Anatomy unit 1 introduction organ system and organization notes

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Anatomy unit 1 introduction organ system and organization notes

  1. 1. ANATOMY Unit 1 Notes: Organ Systems & Living Organization
  2. 2. (1) Living Organization • All living things are made of cells and atoms/molecules. • Levels of Organization: – Atoms and Molecules – Organelles and Cells – Tissues – Organs – Organ Systems – Organism
  3. 3. (2) Atoms, Molecules & Reactions • The basis of all living things is atoms. • All living things contain at least the following biological elements: C H O N P S • All cellular processes are driven by energy exchange and the movement and reacting of different molecules.
  4. 4. (3) Homeostasis • Involuntary processes and reactions are in place to maintain Homeostasis within cells. • Homeostasis = Internal stability / balance. • Examples: – Shivering when cold. – Production of red blood cells when oxygen drops. – Buffering of acidic foods using bicarbonate.
  5. 5. (4) Nervous System • Function: – Controls all other organ systems. – Allows you to respond to changes/stimuli. – Allows you to maintain homeostasis. • Made Up Of: – Brain – Spinal Cord – Nerves – Neurons
  6. 6. (5) Lymphatic System • (A.K.A. The Immune System) • Function: – Protect body against harmful infectious agents + compounds. • Made Up Of: – White Blood Cells – Antibodies and Antigens – Lymph Vessels, Nodes, and Fluid
  7. 7. (6) Cardiovascular System • Function: – Work with the respiratory system to circulate gases. – Pump nutrients throughout the body to working tissues. • Made Up Of: – Heart – Blood Vessels – Blood + Blood Cells
  8. 8. (7) Respiratory System • Function: – Work with the cardiovascular system to circulate gases. – Bring oxygen into body + expel carbon dioxide. • Made Up Of: – Nasal Cavity – Trachea + Bronchioles – Lungs – Diaphragm
  9. 9. (8) Skeletal System • Function: – Provide body support and mobility. – Protect organs. – Store minerals and growth hormones. • Made Up Of: – Bones – Joints – Cartilage
  10. 10. (9) Muscular System • Function: – Allow for body mobility by working with skeletal system. – Produce body heat. – Allow for organ function and movement. • Made Up Of: – Muscle – Ligaments + Tendons
  11. 11. (10) Digestive System • Function: – Break food into smaller pieces. – Metabolize biomolecules within food. – Absorb useful nutrients + expel waste. • Made Up Of: – Oral Cavity + Esophagus – Stomach – Small + Large Intestine – Rectum + Anus
  12. 12. (11) Excretory System • (A.K.A. The Urinary System) • Function: – Filter Blood. – Remove excessive / harmful compounds within blood. • Made Up Of: – Kidneys – Ureters – Bladder – Urethra
  13. 13. (12) Reproductive System • Function: – Pass genes on to produced offspring. • Made Up Of: – Male  Sperm, Testes, Penis – Female  Eggs, Ovaries + Uterus, Vagina
  14. 14. (13) Endocrine System • Function: – Produce hormones. – Control and initiate the progress of growth, development, organ function, and reproduction. • Made Up Of: – Glands – Hormones
  15. 15. (14) Integumentary System • Function: – Protect internal organs. – Allow for increased manipulation. – Increase heat barrier. – Produce vitamins. • Made Up Of: – Skin – Nails – Hair

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