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Anatomy Unit 3 Notes: The Excretory System

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Anatomy Unit 3 Notes: The Excretory System

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Anatomy Unit 3 Notes: The Excretory System

  1. 1. Unit 3 Notes: The Urinary/Excretory System
  2. 2. (1) Main Organs •Kidneys •Ureters •Bladder •Urethra
  3. 3. (2) Functions • Filter blood • Remove impurities, toxins, excess nutrients • Reabsorb needed water + nutrients
  4. 4. (3) Ureter, Bladder & Urethra Function • Ureters: Tubes which carry filtered “liquid waste” towards the bladder. • Bladder: Storage tank for filtered “liquid waste”. • Urethra: Tube which allows filtered “liquid waste” to exit body.
  5. 5. (4) Nephrons • The nephrons are the filtering units inside the kidneys. • 2 Main Structures: – Glomerulus  Bundle of capillaries w/ blood to be filtered. – Renal Tubule  Tubes following capillaries, which collect filtered contents • Bowman’s CapsulePortion of tubule where initial filtration and absorption occurs
  6. 6. (5) Urine Formation Steps 1- Filtration: – Water + Small Solutes are forced through capillary walls into Bowman’s Capsule. 2- Reabsorption: – Water, Glucose, Amino Acids & Ions that were filtered out are actively transported back into capillaries and blood. 3- Secretion: – H ions, K ions, urea, and drugs/toxins are forced through capillary walls into renal tubule.
  7. 7. (6) Regulating Drops in Blood Pressure • Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH) from Pituitary: – Increases water reabsorption from renal tubule. • Aldosterone from Kidney: – Increases water retention in blood by reabsorbing more sodium from renal tubule. • Angiotensin II from Blood: – Causes vasoconstriction, increasing blood pressure.
  8. 8. (7) Don’t Pee It Out… • Glucose  Chill out on sweets OR Diabetic?! • Protein  Increased Physical Activity & Pregnancy OR Hypertension & Nephron Disease?! • Pus  Urinary Tract Infection • Blood  Kidney Stones, Infection, Trauma, Anemia ?! • Bile  Liver Disease?!
  9. 9. (12) Kidney Dialysis • Used in hospitals when kidneys fail (stop working) • Blood is filtered through mechanical pump + tubing which regulates contents • Causes for Kidney Failure: – Repeated kidney infections – Physical Trauma –Heavy Metal / Chemical poisoning – Low Blood delivery (arteriosclerosis)

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