Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

NIS To Support ST&I Information


Published on

This presentation shows how Current Research Systems (CRIS) can help Science, Technology and Innovation public managers in decision making processes. It is based on the Brazilian CRIS projects - Lattes, Innovation Portal and others.

Published in: Technology, Business
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

NIS To Support ST&I Information

  1. 1. NATIONAL INFORMATION SYSTEMS (NIS) TO SUPPORT DECISION MAKING IN ST&I POLICIES: Brazilian NIS analysis and perspectives<br />Roberto C. S. Pacheco; Denilson Sell; Vinicius Medina Kern; José Salm Jr.; Aran Tcholakian Morales.<br /><ul><li>InstitutoStela and
  2. 2. Knowledge Engineering and Management Graduate Program Federal University of Santa Catarina - UFSC</li></ul>3rd Background Paper – Regional and international practices for disclosing information related to innovation and social environment impact of business. <br />Project “OPENING UP NATURAL RESOURCE-BASED INDUSTRIES FOR INNOVATION: EXPLORING NEW PATHWAYS FOR DEVELOPMENT IN LATIN AMERICA”<br />Centro de Gestão e EstudosEstratégicos – Brazil, DF. November - 2010.<br />
  3. 3. Agenda<br />Goals<br />The paper´s goals<br />The presentation goals<br />What are NIS and CRIS<br />Brazilian CRIS (i.e., NIS in ST&I)<br />The Brazilian National ST&I System<br />Cases: Lattes Platform, Innovation Portal, DCVISA, and others<br />New opportunities in decision making in ST&I<br />CRIS developed as e-Government 2.0<br />Open data and egovernment for a knowledge society<br />Conclusions and Next Steps<br />
  4. 4. 0. A little bit about us…<br />
  5. 5. Academic spin out<br />RBS TV, Stela on TV<br />Program Bom Dia Santa Catarina<br />March 6th, 1996<br />The nominee on the most important Brazilian paper<br />March 19th, 1996<br />
  6. 6. Instituto Stela<br /><ul><li>Non profit organization that works with research and development in the areas of Information Technology and Knowledge Engineering
  7. 7. We have a team of 65 researchers. Among them there are professionals with doctorate, graduate and undergraduate degrees in Industrial Engineering, Computer Science, Information Systems, Knowledge Engineering and Management, and others</li></ul>2007<br />2008<br />MISSION<br />“Combine scientific and technologic research to generate knowledge for organizational and social development”<br />
  8. 8. We have helped to build..<br />NationalInformationSystem for InnovationandCooperation<br />NationalInformationSystem for EducationEvaluation<br />NationalInformation<br />System for <br />S&T management<br />Education<br />SciencceAndTechnology<br />Innovation<br />
  9. 9. Our partners<br />Government<br />Academic and STI<br />Univ. do Minho<br />International<br />KnewCo<br />Firms<br />
  10. 10. EGC-UFSCKnowledge Engineering and Management Graduate Program<br /><ul><li>Some of our KE Research areas
  11. 11. Strategic Use of Knowledge
  12. 12. Knowledge Extraction
  13. 13. E-Government and e-Democracy
  14. 14. Competency management
  15. 15. Organizational Memory
  16. 16. Knowledge Modeling
  17. 17. Innovation habitats
  18. 18. KM and sustainability
  19. 19. Distance learning
  20. 20. Digital inclusion</li></ul>EGC is an Interdisciplinary Program – CAPES Level 5<br />Florianópolis, SC<br />
  21. 21. 1. Our Goals<br />
  22. 22. 1.1 The Paper´s Goals<br />To explore the current regional and international practices of disclosure of information related to innovation and economic, social and environmental indicators by agencies and companies in the different countries.<br />(ii) a review good practices at the international level on metrics to examine the economic, environmental and social impact of innovation funds <br />(i) a review of existing procedures and information systems related to the different instruments in the three countries.<br />The analysis of the available information systems and reports and the analysis of international good practices for measuring sustainable performance will allow us to develop initial recommendations for improvement of the current information systems.<br />to discuss with the agencies managing innovation funds in the region possible approaches and strategies to improve the quality of the information available.<br />Source: Marin, et. al. 2010<br />
