT communities even more difficult.
Gay Asian American Men● For gay Filiipino Americans, religion acts as a major hindrance to coming out.● Many reported that their parents believe homosexuality is morally wrong according to their interpretation of the Catholic teachings.
● Many also stated conflicting relationships with religious family members● Putting family first before their feelings
Gender Norms● Males need to be masculine and dominant.● Males reported families often reprimanded them for gender variant mannerisms or style of dress. Male members frequently talked about how their parents corrected their body movement.
Gender Norms● Straight acting vs Femme● Asian men are emasculated as "asexual" or "feminine"● Althought stigmatized, Asian men are often expected to continue acting feminine.
Gender Norms● Gay Asian American men perceived as being submissive and mostly viewed as "bottoms."● Any displays of feminine mannerisms on television by gay characters would be laughed at, as their roles are generally comical and frivilous.
Femininity● Asian American women with curvy bodies associated more with white women than with Asian American women.● Asian American womens bodies are perceived as non-shapely and less desirable.● Many desire white femininity.
Asian Lesbian● Chinese lesbians are called lalas – many of which live "dual lives." They may be married to a man, but are only attracted to women sexually.● A woman in a same-sex relationship may not identify as lesbian or aim for egalitarianism in gender roles as commonly seen in Western lesbian relationships (Wieringa et al., 2007).
Bisexuals● Findings from the National Latino and Asian American Survey (NLAAS) indicated that bisexual men were more likely than heterosexual men to report a recent suicide attempt.● Among women, lesbian/bisexual women were more likely than heterosexual women to evidence positive 1-year and lifetime histories of depressive disorders.
Transgender● Many are comfortable with the label Gender Identity Variant.● Many Asian trans individuals begin cross-gender presentation and physical transition around their teens or even before. – (Winter, 2009)
Statistics● There are approximately 100,000 Malaysian transwomen. (Jamaludin, 2001; Kaur, 2007)● In India there are an estimated 500,000 Indian transwomen (Nanda, 1990)● In Thailand there are perhaps 300,000 transwomen around 1:300; (Winter, 2002)
Adaptive factors● Trans individuals living in Asia face are more accepted than ones in Western cultures.● Growing up in cultures of gender pluralism● Traditions of transpeople performing highly valued social roles (e.g. spirit mediums and healers)
● Family of choice is a significant factor in their transition.● Many transpeople chooses to live in communities where they can usually find a ready source of emotional and social support, as well as practical information (including on medical matters) to guide them through their transition process.
References● Nadal, K. L., & Corpus, M. H. (2012). “Tomboys” and “Baklas”: Experiences of Lesbian and Gay Filipino Americans. Asian American Journal Of Psychology.● Jamaludin, F. (2001, January 21). Transsexuals: Declare us as women. The Star. Retrieved November 29, 2012, from http://ai.eees.umich.org/TS/MalaysianTS.html● Kaur, J. (2007, June 15). Mak Nyah Cry for Compassion. Bernama. Retrieved Oct 29, 2012, from http: / / sgbutterfly.org/ index.php? Name=News&file=article&sid=218.● Kim, H. (2006). Asianized Asians, Twinkies, and North Face Puffy Jackets: Constructing Racialized Gender Identities among Second Generation Korean American College Women. Conference Papers -- American Sociological Association, 1.● Nanda, S. (1990). Neither man nor woman: The Hijras of India. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.● Winter, S. (2002). Counting kathoey. Retrieved September 7, 2005, from http://web.hku.hk/∼sjwinter/TransgenderASIA/paper counting kathoey.htm● Winter, S. (2006). Thai transgenders in focus: Demographics, transitions and identities. International Journal of Transgenderism, 9(1), 15–27.