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Anatomy unit 4 digestive and excretory systems excretory notes

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Anatomy unit 4 digestive and excretory systems excretory notes

  1. 1. Unit 5 Notes: The Urinary/Excretory System
  2. 2. (1) Main Organs • Kidneys • Ureters • Bladder • Urethra
  3. 3. (2) Functions • Filter blood • Remove impurities, toxins, excess nutrients • Reabsorb needed water + nutrients
  4. 4. (3) Kidney Functions • Excretion of nitrogenous wastes • Maintain water concentration of blood • Maintain electrolyte concentration of blood • Regulate blood pH (H ion levels)
  5. 5. (4) Ureter, Bladder & Urethra Function • Ureters = Tubes which carry filtered “liquid waste” towards the bladder. • Bladder = Storage tank for filtered “liquid waste”. • Urethra = Tube which allows filtered “liquid waste” to exit body.
  6. 6. (5) Kidneys & Blood Supply • Kidneys use 20% of body’s blood • Renal Artery = Entering oxygenated blood • Renal Vein = Exiting deox. Blood • All blood is filtered through nephrons.
  7. 7. (6) Nephrons • 2 Main Structures: – Glomerulus  Bundle of capillaries w/ blood to be filtered. – Renal Tubule  Tubes following capillaries, which collect filtered contents • Bowman’s Capsule = Portion of tubule where initial filtration and absorption occurs
  8. 8. (7) Urine Formation • Filtration: – Water + Small Solutes are forced through capillary walls into Bowman’s Capsule. • Reabsorption: – Water, Glucose, Amino Acids & Ions that were filtered out are actively transported back into capillaries and blood. • Secretion: – H ions, K ions, urea, and drugs/toxins are forced through capillary walls into renal tubule.
  9. 9. (8) Anatomy of Urine Formation • Filtration  Bowman’s Capsule of Renal Tubule • Reabsorption  Proximal Tube, Loop of Henle & Distal Tubule of Renal Tubule • Secretion  Distal Tubule of Renal Tubule
  10. 10. (9) Nitrogenous Wastes • Urea: Byproduct of protein metabolism in the liver. • Uric Acid: Byproduct of nucleic acid metabolism. • Creatinine: Byproduct of creatine metabolism in muscle tissue.
  11. 11. (10) Regulating Drops in Blood Pressure • Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH) from Pituitary: – Increases water reabsorption from renal tubule. • Aldosterone from Kidney: – Increases water retention in blood by reabsorbing more sodium from renal tubule. • Angiotensin II from Blood: – Causes vasoconstriction, increasing blood pressure
  12. 12. (11) Don’t Pee It Out… • Glucose  Chill out on sweets OR Diabetic?! • Protein  Increased Physical Activity & Pregnancy OR Hypertension & Nephron Disease?! • Pus  Urinary Tract Infection • Blood  Kidney Stones, Infection, Trauma, Anemia ?! • Bile  Liver Disease?!
  13. 13. (12) Kidney Dialysis • Used in hospitals when kidneys fail (stop working) • Blood is filtered through mechanical pump + tubing which regulates contents • Causes for Kidney Failure: – Repeated kidney infections – Physical Trauma – Heavy Metal / Chemical poisoning – Low Blood delivery (arteriosclerosis)

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