  23. 23. 1.2 The presentation´s Goals<br />To present National Information Systems (NIS) as a means to help developing countries to plan, implement and evaluate ST&I policies.<br />To show how Brazil has been created an ST&I information infrastructure that became a decision making asset.<br />To analyze current and future trends in e-government and e-democracy that can lead to a new era of strategic planning of ST&I, with potential benefits to NR policies.<br />
  24. 24. 2. National Information Systems (NIS)<br />What are NIS, CRIS, and e-Government<br />
  25. 25. 2.1. What is a NIS?<br />National Information Systems (NIS) were first realized as a “‘a coherent array’ of information subsystems with the capacity to intercommunicate” – [Aines, 1968]. <br />A NIS should be a coherent system that takes many forms. It is not an ultimate computerized information system. Planning is its essential element – not computing – [Lytle, 1978].<br />NIS has become an “e-government, or the 'computerization of administrative systems' in other words, has reached the point that one click takes care of everything through the internal affair connection.” [Jung-hyup, 2010]<br />
  26. 26. 2.2. NIS in ST&I = CRIS<br />In S&T the demand for a NIS was realized as early as 1967, when there were already 300 information services for searching abstracts [Skolnik, 1967]<br />In a ST&I system, such "subsystems" are also known as Current Research Information Systems (CRIS) - “any information tool dedicated to provide access to and disseminate research information”[]<br />“A CRIS records the R&D (Research and Development) activity either funded by or carried out by an organisation, or within a thematic or subject area. <br />Typically it covers projects, people (expertise), organisational structure, R&D outputs (products, patents, publications), R&D events and R&D facilities and equipment.” <br />[Eurocrisorganisation, 2006].<br />
  27. 27. 2.3. How our CRIS were created?<br />Each CRIS is developed according to the public authorities world view. <br /><ul><li>World view: gather data to government x promote information society
  28. 28. System mission: operation x strategic view
  29. 29. Data requirements: govern x society needs
  30. 30. System ownership:agency´s x public domain
  31. 31. System life cycle: isolated x platform of systems
  32. 32. Connectivity: isolated x interoperable systems
  33. 33. Methodology: ordinary software engineering x R&D in knowledge engineering</li></ul>All current CRIS in innovation funding were based on past public decisions. <br />Gather data to decision making in ST&I is more or less difficult according to such decisions.<br />
  34. 34. 3. Brazilian CRIS (i.e., NIS in ST&I) <br />The Brazilian National ST&I System and CRIS developed as e-Government 2.0<br />
  35. 35. 2.1. What is a NST&I System?<br />A National Innovation Systems (NIS) is “the system of interacting private and public firms (either large or small), universities, and government agencies aiming at the production of science and technology within national borders. Interaction among these units may be technical, commercial, legal, social, and financial, in as much as the goal of the interaction is the development, protection, financing or regulation of new science and technology”<br />(Niosi et al., 1993)<br />
  36. 36. 2.2. How one can conceive a NIS?<br />NIS conceptual (nonlinear) models<br />Jorge de Sábato<br />Industry<br />University<br />Government<br />Government<br />Companies<br />S&Tinfraesrtructure<br />Loe<br />Leydesdorff<br />Henry Etzkowitz<br />TheSabato´s triangle<br />Triple Helix<br />OECD Systemic Model<br />Pacheco, et. al. 2010<br />
