(1) The Layers & Humor
• There are 3 layers of tissue:There are 3 layers of tissue:
– Sclera = White outer tissue
– Retina = Tissue in between Sclera + Choroid
– Choroid = Dark tissue on the inside cavity
*The choroid helps keep light inside the eye.
• Humor = Fluid Inside the EyeHumor = Fluid Inside the Eye
– Humor increases inner pressure
– Maintains eyeball shape
– Glaucoma is caused by the inability to recycle
humor, increasing pressure and preventing
(2) The Cornea and Pupil
– The outer covering of the eye.The outer covering of the eye.
– Its shape determines your eyesight.Its shape determines your eyesight.
– Gaping hole in the center of the eye.Gaping hole in the center of the eye.
– Looks like a dark circle/dot in the center.Looks like a dark circle/dot in the center.
– Allows light to enter the eye.Allows light to enter the eye.
(3) The Iris and Lens
– The colored ring in the eye.
– Contracts and relaxes to control amount of light
entering the eye.
– Contract = Gets Smaller = Decreases light when
– Relax = Gets Bigger = Increases light when dark
– Hard structure behind cornea and iris.
– Helps focus and refract light to the retina.
(4) The Retina
• Contains the photoreceptors that allow yourContains the photoreceptors that allow your
brain to pick up on colors/shapes/shades.brain to pick up on colors/shapes/shades.
• 2 Types of Photoreceptors:
– Rods = Pick up on Shades & Grays
– Cones = Pick up on Colors
(5) Color Blindness
– All cones are missing or damaged
– Can see no color
– Still can see shades (rods function)
*Like black and white television.
– Pairs of cones are damaged, making it difficult
to differentiate between pairs of colors.
• Red-Green Colors look the same
• Blue-Yellow Colors look the same
(6) Light Refraction
– Light rays bend every time they pass through aLight rays bend every time they pass through a
different medium.different medium.
– Light must pass through your:Light must pass through your:
• The light rays need to be concentrated atThe light rays need to be concentrated at
one specific point, directly on the back ofone specific point, directly on the back of
the retina for accurate vision.the retina for accurate vision.
• Cornea is too convex or bulging…Cornea is too convex or bulging…
– Light is over focused and refracted before
– Light rays are scattered by the time they hit the
– Results in blurred vision.
– Use a Concave Lens (thinner in middle)
– Spreads out light rays, decreases refraction so
rays are concentrated right at retina.
• Cornea is too concave (flattened out):
– Light is under-focused.
– Light rays are still scattered by the time they hit
– Results in blurred vision.
– Use a Convex Lens (thicker in middle)
– Concentrates the light rays, so that they hit at
one point on the retina.
• Uneven cornea or lens:Uneven cornea or lens:
– Astigma = Not A Point
– Cornea is too flat in one spot, and too bulging in
– Results in blurred vision, and splitting of
– Use a lens which is both concave and convex in
– The lens will concentrate and spread out the
light rays appropriately.