Heizer om10 ch09-layout

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Heizer om10 ch09-layout

  1. 1. 10/16/2010 Layout Strategies Outline 9 Global Company Profile: McDonald’s PowerPoint presentation to accompany P P i t t ti t The Strategic Importance of Heizer and Render Layout Decisions Operations Management, 10e Principles of Operations Management, 8e Types of Layout PowerPoint slides by Jeff Heyl Office Layout© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 9-1 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 9-2 Outline – Continued Outline – Continued Retail Layout Process-Oriented Layout Servicescapes Computer Software for Process- Warehousing and Storage Layouts Oriented Layouts Cross-Docking Work Cells W k C ll Random Docking Requirements of Work Cells Customizing Staffing and Balancing Work Cells Fixed-Position Layout The Focused Work Center and the Focused Factory© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 9-3 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 9-4 Outline – Continued Learning Objectives When you complete this chapter, you Repetitive and Product-Oriented should be able to: Layout 1. Discuss important issues in office layout Assembly-Line Balancing y g 2. 2 Define the objectives of retail layout 3. Discuss modern warehouse management and terms such as ASRS, cross-docking, and random stocking 4. Identify when fixed-position layouts are appropriate© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 9-5 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 9-6 1
  2. 2. 10/16/2010 Learning Objectives Innovations at McDonald’s When you complete this chapter, you Indoor seating (1950s) should be able to: Drive-through window (1970s) 5. Explain how to achieve a good process- Adding breakfast to the menu oriented facility layout y y (1980s) 6. Define work cell and the requirements of a work cell Adding play areas (late 1980s) 7. Define product-oriented layout Redesign of the kitchens (1990s) 8. Explain how to balance production flow Self-service kiosk (2004) in a repetitive or product-oriented facility Now three separate dining sections© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 9-7 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 9-8 Innovations at McDonald’s McDonald’s New Layout Indoor seating (1950s) Seventh major innovation Drive-through window (1970s) Redesigning all 30,000 outlets around the world Adding breakfast to Six out of the the menu (1980s) seven are Three separate dining areas p g Adding play areas (late layout Linger zone with comfortable chairs and 1980s) Wi-Fi connections decisions! Redesign of the kitchens (1990s) Grab and go zone with tall counters Flexible zone for kids and families Self-service kiosk (2004) Facility layout is a source of Now three separate dining sections competitive advantage© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 9-9 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 9 - 10 Strategic Importance of Layout Design Layout Decisions Considerations Higher utilization of space, equipment, and people The objective of layout strategy is to develop an effective and Improved flow of information, materials, p , , efficient layout that will meet the or people firm’s competitive requirements Improved employee morale and safer working conditions Improved customer/client interaction Flexibility© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 9 - 11 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 9 - 12 2
  3. 3. 10/16/2010 Types of Layout Types of Layout 1. Office layout 1. Office layout: Positions workers, their equipment, and spaces/offices 2. Retail layout to provide for movement of 3. Warehouse layout information 4. Fixed-position layout 2. Retail layout: Allocates shelf space and responds to customer behavior 5. Process-oriented layout 3. Warehouse layout: Addresses trade- 6. Work-cell layout offs between space and material 7. Product-oriented layout handling© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 9 - 13 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 9 - 14 Types of Layout Types of Layout 4. Fixed-position layout: Addresses the 6. Work cell layout: Arranges layout requirements of large, bulky machinery and equipment to focus projects such as ships and buildings on production of a single product or 5. Process-oriented layout: Deals with group of related products low-volume, high-variety production 7. Product-oriented layout: Seeks the (also called job shop or intermittent best personnel and machine production) utilizations in repetitive or continuous production© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 9 - 15 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 9 - 16 Layout Strategies Layout Strategies Objectives Examples Objectives Examples Office Locate workers requiring Allstate Insurance Job Shop Manage varied material flow Arnold Palmer Hospital frequent contact close to one Microsoft Corp. (process for each product Hard Rock Cafe another oriented) Olive Garden Retail Expose customer to high- Kroger’s Supermarket margin items Work Cell Identify a product family, Hallmark Cards Walgreen’s (product build teams, cross train team Wheeled Coach Bloomingdale’s families) members Standard Aero Warehouse Balance low cost storage Federal-Mogul’s warehouse (storage) with low-cost material Repetitive/ Equalize the task time at each Sony’s TV assembly line The Gap’s distribution center Continuous workstation handling Toyota Scion (product Project (fixed Move material to the limited Ingall Ship Building Corp. oriented) position) storage areas around the site Trump Plaza Pittsburgh Airport Table 9.1 Table 9.1© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 9 - 17 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 9 - 18 3
