Internet Virtualization


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Internet Virtualization Concepts

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  • Objective: talk about internet virtualization, main areas of progress, concerns for actual deployment, food for thought and discussions
  • Internet Virtualization

    1. 1. Soumya Roy [email_address] (Invited Talk) Isolating Networks in Virtualized Internet (Personal Views, not of my company)
    2. 2. Outline <ul><li>Virtual Networks – how do you define </li></ul><ul><li>Isolation and Fairness Issues </li></ul><ul><li>Experimentation and Deployment </li></ul><ul><li>Discussions </li></ul>
    3. 3. Outline <ul><li>Virtual Networks – how do you define </li></ul><ul><li>Isolation and Fairness Issues </li></ul><ul><li>Experimentation and Deployment </li></ul><ul><li>Discussions </li></ul>
    4. 4. Internet Virtualization <ul><li>Each Virtual Network has its own objective (QoS, Security, etc) and architecture (forwarding, addressing, stack, etc), and protocols </li></ul><ul><li>Shares the same physical network for data transport </li></ul>Physical Network (Physical Nodes, Physical Links) Virtual Network (Virtual Nodes, Virtual Links) PN VN1 VN2
    5. 5. Enterprise Virtualization <ul><li>Secure logical isolation for users, applications, departments on an end-to-end basis throughout an enterprise. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consolidate servers, applications and networking platform on a single infrastructure </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Multiple advantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower TCO </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quick turnaround for new service deployments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adhere to regulatory requirements. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Retail, Health, Airport, etc… </li></ul><ul><li>Domain is mostly single enterprise </li></ul>PN
    6. 6. Need for Internet Virtualization? <ul><li>Implement new architectures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Content-centric rather than topology-centric </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Naming schemes (e.g., for mobility) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Security to prevent DoS attacks, etc </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Different objectives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Support different class of services like video delivery, voice services, real-time applications, etc </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Current IP architecture is simple and pervasive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>End-to-end paradigm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intelligence at the end points while routers provide connectivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exceptions are few: ECN etc </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Current Alternatives <ul><li>Overlay Networks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g.: Content distribution networks, RON </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Overlays are built with definite objectives in mind </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>End host virtualization enables efficient set-up of multiple overlays </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No Isolation of traffic belonging to different overlays – routers are unaware of the traffic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Multi-topology routing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Traffic is distributed along multiple paths approximating optimal routing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Routing with different objective functions for different service classes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Definite Service differentiation but not essentially different architecture </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Outline <ul><li>Virtual Networks – how do you define </li></ul><ul><li>Isolation and Fairness Issues </li></ul><ul><li>Experimentation and Deployment </li></ul><ul><li>Discussions </li></ul>
    9. 9. Contract <ul><li>Each virtual network has its own objective – QoS, Security </li></ul><ul><li>Virtual Nodes can have different stacks, different naming schemes </li></ul><ul><li>A contract might exist between user and service provider about service requirements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eg. Virtual links 1 and 2 have 600Mbps and 400 Mbps bandwidth requirement, SP ensures that 1Gbps link is appropriately divided </li></ul></ul>VN1 VN2 V Link 1 V Link 2
    10. 10. Node Virtualization Packet Processing and Lookup Physical Interface Packet Processing and Lookup Physical Interface Logical Interfaces Logical Interfaces Forwarding Path VN1 Forwarding Path VN2
    11. 11. Node Virtualization Packet Processing and Lookup Packet Processing and Lookup Logical Interfaces Logical Interfaces Forwarding Path VN2 PACKET CLASSIFICATION
    12. 12. Design Principles – Packet Classification <ul><li>Objective: Packet classification should have low overhead </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mapping the packet from the physical interface to the logical interface </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Packets from well-behaved VNs should not wait long behind packets of ill-behaved VN flow </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hardware Classification </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>E.g.: Intel’s Virtual Machine Device queues (VMDq) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Offloads the CPU cycles and improves I/O output </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Software Classification </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Support of classification for complex tagging mechanisms beyond VLAN tags </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Current performance is degraded </li></ul></ul></ul>Physical Intf Q VN_1Q VN_nQ