  37. 37. 2.3. How is the Brazilian NIS?<br /> Services and goods(ex. Pré-sal)<br />UFRJ Researchers<br /> SINAESMEC<br />COPPE Research groups (DGP/CNPq)<br />coppe<br />UFRJ<br />Petrobras<br />NIT-UFRJ<br />CENPES<br />Culture<br />RNP, Portal Inovação, P. Lattes<br />R&D Groups CENPES<br />Product and Market factors conditions(ex. Demand for engineers)<br />CNPq<br /> Lei de Inovação<br />MCT<br />CGEE<br />PDP, PIB<br />FINEP<br />ABIPTI<br />MDIC<br />Investors<br />ABDI<br />ANPROTEC<br />BNDES<br />NIS components (actors)<br />Firms<br />Environmental aspects<br /> STI Organizations<br />Government<br />There is not a formalizes National Innovation System in Brazil. But all components, environmental, structural and mechanisms described in OECD model can be identified. <br />
  38. 38. 2.4. How public agents act in the NIS<br />Macro process in Public Funding Agencies<br />External environment (in and outside the country)<br />Line of Action 2<br />FUND HUMAN FORMATION<br />Line of Action1<br />FUND RESEARCH<br />Line of Action 3<br />FUND INNOVATION <br />Line of Action 4<br />FUND ST&I DISSEMINATION<br />PROGRAMINGANDPLANNING<br />FINAL REPORT<br />COMMUNICATE<br />PUBLIC<br />CALL<br />EVALUATION<br />IMPLEMENT<br />FOLLOWING<br />Organizational<br />PLANNING<br />COMMUNICATE<br />Public funding agencies have to plan, evaluate, implement, follow and communicate the results of projects. <br />Source: SIFAPs 2009<br />
  39. 39. 2.4. How public agents act in the NIS<br />Linhas de Atuação das FAPs<br />FocusofAnalysis<br />LINES OF ACTION<br />Line of Action1<br />FUND RESEARCH<br />PROGRAMS<br />Line of Action 2<br />FUND HUMAN FORMATION<br />PROJECTS<br />Line of Action 4<br />FUND ST&I DISSEMINATION<br />Line of Action 3<br />FUND INNOVATION <br />Source: SIFAPs 2009<br />
  40. 40. 2.4. How public agents act in the NIS<br />RESULTS AND PRODUCTS<br />(Quantative)<br />Informationdimensions<br />RESOURCES $<br />- Public budget<br />- Other sources.<br />ByTargetinnovationactor<br />ByKnowledgearea<br />ByEconomic sector<br />Inputs<br />Outputs<br />Detali<br />Source: SIFAPs 2009<br />
  41. 41. 2.5 How the sources of ST&I information have been created?<br />Full Texts and Bibliometric DB<br />PUBLISHING<br />Relational DB<br />Multiple source of compatible information<br /><ul><li>Researchers inform the same data at the levels of:
  42. 42. Funding raising
  43. 43. Publication
  44. 44. Institutional relationship</li></ul>FUNDING<br />80-90’s<br />70-80’s<br />Electronic Forms<br />Paper Forms<br />
  45. 45. 2.5 How to use such sources to yield studies and indicators?<br />Homogeneous sources<br />Heterogeneous sources<br />Questionnaires, Surveys<br />Relational Data Bases<br />Textual Sources<br />Other Sources (ex: Web)<br />ST&I Indicators<br />Main problems<br /><ul><li>Multiple sources of information
  46. 46. Lack of standards
  47. 47. Multiple efforts in S&T communities and all innovation actors
  48. 48. Waste of public funds</li></li></ul><li>2.6 HowICT can helpustoyieldStrategicInformation (Indicators)<br />New Opportunities for ICT<br />ICT y Knowledge Management Decision Making, process integration, knowledgemanaging…<br />ICT y E-government eGov architectures, public access, user involvement (and requirements)…<br />ICT New TechnologiesData marts, knowledge extraction (e.g., data mining)textual retrieval, textual generation…<br />New (and not so new) Methodologies (empowered by ICT) Social Network Analysis, Link Analysis, Trend Analysis…<br />Indicators, Studies, Analysis…<br />HomogenousSources<br />HeterogenousSources<br />Questionnaires, Surveys<br />Relational Data Bases<br />Textual Sources<br />Other Sources<br /><ul><li>ICT should be applied to existent sources