  4. 4. 10/16/2010 Good Layouts Consider Office Layout Grouping of workers, their equipment, and Material handling equipment spaces to provide comfort, safety, and movement of information Capacity and space requirements Movement of Environment and aesthetics information is main i f ti i i Flows of information distinction Typically in state of Cost of moving between various flux due to frequent work areas technological changes© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 9 - 19 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 9 - 20 Relationship Chart Supermarket Retail Layout Objective is to maximize profitability per square foot of floor space Sales and profitability vary directly with customer exposure Figure 9.1© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 9 - 21 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 9 - 22 Five Helpful Ideas for Store Layout Supermarket Layout 1. Locate high-draw items around the periphery of the store 2. Use prominent locations for high-impulse and high-margin items 3. Distribute power items to both sides of an aisle and disperse them to increase viewing of other items 4. Use end-aisle locations 5. Convey mission of store through careful positioning of lead-off department Figure 9.2© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 9 - 23 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 9 - 24 4
  5. 5. 10/16/2010 Retail Slotting Retail Store Shelf Space Manufacturers pay fees to retailers Planogram to get the retailers to display (slot) 5 facings their product Computerized tool for shelf- Shampoo Shampoo Shampoo Shampoo Shampoo Contributing factors space management Limited shelf space Generated from An increasing number of new store’s scanner Conditioner Shampoo Shampoo Shampoo Shampoo products data on sales Conditioner Conditioner Better information about sales Often supplied through POS data collection by manufacturer Closer control of inventory 2 ft.© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 9 - 25 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 9 - 26 Servicescapes Warehousing and Storage 1. Ambient conditions - background Layouts characteristics such as lighting, sound, smell, and temperature Objective is to optimize trade-offs 2. Spatial layout and functionality - which involve customer between handling costs and costs circulation path planning, i l ti th l i associated with warehouse space aisle characteristics, and Maximize the total “cube” of the product grouping warehouse – utilize its full volume 3. Signs, symbols, and while maintaining low material artifacts - characteristics handling costs of building design that carry social significance© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 9 - 27 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 9 - 28 Warehousing and Storage Warehousing and Storage Layouts Layouts Material Handling Costs Warehouse density tends to vary All costs associated with the transaction inversely with the number of different items stored Incoming transport Automated Storage and Storage Retrieval Systems (ASRSs) Finding and moving material can significantly improve Outgoing transport warehouse productivity by Equipment, people, material, supervision, an estimated 500% insurance, depreciation Dock location is a key Minimize damage and spoilage design element© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 9 - 29 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 9 - 30 5
  6. 6. 10/16/2010 Cross- Cross-Docking Random Stocking Typically requires automatic identification Materials are moved directly from systems (AISs) and effective information receiving to shipping and are not placed systems in storage in the warehouse Random assignment of stocking locations Requires tight allows more efficient use of space sc edu g a d scheduling and accurate shipments, Key tasks bar code or RFID 1. Maintain list of open locations identification used for 2. Maintain accurate records advanced shipment notification as 3. Sequence items to minimize travel, pick time materials 4. Combine picking orders are unloaded 5. Assign classes of items to particular areas© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 9 - 31 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 9 - 32 Customizing Warehouse Layout Traditional Layout Value-added activities performed at Storage racks the warehouse omization Enable low cost and rapid response strategies Custo Assembly of components Loading software Repairs Conveyor Customized labeling and packaging Staging Office Shipping and receiving docks© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 9 - 33 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 9 - 34 Warehouse Layout Fixed- Fixed-Position Layout Cross-Docking Layout Product remains in one place Shipping and receiving docks Workers and equipment come to site Complicating factors Limited space at site Office Different materials required at different stages of the project Shipping and receiving docks Volume of materials needed is dynamic© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 9 - 35 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 9 - 36 6
