(3) Kidney Functions
• Excretion of nitrogenous wastes
• Maintain water concentration of
• Maintain electrolyte
concentration of blood
• Regulate blood pH (H ion levels)
(4) Ureter, Bladder &
• Ureters = Tubes which carry filtered
“liquid waste” towards the bladder.
• Bladder = Storage tank for filtered
• Urethra = Tube which allows filtered
“liquid waste” to exit body.
(5) Kidneys & Blood Supply
• Kidneys use 20% of body’s blood
• Renal Artery = Entering
• Renal Vein = Exiting deox. Blood
• All blood is filtered through
• 2 Main Structures:
– Glomerulus Bundle of capillaries w/
blood to be filtered.
– Renal Tubule Tubes following
capillaries, which collect filtered contents
• Bowman’s Capsule = Portion of tubule
where initial filtration and absorption
(7) Urine Formation
– Water + Small Solutes are forced through capillary
walls into Bowman’s Capsule.
– Water, Glucose, Amino Acids & Ions that were filtered
out are actively transported back into capillaries and
– H ions, K ions, urea, and drugs/toxins are forced
through capillary walls into renal tubule.
(8) Anatomy of Urine
• Filtration Bowman’s Capsule of
• Reabsorption Proximal Tube,
Loop of Henle & Distal Tubule of
• Secretion Distal Tubule of Renal
(9) Nitrogenous Wastes
• Urea: Byproduct of protein
metabolism in the liver.
• Uric Acid: Byproduct of nucleic
• Creatinine: Byproduct of creatine
metabolism in muscle tissue.
(10) Regulating Drops in
• Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH) from Pituitary:
– Increases water reabsorption from renal tubule.
• Aldosterone from Kidney:
– Increases water retention in blood by
reabsorbing more sodium from renal tubule.
• Angiotensin II from Blood:
– Causes vasoconstriction, increasing blood
(11) Don’t Pee It Out…
• Glucose Chill out on sweets OR Diabetic?!
• Protein Increased Physical Activity &
Pregnancy OR Hypertension & Nephron
• Pus Urinary Tract Infection
• Blood Kidney Stones, Infection, Trauma,
• Bile Liver Disease?!
(12) Kidney Dialysis
• Used in hospitals when kidneys fail (stop working)
• Blood is filtered through mechanical pump +
tubing which regulates contents
• Causes for Kidney Failure:
– Repeated kidney infections
– Physical Trauma
– Heavy Metal / Chemical poisoning
– Low Blood delivery (arteriosclerosis)