    13. 13. Node Virtualization Packet Processing and Lookup Packet Processing and Lookup Forwarding Path VN1 Forwarding Path VN2 ISOLATING FORWARDING PATHS
    14. 14. Design Principles – Isolating forwarding path <ul><li>Objective: Isolate Forwarding path of multiple virtual networks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Packet processing and memory access (lookup etc) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ensure fairness of CPU cycle usage under different conditions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Variable packet lengths </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Variable packet processing time (e.g., DPI: deep packet inspection) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Memory Issue </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multi-core CPUs (each core to a VN) –memory might be a bottleneck </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NUMA (Non-uniform memory architecture) </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Design Principles – Isolating forwarding path (contd….) <ul><li>Choice of Virtualization schemes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypervisor based approach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>VMWare, Xen </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Container based approach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>OpenVZ, Solaris 10 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Container-based approach gives better performance in I/O heavy workloads </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Commodity Hardware and Specialized hardware </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Efficiency vs. cost </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Programming Simplicity </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. Design Principles – Adaptive Resource Usage <ul><li>Objective: Dynamic re-allocation of resources for improved utilization of physical resources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Re-allocation would involve re-mapping of resources to virtual networks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Micro-scale optimizations would have high overhead </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Medium-to-long term dynamic reallocation of resources would be needed </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. Outline <ul><li>Virtual Networks – how do you define </li></ul><ul><li>Isolation and Fairness Issues </li></ul><ul><li>Experimentation and Deployment </li></ul><ul><li>Discussions </li></ul>
    18. 18. Research Initiatives <ul><li>Multiple initiatives to study new architectures and experiment in large networks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GENI </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PlanetLAB </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Controlled environment with specialized hardware and closed users </li></ul>
    19. 19. Cooperation between Infrastructure Providers? <ul><li>Isolation of traffic difficult without cooperation between each infrastructure provider on end-to-end path </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Utility to the end-user would be reduced </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Can there be enough incentives for SPs to deploy network virtualization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Technical solutions can be enablers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How can we have incentives for SPs to deploy services and co-operate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can we quantify the utility to the users to adopt services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May be an alternative model for service deployment </li></ul></ul>SP1 SP2 SP3 tunnel
    20. 20. Network-Supported Workarounds <ul><li>OverQoS ( Subramanian, NSDI ‘04) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deployment of specialized nodes ensure high QoS in overlay networks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Towards an Evolvable Internet Architecture (Ratnaswamy, Sigcomm 05) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How to enable network-directed remote service discovery </li></ul></ul>
    21. 21. Pricing, Game Theory, Incentives, Auctions ? <ul><li>A Game Theoretic Model for Network Upgrade Decisions: Walrand et al. (Allerton 2006) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multi-stage Game theoretic model to decide whether to upgrade or be a free-rider, Includes the declining cost of technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Results indicate that the best strategy might be to upgrade </li></ul></ul><ul><li>If the SPs cooperate, can the total social good be increased? Can cooperation bring maximum profitability? </li></ul><ul><li>How can you determine the utility of enhanced services? What would be the pricing? </li></ul><ul><li>Dynamic allocation of services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Auction-based approach, trading marketplace </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Users can ask for short-term services </li></ul></ul>SP1 SP2 TSP
    22. 22. Outline <ul><li>Virtual Networks – how do you define </li></ul><ul><li>Isolation and Fairness Issues </li></ul><ul><li>Experimentation and Deployment </li></ul><ul><li>Discussions </li></ul>
    23. 23. Discussions <ul><li>Internet virtualization beyond experimentation? </li></ul><ul><li>Net Neutrality legal issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Service aware network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tiered network services </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Without pervasive deployment, network virtualization might not be effective beyond an enterprise </li></ul><ul><li>Research needs to show higher user utility with virtualization to rationalize upgrades and make high profitability </li></ul><ul><li>New opportunities for users should turn into new revenue models for infrastructure vendors </li></ul>