  7. 7. 10/16/2010 Alternative Strategy Process- Process-Oriented Layout As much of the project as possible is completed off-site in a product- Like machines and equipment are oriented facility grouped together This can Flexible and capable of handling a significantly wide variety of products or id i t f d t improve services efficiency but Scheduling can be difficult and is only possible setup, material handling, and when multiple labor costs can be high similar units need to be created© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 9 - 37 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 9 - 38 Process- Process-Oriented Layout Layout at Arnold Palmer Hospital Pie-shaped Patient A - broken leg Central break rooms ER triage Emergency room admissions and medical room supply rooms Patient B - erratic heart Surgery pacemaker Local linen Central nurses Laboratories supply station Radiology ER Beds Pharmacy Billing/exit Figure 9.3 Local nursing pod© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 9 - 39 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 9 - 40 Process- Process-Oriented Layout Process- Process-Oriented Layout Arrange work centers so as to n n Minimize cost = ∑ ∑ Xij Cij minimize the costs of material i=1 j=1 handling where n = total number of work centers or Basic B i cost elements are t l t departments Number of loads (or people) i, j = individual departments moving between centers Xij = number of loads moved from department i to department j Distance loads (or people) move between centers Cij = cost to move a load between department i and department j© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 9 - 41 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 9 - 42 7
  8. 8. 10/16/2010 Process Layout Example Process Layout Example Arrange six departments in a factory to Number of loads per week minimize the material handling costs. Department Assembly Painting Machine Receiving Shipping Testing Each department is 20 x 20 feet and the (1) (2) Shop (3) (4) (5) (6) building is 60 feet long and 40 feet wide. Assembly (1) 50 100 0 0 20 1. Construct a “from-to matrix” Painting (2) 30 50 10 0 2. Determine the space requirements Machine Shop (3) 20 0 100 3. Develop an initial schematic diagram Receiving (4) 50 0 4. Determine the cost of this layout Shipping (5) 0 5. Try to improve the layout Testing (6) 6. Prepare a detailed plan Figure 9.4© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 9 - 43 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 9 - 44 Process Layout Example Process Layout Example Area 1 Area 2 Area 3 Interdepartmental Flow Graph 100 Assembly Painting Machine Shop Department Department Department (1) (2) (3) Assembly y 50 Painting g 30 Machine (1) (2) Shop (3) 40’ 10 Receiving Shipping Testing 100 Department Department Department (4) (5) (6) Receiving Shipping Testing (4) (5) (6) 50 Area 4 Area 5 Area 6 Figure 9.5 60’ Figure 9.6© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 9 - 45 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 9 - 46 Process Layout Example Process Layout Example n n Revised Interdepartmental Flow Graph Cost = ∑ ∑ Xij Cij 30 i=1 j=1 Cost = $50 + $200 + $40 50 100 (1 and 2) (1 and 3) (1 and 6) Painting (2) g Assembly (1) y Machine Shop (3) + $30 + $50 + $10 (2 and 3) (2 and 4) (2 and 5) 100 50 + $40 + $100 + $50 (3 and 4) (3 and 6) (4 and 5) Receiving Shipping Testing (4) (5) (6) 50 = $570 Figure 9.7© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 9 - 47 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 9 - 48 8
  9. 9. 10/16/2010 Process Layout Example Process Layout Example Area 1 Area 2 Area 3 n n Cost = ∑ ∑ Xij Cij i=1 j=1 Painting Assembly Machine Shop Department Department Department (2) (1) (3) Cost = $50 + $100 + $20 (1 and 2) (1 and 3) (1 and 6) 40’ + $60 + $50 + $10 (2 and 3) (2 and 4) (2 and 5) Receiving Shipping Testing + $40 + $100 + $50 Department Department Department (4) (5) (6) (3 and 4) (3 and 6) (4 and 5) = $480 Area 4 Area 5 Area 6 Figure 9.8 60’© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 9 - 49 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 9 - 50 Computer Software CRAFT Example A A A A B B D D D D B B Graphical approach only works for small problems A A A A B B D D D D B B D D D D D D D D D E E E Computer programs are available to solve sol e bigger problems C C D D D D C C D E E F F F F F F