(3) Ureter, Bladder &
Tubes which carry filtered “liquid waste” towards
Storage tank for filtered “liquid waste”.
Tube which allows filtered “liquid waste” to exit
• The nephrons are the filtering units inside the
• 2 Main Structures:
– Glomerulus Bundle of capillaries w/ blood to be
– Renal Tubule Tubes following capillaries, which
collect filtered contents
• Bowman’s CapsulePortion of tubule where initial
filtration and absorption occurs
(5) Urine Formation Steps
– Water + Small Solutes are forced through capillary walls
into Bowman’s Capsule.
– Water, Glucose, Amino Acids & Ions that were filtered
out are actively transported back into capillaries and
– H ions, K ions, urea, and drugs/toxins are forced through
capillary walls into renal tubule.
(6) Regulating Drops in
• Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH) from Pituitary:
– Increases water reabsorption from renal tubule.
• Aldosterone from Kidney:
– Increases water retention in blood by
reabsorbing more sodium from renal tubule.
• Angiotensin II from Blood:
– Causes vasoconstriction, increasing blood
(7) Don’t Pee It Out…
• Glucose Chill out on sweets OR Diabetic?!
• Protein Increased Physical Activity &
Pregnancy OR Hypertension & Nephron
• Pus Urinary Tract Infection
• Blood Kidney Stones, Infection, Trauma,
• Bile Liver Disease?!
(12) Kidney Dialysis
• Used in hospitals when kidneys fail (stop working)
• Blood is filtered through mechanical pump +
tubing which regulates contents
• Causes for Kidney Failure:
– Repeated kidney infections
– Physical Trauma
–Heavy Metal / Chemical poisoning
– Low Blood delivery (arteriosclerosis)