Biology unit 3 cell energy exam everything you need to know
Biology Unit 3-Cell Energy
Exam-Everything You Need To Know
--Introduction to Energy & Living Things- Kinetic Energy: Energy of motion OR The Energy being used by cells right now.
Chemical Potential Energy: The energy stored in the bonds of molecules.
Energy Transfer & Molecules:
a. Cells can break the bonds in molecules to RELEASE energy.
b. Cells can form new bonds between atoms/molecules to STORE energy.
ATP, ADP & Energy:
a. ATP = Adenosine Triphosphate = 3 Phosphates
b. ADP = Adenosine Diphosphate = 2 Phosphates
c. To Release Energy Cells can break off a 3rd phosphate from ATP.
d. To Store Energy Cells can add a 3rd phosphate ADP.
Chemical Formulas to Know:
a. Carbon Dioxide = CO2
b. Water = H2O
c. Oxygen Gas = O2
d. Glucose = C6H12O6
a. Reactants = Left Side = Starting Ingredients
b. Products = Right Side = What You Make
--Photosynthesis- Photosynthesis: The reacting of sunlight, carbon dioxide and water, to produce oxygen
gas and glucose (sugar).
Sunlight + CO2 + H2O C6H12O6 + O2
a. Reactants = sunlight, carbon dioxide, water
b. Products = glucose, oxygen gas
Energy is converted from electromagnetic energy (from the sun) into chemical potential
energy, and stored in the bonds of glucose.
a. The organelle which completes photosynthesis.
b. Contains: Chlorophyll, thylakoids, and stroma
c. Thylakoids = Stacked discs inside the chloroplast.
i. Contain chlorophyll
ii. Absorb sunlight
iii. Break apart water and release oxygen gas
d. Stroma = Open space in chloroplast.
i. Break apart carbon dioxide to produce glucose
Photosynthesis & Respiration:
a. The carbon dioxide and water used to start photosynthesis, is made in cellular
b. The glucose and oxygen made in photosynthesis, is used to start cellular
--Cellular Respiration- Cellular Respiration: The reacting of glucose and oxygen gas, producing ATP, carbon
dioxide and water.
C6H12O6 + O2 ATP + H2O + CO2
a. Reactants = glucose and oxygen
b. Products = ATP, water, carbon dioxide
Chemical potential energy from the bonds of glucose is transferred to the bonds of
Mitochondrion = The organelle that completes cellular respiration.
Cellular Respiration & Photosynthesis:
a. The glucose and oxygen used to start cellular respiration, is produced in
b. The water and carbon dioxide produced in cellular respiration, is used to
If you increase the concentration of sunlight / carbon dioxide / water available to
You can expect plants to be able to complete more photosynthesis reactions…
And produce more glucose and oxygen.
If you decrease the concentration of sunlight / carbon dioxide / water available to
You can expect plants to be able to complete fewer photosynthesis reactions…
And produce less glucose and oxygen.
If you increase the concentration of glucose / oxygen available to animals…
You can expect animals to be able to complete more respiration reactions…
And produce more ATP, carbon dioxide and water.
If you decrease the concentration of glucose / oxygen available to animals…
You can expect animals to be able to complete fewer respiration reactions…
And produce less ATP, carbon dioxide and water.