D A A A A A F CRAFT E E E E E D A A A F F F ALDEP TOTAL COST 20,100 TOTAL COST 14,390 CORELAP EST. COST REDUCTION .00 EST. COST REDUCTION 70 ITERATION 0 ITERATION 3 Factory Flow (a) (b) Figure 9.9© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 9 - 51 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 9 - 52 Computer Software Work Cells Three dimensional visualization Reorganizes people and machines software allows managers to view into groups to focus on single possible layouts and assess process, products or product groups material Group technology identifies p gy handling, handling products that have similar efficiency, characteristics for particular cells and safety issues Volume must justify cells Cells can be reconfigured as designs or volume changes© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 9 - 53 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 9 - 54 9
  10. 10. 10/16/2010 Advantages of Work Cells Requirements of Work Cells 1. Reduced work-in-process inventory 2. Less floor space required 1. Identification of families of products 3. Reduced raw material and finished goods inventory 2. A high level of training, flexibility 4. 4 Reduced direct labor and empowerment of employees 5. Heightened sense of employee 3. Being self-contained, with its own participation equipment and resources 6. Increased use of equipment and 4. Test (poka-yoke) at each station in machinery the cell 7. Reduced investment in machinery and equipment© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 9 - 55 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 9 - 56 Improving Layouts Using Improving Layouts Using Work Cells Work Cells Current layout - straight lines make it hard to balance Improved layout - in U tasks because work may not shape, workers have better Current layout - workers access. Four cross-trained in small closed areas. be divided evenly workers were reduced. Improved layout - cross-trained workers can assist each other. U-shaped line may reduce employee movement May be able to add a third worker and space requirements while enhancing as additional output is needed. communication, reducing the number of workers, and facilitating inspection Figure 9.10 (a) Figure 9.10 (b)© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 9 - 57 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 9 - 58 Staffing and Balancing Staffing Work Cells Example Work Cells 600 Mirrors per day required Determine the takt time Mirror production scheduled for 8 hours per day From a work balance 60 Total work time available chart total Takt time = 50 Units required operation time p Standard time required d = 140 seconds 40 Determine the number 30 of operators required 20 Total operation time required 10 Workers required = Takt time 0 Assemble Paint Test Label Pack for shipment Operations© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 9 - 59 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 9 - 60 10
  11. 11. 10/16/2010 Staffing Work Cells Example Work Balance Charts 600 Mirrors per day required Used for evaluating operation Mirror production scheduled for 8 hours per day times in work cells From a work balance chart total Can help identify bottleneck operation time p operations = 140 seconds Takt time = (8 hrs x 60 mins) / 600 units Flexible, cross-trained employees = .8 mins = 48 seconds can help address labor bottlenecks Total operation time required Machine bottlenecks may require Workers required = Takt time other approaches = 140 / 48 = 2.91© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 9 - 61 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 9 - 62 Focused Work Center and Focused Work Center and Focused Factory Focused Factory Focused Work Center Work Cell Focused Work Center Focused Factory Description: Work cell A focused work center is A focused factory is a Identify a large family of similar products is a temporary a permanent product- permanent facility to that have a large and stable demand product-oriented oriented arrangement produce a product or arrangement of of machines and component in a Moves production from a general purpose, general-purpose, machines and personnel in what is product-oriented personnel in what is ordinarily a process- facility. Many focused process-oriented facility to a large work cell ordinarily a process- oriented facility factories currently oriented facility being built were Focused Factory originally part of a process-oriented facility A focused work cell in a separate facility Example: A job shop Example: Pipe bracket Example: A plant to May be focused by product line, layout, with machinery and manufacturing at a produce window quality, new product introduction, flexibility, personnel rearranged to produce 300 unique shipyard mechanism for automobiles or other requirements control panels© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 9 - 63 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Table 9.2 9 - 64 Repetitive and Product- Product- Product- Product-Oriented Layouts Oriented Layout Fabrication line Builds components on a series of machines