  49. 49. ICT must also be applied to the processes that generates information</li></li></ul><li>New Trends for ICT (knowledge society)<br />ICT allows tatic support<br />Data Warehouse<br />Web<br />ICT in the operational basis<br />OLTP Databases<br />2.6. ICT Evolution Regarding the Organizations<br />Information outsidethe company<br />Knowledge ExtractionInteroperabilityCommunities of PracticeElectronic Government<br />ICT as aninstrument toknowledge era<br />DSSGISEIS<br />Internet, Intranet, Extranet<br />94-2000<br />90’s<br />ICT bringsstrategic support<br />Data Marts<br />80’s<br />InformationSystems<br />60’s - 70’s<br />
  50. 50. 2.6 BrazilianExperiences<br />LattesPlatform<br />Innovation Portal<br />Merck case<br />ABCM studies<br />INCT studies<br />SINAES andBASIs<br />Mauá Project<br />
  51. 51. Lattes Analysis Units <br />
  52. 52. CV wasitsfirstcomponent<br />CV Contents<br /><ul><li>Identification
  53. 53. Address – private and profesional
  54. 54. Education
  55. 55. Profesional Experince
  56. 56. Knowledge areas
  57. 57. Idioms
  58. 58. Prizes
  59. 59. Projects
  60. 60. Bibliographic Production
  61. 61. Technical Production
  62. 62. Supervisor
  63. 63. Complementary information</li></ul>Original features (1999)<br /><ul><li> Automatic homepage
  64. 64. CV Indicators (for the owner)
  65. 65. Export to several formats
  66. 66. Import from all CVs available
  67. 67. Error verification</li></li></ul><li>Cooperationto define Standards<br /><ul><li>24 Organizations help CNPq and Stela to define Lattes standards
  68. 68. Contents
  69. 69. Interoperability services
  70. 70. Communication of all changes made in the national project</li></li></ul><li>Lattes Conceptual Architecture<br />CvDeGois<br />CvLAC<br />CvLattes<br />Sistema Grupo<br />ScienTI Portals<br />GrupLAC<br />DM Gr<br />DM Proj<br />Groups<br />Projects<br />DM Cv<br />CVs<br />DM Inst<br />Institutions<br />SCienTI Directories<br />Analysis Systems<br />Indicators<br />Searches<br />Investiments<br />
  71. 71. Lattes 10 yearsafter<br /><ul><li>Some Numbers
  72. 72. First phases with more than 140 subsystems
  73. 73. More than 1.8 million curricula(45 more CVs than the 7 years before Lattes)
  74. 74. More than 24 thousand R&D groups(Three times more than the 3 national surveys made before lattes )</li></li></ul><li>DynamicDatamarts<br />DM Projects<br />Proyectos<br />What and wheretoinvest<br />?<br />S&T Investments<br />FudingDatamart<br />Projects Systems<br />Lattes database<br />
  75. 75. Analysing Funding Decisions<br />
  76. 76. Analysing Funding Decisions<br />
  77. 77. Analysing Funding Decisions<br />
  78. 78. Analysing Funding Decisions<br />
  79. 79. How to use Lattes to yield Indicatorsa tool for public management<br />DM CV<br />Curricula<br />SpecializedSearches<br />Curriculum Data MartSecondary Information Source<br />Cv System<br />Server OLTP CV DatabasePrimary Information Source<br />
  80. 80. How to support industrial and innovation decision making<br />Semiconductors<br /><ul><li> 1.238 people working in the area
  81. 81. 157 (12,6%) have registered Intellectual Copyrights
  82. 82. 2 researchers have 18% of these copyrights</li></ul>Pharmaceutics<br /><ul><li>2.269 people working in the area
  83. 83. 438 (16,7%) have registered Intellectual Copyrights
  84. 84. 15% have 59% of these copyrights</li></li></ul><li>Semantic Analysis<br />DM CV<br />Curricula<br />Analysis Systems<br />Curriculum Data MartSecondary Information Source<br />Cv System<br />Server OLTP CV DatabasePrimary Information Source<br />
  85. 85. Example: what have been done in “conhecimento”<br />
  86. 86. Lattes Platform Institutionalization<br />UNIVERSITIES AND R&D INSTITUTIONS<br /><ul><li>Organizational research policies
  87. 87. Research evaluation
