ANATOMY

Unit 5 Notes:
Bone Injury
&
Repair
(1) Bone Injury
• Increased weight on bone/joint.
• Irregular movement/manipulation…
– Twisting
– Rotation
– Bending
(2) Comminuted Fractures
- Bone fragments into 3 or more
pieces
- Common in aged people, when
bones are more brittle
(3) Spiral Fractures
- Ragged diagonal break
- Result of excessive twisting
forces
- Common sports fracture
(4) Depressed Fractures
- Portion of broken bone pressed
inward
- Typical skull fracture
(5) Transverse Fractures
- Bone breaks straight through
bone (perpendicular)
- Clean Break
(6) Oblique Fractures
- Bone breaks on diagonal
- Clean break
(7) Open Fractures
- Bone breaks and pierces skin
- Common in forearm and shin
(leg)
(8) Compression Fractures
- Bone is crushed
- Common in porous bones (due
to osteoporosis)
- Common in vertebral column
(9) Epiphyseal Fractures
- Epiphysis separates from
diaphysis along epiphyseal
plate
- Usually occurs where cartilage
cell...
(10) Greenstick Fractures
- Bone breaks incompletely (like
a twig)
- Only one side of the shaft
breaks, other side bends
-...
(11) Bone Repair Stages
1- [Instantly] Hematoma Formation
2- [~2-3days] Fibrocartilaginous Callus
Formation
3- [~7days] Bo...
(12) Hematoma Formation
1. Bone breaks, blood vessels are torn and
hemorrhage.
2. Mass of clotted blood forms at fracture
...
(13) Fibrocartilaginous
Callus Formation
1. Capillaries from surrounding vessels grow into
the hematoma.
2. Phagocytic cel...
(14) Bony Callus
Formation
1. Fibrocartilaginous callus develops and
hardens to form a bony callus of spongy
bone.
2. Bone...
(15) Final Remodeling
1. Excess material on outside of diaphysis
is removed.
2. Compact bone is laid down to
reconstruct s...
Anatomy unit 5 skeletal and muscular systems bone injury and repair notes
Anatomy unit 5 skeletal and muscular systems bone injury and repair notes
Anatomy unit 5 skeletal and muscular systems bone injury and repair notes
Anatomy unit 5 skeletal and muscular systems bone injury and repair notes
Anatomy unit 5 skeletal and muscular systems bone injury and repair notes
Anatomy unit 5 skeletal and muscular systems bone injury and repair notes
Anatomy unit 5 skeletal and muscular systems bone injury and repair notes
Anatomy unit 5 skeletal and muscular systems bone injury and repair notes
Anatomy unit 5 skeletal and muscular systems bone injury and repair notes
Anatomy unit 5 skeletal and muscular systems bone injury and repair notes
Anatomy unit 5 skeletal and muscular systems bone injury and repair notes
Anatomy unit 5 skeletal and muscular systems bone injury and repair notes
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Anatomy unit 5 skeletal and muscular systems bone injury and repair notes

  1. 1. ANATOMY Unit 5 Notes: Bone Injury & Repair
  2. 2. (1) Bone Injury • Increased weight on bone/joint. • Irregular movement/manipulation… – Twisting – Rotation – Bending
  3. 3. (2) Comminuted Fractures - Bone fragments into 3 or more pieces - Common in aged people, when bones are more brittle
  4. 4. (3) Spiral Fractures - Ragged diagonal break - Result of excessive twisting forces - Common sports fracture
  5. 5. (4) Depressed Fractures - Portion of broken bone pressed inward - Typical skull fracture
  6. 6. (5) Transverse Fractures - Bone breaks straight through bone (perpendicular) - Clean Break
  7. 7. (6) Oblique Fractures - Bone breaks on diagonal - Clean break
  8. 8. (7) Open Fractures - Bone breaks and pierces skin - Common in forearm and shin (leg)
  9. 9. (8) Compression Fractures - Bone is crushed - Common in porous bones (due to osteoporosis) - Common in vertebral column
  10. 10. (9) Epiphyseal Fractures - Epiphysis separates from diaphysis along epiphyseal plate - Usually occurs where cartilage cells are dying and calcifying
  11. 11. (10) Greenstick Fractures - Bone breaks incompletely (like a twig) - Only one side of the shaft breaks, other side bends - Common in children, when bones are more flexible
  12. 12. (11) Bone Repair Stages 1- [Instantly] Hematoma Formation 2- [~2-3days] Fibrocartilaginous Callus Formation 3- [~7days] Bony Callus Formation 4- [~6-8weeks] Bone Remodeling
  13. 13. (12) Hematoma Formation 1. Bone breaks, blood vessels are torn and hemorrhage. 2. Mass of clotted blood forms at fracture site. 3. Bone cells are deprived of nutrition and die. 4. Tissue at fracture site becomes swollen, painful and inflamed.
  14. 14. (13) Fibrocartilaginous Callus Formation 1. Capillaries from surrounding vessels grow into the hematoma. 2. Phagocytic cells (Macrophages + Osteoclasts) invade hematoma and clean up debris. 3. Osteoblasts + Osteocytes invade and begin to rebuild bone. 4. Collagen fibers are secreted to connect ends of bone.
  15. 15. (14) Bony Callus Formation 1. Fibrocartilaginous callus develops and hardens to form a bony callus of spongy bone. 2. Bone cells, collagen fibers and chondrocytes (cartilage cells) are continuously secreted to strengthen matrix.
  16. 16. (15) Final Remodeling 1. Excess material on outside of diaphysis is removed. 2. Compact bone is laid down to reconstruct shaft walls.

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