Organized around products or families of Machine-paced similar high-volume, low-variety products high- low- Require mechanical or engineering changes 1. Volume is adequate for high equipment to balance utilization tili ti Assembly line 2. Product demand is stable enough to justify high Puts fabricated parts together at a series of investment in specialized equipment workstations 3. Product is standardized or approaching a phase Paced by work tasks of life cycle that justifies investment Balanced by moving tasks 4. Supplies of raw materials and components are adequate and of uniform quality Both types of lines must be balanced so that the time to perform the work at each station is the same© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 9 - 65 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 9 - 66 11
  12. 12. 10/16/2010 Product- Product-Oriented Layouts McDonald’s Assembly Line Advantages 1. Low variable cost per unit 2. Low material handling costs 3. Reduced work-in-process inventories 4. Easier training and supervision 5. Rapid throughput Disadvantages 1. High volume is required 2. Work stoppage at any point ties up the whole operation 3. Lack of flexibility in product or production rates Figure 9.12© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 9 - 67 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 9 - 68 Disassembly Lines Assembly- Assembly-Line Balancing Objective is to minimize the imbalance Disassembly is being considered in new between machines or personnel while product designs meeting required output “Green” issues and recycling standards are Starts with the precedence important consideration relationships Automotive Determine cycle time disassembly Calculate theoretical is the 16th minimum number of largest workstations industry in Balance the line by the US assigning specific tasks to workstations© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 9 - 69 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 9 - 70 Wing Component Example Wing Component Example Performance Task Must Follow Performance Task Must Follow Time Task Listed Time Task Listed Task (minutes) Below Task (minutes) Below A 10 — A 10 — B 11 A This means that B 11 A C 5 B tasks B and E C 5 B cannot be done D 4 B until task A has D 4 B E 12 A been completed E 12 A F 3 C, D F 3 C, D 5 G 7 F G 7 F 10 11 C 3 7 H 11 E H 11 E A B F G I 3 G, H I 3 G, H 4 3 Total time 66 Total time 66 12 D 11 I E H Figure 9.13© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 9 - 71 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 9 - 72 12
  13. 13. 10/16/2010 Wing Component Example WingLine-Balancing Heuristics Component Example 480 available 1. Longest task time Choose the available task 480 available Performance Task Must Follow Performance Task Must Followlongest task time with the Time Task Listed mins per day Time Task Listed mins per day Task (minutes) Below 40 units required Task Most following tasksBelow 2. (minutes) Choose the available task required 40 units A 10 — A 10 — with the largestCycle time = 12 mins number of B 11 A B 11 A following tasks Production time Minimum C 5 B available per day p y C 3. Ranked positional 5 B workstations = 5.5 or 6 Choose the available task for D 4 Cycle i C B time = Units required per day l D weight4 B which the sum of following E 12 A = 480 / 40 E 12 A task times is the longest F 3 C, D 5 F 3 C, D 5 = 12 minutes per unit G 7 F C G 4. Shortest task time 7 FChoose the available task C 10 n 11 3 7 with the shortest task time 10 11 3 7 H 11 E H 11 E I 3 Minimum A i∑1 Time for taskF G, H = B 4 i G I 5. Least number of 3 A B G,Choose the available task H 4 F G number of = 3 3 Total time 66 workstations Cycle D 12 time 11 I Total time 66 tasks following with the least number of D I following tasks12 11 = 66 / 12 E H E H = 5.5 or 6 stations Table 9.4 Figure 9.13 Figure 9.13© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 9 - 73 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 9 - 74 Wing Component Example Wing Component Example Performance Task Must Follow 480 available Performance Task Must Follow 480 available Time Task Listed mins per day Time Task Listed mins per day Task (minutes) Below 40 units required Task (minutes) Below 40 units required A 10 — Cycle time = 12 mins A 10 — Cycle time = 12 mins B 11 A Minimum B 11 A Minimum Station workstations = 5.5 or 6 workstations = 5.5 or 6 C 5 5 B C 5 B 2 D 4 C B D 4 B E 10 11 12 A 3 7 E 12 A F A B3 C, D F G F 3 C, D 4 3 G 7 F G 7 F ∑ Task times D E Station 3 Efficiency = H 11 Station 3 I H (Actual number of workstations) x (Largest cycle time) 11 E I 3 12 G, H 11 I 3 G, H Station 6 6 = 66 minutes / (6 stations) x (12 minutes) Total time 66 Station Station Total time 66 1 E H = 91.7% Station Station 4 5 Figure 9.14© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 9 - 75 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 9 - 76 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Printed in the United States of America.© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 9 - 77 13

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