  88. 88. Researcher carrier plan</li></li></ul><li>ScienTI Network<br />ScienTI standards<br />Methodology<br />Reference International standards<br />ScienTI systems<br />eGov Architecture<br />International Network<br />ONCYTs<br />OICYTs<br />GDIs<br />Web services models<br />ScienTI NetworkInternational Network on Information Sources and Knowledge for the Management of Science, Technology and Innovation<br />
  89. 89. SCienTI Network<br />Country 1<br />Country i<br />Country n<br />
  90. 90. Example: Researchers in Health By Gender and Age<br />
  91. 91. Example: Researcher’s Knowledge Domain Flow<br />
  92. 92. Portal inovação<br />
  93. 93. History<br /><ul><li>2008
  94. 94. SMF and SAPI (ANPROTEC)
  95. 95. Knowledge systems (ex. INCT)
  96. 96. INPI database integration
  97. 97. INMETRO cooperation
  98. 98. 2009
  99. 99. PRIME (FINEP)
  100. 100. Knowledge services
  101. 101. 2010
  102. 102. CoP “DiásporaBrasil”
  103. 103. Biotechnology Portal (MDIC)</li></ul>2004 (Phase I)<br />MCT and the Innovation law <br />CGEE and multidisciplinary team<br />Pilot project<br />2005 (Phase II)<br />Research and development<br />Implementation<br />2006<br />Deployment and Operation<br />ABDI – Operational management<br /><ul><li>2007 (Phase III)
  104. 104. New features
  105. 105. Interoperability
  106. 106. Thematic sub portals</li></li></ul><li>Goals<br />
  107. 107. Innovation Portal SchematicView<br />
  108. 108. Innovation Agents<br />Promotion Agents<br />Cooperation Agents<br />Taxonomy<br />TYPE IMission dedicated to innovation actors<br />TYPE IIMission dedicated to Type I actors<br />Pessoas Físicas<br />Organizaçõesou Programas<br />Main Mission: support, finance, regulate, represent, or create innovation actors<br />Main Mission: articulate, approximate, foster cooperation among innovation actors<br />BNDES<br />FINEP<br />CGEE<br />ABDI<br />F. Ind.<br />CNI/IEL<br />Consultores em Inovação<br />ABIPTI<br />CNPq<br />IELs<br />CNA<br />F. Agr.<br />A. Com.<br />IFM<br />ANPEI<br />CAPES<br />FORTEC<br />CNC<br />Agentes Pol. Industrial (RENAPI)<br />MBC<br />SEBRAE<br />ANPEI<br />Ministérios<br />Agências Estaduais de Desenvolvimento<br />FAPs<br />MDIC<br />ANDIFES<br />MCT<br />MEC<br />Examples<br />ANPROTEC<br />Associações Empresariais<br />Innovation Parks<br />Incubadoras<br />Regulatory Agencies<br />Org. Venture Capital<br />
  109. 109.<br />
  110. 110.<br />
  111. 111.<br />
  112. 112.
  113. 113. ABCM Case (2007)<br />The Brazilian Academy of Mechanics Sciences and Engineering (ABCM) wanted to show how Brazil is doing in this area at the International Engineering Conference.<br />
  114. 114. KnowledgeMapdescriptorsExample: TheMechanicEngineering in Brazil<br />Ciências Térmicas<br />Refrigeração, Ar Condicionado, Aquecimento e Ventilação<br />Mecatrônica<br />Mecânica da Fratura, Fadiga e IntegridadeEstrutural<br />CiênciasTérmicas<br />Bioengenharia<br />Dinâmica<br />Fenômenos Não-lineares<br />Engenharia de Produto<br />Mecânicados Fluidos<br />Engenharia de Fabricação<br />MecânicaComputacional<br />Mecânica dosSólidos<br />CiênciasTérmicas<br />
  115. 115. Mapas de ConhecimentoExemplo: A Engenharia e as Ciências Mecânicas no BrasilBIOMECÂNICA<br />Perspectivas 2007 – Exemplo<br />Knowledge map in the Biomecânica Commitee<br />New Possibilities<br /><ul><li>Planning. What strategic areas we need knowledge maps?
  116. 116. Instruments. New indicators based on new information retrieve possibilities
  117. 117. Examples:
  118. 118. What is being done in graduate and undergraduate research?
  119. 119. How research is being done inside an institution?
  120. 120. What is the national influence of our institution?</li></ul>Livre (sem poda)<br /><br />
  121. 121. Mapas de ConhecimentoExemplo: A Engenharia e as Ciências Mecânicas no BrasilBIOMECÂNICA<br />BIOENGENHARIA<br />Biomateriais<br />Estruturas Flexíveis<br />DinâmicaEstrutural<br />BIOMECÂNICA<br />ROBÓTICA<br />
  122. 122. MERCK Laboratories (2009)<br />Does Brazil have competences in the areas we have interested?<br />
  123. 123.
