ANATOMY
Unit 2 Notes:
Cells &
Organization
(1) Neurons
• Neuron = Nerve Cell
• Types: Multipolar + Unipolar
• Basic Structural Components:
– Dendrites (Incoming)
– C...
(2) Unipolar Neurons
• Use: Afferent Input (Sensory Input)
• Main Job:
– Get message to CNS
– Let CNS process and decide
(...
(3) Multipolar Neurons
• Use: Efferent Output (Motor Output)
• Main Job:
– Organize messages by importance
– Make organs d...
(4) Neuroglia
• Function: Support, insulate and protect neurons.
– Cannot transmit nerve impulses
– Can continuously divid...
(5) Astrocytes
• Connect neurons to capillaries
• Transfer blood-nutrients to neurons
(and neuron waste
to blood)
(6) Microglia
• Phagocytize neuron debris and infectious agents.
(7) Ependymal Cells
• Pillow-Shaped cells
• Line brain and spinal cord cavities
• Beat cilia + Circulate cerebrospinal flu...
(8) Oligodendrocytes
• Flat, Straw-Shaped cells
• Wrap around a neuron’s axon
• Fatty insulation for axon (myelin sheath)
(9) Schwann & Satellite Cells
• Schwann Cell:
–Form Myelin Sheath around axons
–Cover Oligodendrocytes
• Satellite Cell:
–...
(10) Junctions
• Junction = Meeting of Neuron + Neuron or Neuron
+ Organ
– A.K.A.  Synapse, Synaptic Cleft
• Nerve Impuls...
(11) Nervous System Organization
CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
(SENSORY / AFFERENT INPUT)
PERIPHERAL NE...
(12) Defining the Levels
• Sensory = Afferent = Going to the CNS
• Motor = Efferent = Going away from the CNS
• Somatic = ...
(13) Voluntary Responses
• Voluntary = You consciously choose to move a
body part / respond.
• Pathway:
Stimulus
Sensory /...
(14) Involuntary Emotional Responses
• Involuntary = Without control.
• Emotional = Scared, Anxious, Angry, Happy, Excited...
(15) Involuntary Non-Emotional Responses
• Involuntary = Without control.
• Non-Emotional = Every day homeostatic
mechanis...
Anatomy: Unit 2 Nervous System--Cells and Organization
Anatomy: Unit 2 Nervous System--Cells and Organization
Anatomy: Unit 2 Nervous System--Cells and Organization
Anatomy: Unit 2 Nervous System--Cells and Organization
Anatomy: Unit 2 Nervous System--Cells and Organization
Anatomy: Unit 2 Nervous System--Cells and Organization
Anatomy: Unit 2 Nervous System--Cells and Organization
Anatomy: Unit 2 Nervous System--Cells and Organization
Anatomy: Unit 2 Nervous System--Cells and Organization
Anatomy: Unit 2 Nervous System--Cells and Organization
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Anatomy: Unit 2 Nervous System--Cells and Organization

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Anatomy: Unit 2 Nervous System--Cells and Organization

  1. 1. ANATOMY Unit 2 Notes: Cells & Organization
  2. 2. (1) Neurons • Neuron = Nerve Cell • Types: Multipolar + Unipolar • Basic Structural Components: – Dendrites (Incoming) – Cell Body (Integrate + Process) – Axon (Outgoing) – Myelin Sheath (Insulation + Speed) – Axon Terminal (Final Destination)
  3. 3. (2) Unipolar Neurons • Use: Afferent Input (Sensory Input) • Main Job: – Get message to CNS – Let CNS process and decide (NO need to have cell body right by dendrites) • Process: – Dendrites connected to sensory organ – Message sent to cell body  Out Axon – Message sent out of axon terminal
  4. 4. (3) Multipolar Neurons • Use: Efferent Output (Motor Output) • Main Job: – Organize messages by importance – Make organs do things (Important to have cell body right next to dendrites) • Process: – Cell body directly connected to dendrites – Dendrites coming from CNS / Efferent path  effected organ
  5. 5. (4) Neuroglia • Function: Support, insulate and protect neurons. – Cannot transmit nerve impulses – Can continuously divide through mitosis • Types: – Astrocytes – Microglia – Ependymal – Oligodendrocytes – Schwann Cells & Satellite Cells
  6. 6. (5) Astrocytes • Connect neurons to capillaries • Transfer blood-nutrients to neurons (and neuron waste to blood)
  7. 7. (6) Microglia • Phagocytize neuron debris and infectious agents.
  8. 8. (7) Ependymal Cells • Pillow-Shaped cells • Line brain and spinal cord cavities • Beat cilia + Circulate cerebrospinal fluid • Provide Shock Absorption
  9. 9. (8) Oligodendrocytes • Flat, Straw-Shaped cells • Wrap around a neuron’s axon • Fatty insulation for axon (myelin sheath)
  10. 10. (9) Schwann & Satellite Cells • Schwann Cell: –Form Myelin Sheath around axons –Cover Oligodendrocytes • Satellite Cell: –Protective Cushioning –Surround Cell body of neurons
  11. 11. (10) Junctions • Junction = Meeting of Neuron + Neuron or Neuron + Organ – A.K.A.  Synapse, Synaptic Cleft • Nerve Impulse  Axon  Axon Terminal  Release Neurotransmitter – Neurotransmitter = Chemical Message – Causes an effect – Binds with cell membrane on other side
  12. 12. (11) Nervous System Organization CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM (SENSORY / AFFERENT INPUT) PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM (MOTOR / EFFERENT OUTPUT) BODY (INITIAL STIMULUS / IMBALANCE) AUTONOMIC (INVOLUNTARY) SOMATIC (VOLUNTARY) PARASYMPATHETIC (REST & DIGEST) SYMPATHETIC (FIGHT / FLIGHT)
  13. 13. (12) Defining the Levels • Sensory = Afferent = Going to the CNS • Motor = Efferent = Going away from the CNS • Somatic = Voluntary • Autonomic = Involuntary • Sympathetic = Emotional • Parasympathetic = Non-Emotional
  14. 14. (13) Voluntary Responses • Voluntary = You consciously choose to move a body part / respond. • Pathway: Stimulus Sensory / Afferent Division Central Nervous System Motor / Efferent Division Effector Organ Somatic Division
  15. 15. (14) Involuntary Emotional Responses • Involuntary = Without control. • Emotional = Scared, Anxious, Angry, Happy, Excited • Pathway: Stimulus Sensory / Afferent Division Central Nervous System Motor / Efferent Division Effector Organ Autonomic Division Sympathetic Division
  16. 16. (15) Involuntary Non-Emotional Responses • Involuntary = Without control. • Non-Emotional = Every day homeostatic mechanisms. • Pathway: Stimulus Sensory / Afferent Division Central Nervous System Motor / Efferent Division Effector Organ Autonomic Division Parasympathetic Division

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