  124. 124. Searching for competences in the Innovation Portal<br />
  125. 125. Searching for competences in the Innovation Portal<br />
  126. 126. Searching for competences in the Innovation Portal<br />
  127. 127. Searching for competences in the Innovation Portal<br />
  128. 128. Searching for competences in the Innovation Portal<br />
  129. 129. Searching for competences in the Innovation Portal<br />
  130. 130. INCT (2008)<br />CGEE and CNPq wanted to check whether how each network candidate to the National Institute S&T Program was researching before and check how the funding will foster cooperation.<br />
  131. 131. Analysing the network information provided to require funding<br />Network information<br />Fromeach CV network component, wecreated a tablewith data fromseveralformsofcooperation (coauthorship, supervision, projects, committees)<br />
  132. 132. AnalysisTable<br />Theproposalhas25 researchers<br />From 25 researchers, 2 werepresent in 12 commitees<br />From 25 researchers 5 have 4 supervisionrelations<br />From 25 researchers, 6 are coauthors in 122 articles<br />From 25 researchers, 10 acttoghether in 21 projects<br />
  133. 133. AnalysisTable<br />
  134. 134. Peoplewho work together<br />Supervisionrelationships<br />Candidate Network<br />
  135. 135. Knowledge Map<br />Presents the set of researchers with profile similar to KalilFilho´s profile<br />Knowledge Network Map<br />
  136. 136. 27/10 - Evaluationbyconsultants<br />1/12– snapshot<br />05/12 – Begin<br />Network hired<br />1/12– snapshot<br />Impacto do INCT na rede financiada<br />2009<br />2010<br />2008<br />2011<br />2012<br />2013<br />1/12– snapshot<br />1/12– snapshot<br />20/10 – snapshot<br />1/12– snapshot<br />17/11 – Annoucement<br />
  137. 137. 4. Newopportunities in disclosing information in ST&I<br />What are e-Government, Web 2.0, and e-Government 2.0<br />
  138. 138. 2.3. e-Government<br />e-Government is the use of technologies to improve how citizens, employees, partners and government interact and conduct business. [Koh et al. 2005] <br />It is difficult even in developed countries 20% eGov: projects fail completely 33% fall short of major goals [Hecks et al. 2000] <br />
  139. 139. 2.4. Web 2.0<br />Web 2.0 is a concept that realizes the Web as a platform that changes the way software is built from desktop applications to interconnected web services (based on O´Relly, 2005). <br />The “focus is on connecting people - not computers” (Ostergaad and Hvass, 2008)<br />
  140. 140. 2.4. Web 2.0<br />It is different because:<br /><ul><li>Packaged software are replaced by service applications with cost effective scalability, focus in usability (“forever beta” principle) and collective development;
  141. 141. Examples: Ajax, XML, Open API, Flash/Flex, Amazon S3, mashups
  142. 142. Cooperation wins control. The data sources are richer as more people use, yield and control the contents as a member of a collective intelligent network;
  143. 143. Examples: Blog, Wiki, Podcast, RSS, Tagging, Social networks, multi-user search engines and games (folksonomy)</li></li></ul><li>2.4. Web 2.0 (or Web 3.0?)<br />Paradigm shift:<br /><ul><li>Web 3.0 takes web to a 3D level, avatar representation and “all media flow in and out virtual worlds”
  144. 144. “The important component here is real time collaboration and communication as the paradigm shift.”</li></ul>Hayes, 2006<br /><br />
  145. 145. 2.5. e-Gov 2.0 = e-Gov + Web 2.0<br />" a new compact between government and the public, in which government puts in place mechanisms for services that are delivered not by government, but by private citizens.“  <br />TimO’Reilly<br />Source: Huffington (2010)<br />E-Gov 2.0 emerges by using Web 2.0 to turn eGovernment into collaborative, open, and multi-tech web based services.<br />
  146. 146. 2.5. e-Gov 2.0 = e-Gov + Web 2.0<br />Source: Drapeau (2010)<br />E-Gov 2.0 requires several changes in the way governments elaborate their systems<br />E-Government needs to be transformative, multi-leved e tech-enabled<br />
  147. 147. 2.5. e-Gov 2.0 = e-Gov + Web 2.0<br />Source: Drapeau (2010)<br />E-Gov 2.0 needs to be mission-oriented, policy-based and must counterbalance citizen and governmental needs.<br />
  148. 148. 2.5. e-Gov 2.0 = e-Gov + Web 2.0<br />Linking open Data isa W3C-led effort to make data freely available, by extending the Web with data commons.<br />It is done by making openly accessible, and interlinked, RDF Data on the Web. <br />W3C, 2010<br /><br /><br />83<br />
  149. 149. Anexo<br />
  150. 150. Figure web references<br />AGENDA -,r:5,s:0&tx=136&ty=57<br />PAPER GOALS -,r:3,s:0 <br />NIS -,r:10,s:68&tx=94&ty=65<br />2.1. WHAT IS A NIS -,r:3,s:265&biw=1003&bih=583<br />2.1. WHAT IS A NIS -,r:14,s:444&biw=1003&bih=583<br />2.2. NIS in ST&I = CRIS<br />,r:1,s:0<br />,r:12,s:151&biw=1003&bih=583<br />
  151. 151. Figure web references<br />2.3 egovernment<br />,r:1,s:0&tx=145&ty=91<br />2.4. Web 2.0 -<br />